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Become Miracle Minded by Ms. Karishma Ahuja HELP TALKS Video


This video is a talk by Ms. Karishma Ahuja 29 Feb 2016. Topic "Become Miracle Minded". This is part of the HELP Talk series at

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Sheriff David Clarke plagiarized portions of his master's thesis on homeland security. Sun May 21 2017 16:14:30 GMT-0400 (EDT) Controversial Milwaukee County Sheriff David Clarke, who this week announced he will be joining Donald Trump's administration as assistant secretary in the Department of Homeland Security, plagiarized sections of his 2013 master's thesis on US security, a CNN KFile review has found. Clarke, a visible surrogate for Trump during the campaign known for library, his incendiary rhetoric, earned a master's degree in security studies at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. In his thesis, Making U.S. Essay On The Butter Battle Book? security and privacy rights compatible, Clarke failed to library, properly attribute his sources at least 47 times. In all instances reviewed by CNN's KFile, Clarke lifts language from kids school sources and credits them with a footnote, but does not indicate with quotation marks that he is help library taking the words verbatim. According to guidelines on london, plagiarism posted on the Naval Postgraduate School's website, If a passage is quoted verbatim, it must be set off with quotation marks (or, if it is a longer passage, presented as indented text), and followed by a properly formulated citation. The length of the phrase does not matter. If someone else's words are sufficiently significant to be worth quoting, then accurate quotation followed by a correct citation is help library essential, even if only a few words are involved.

The school's honor code defines plagiarism as submitting material that in part or whole is management not one's own work without proper attribution. Plagiarism is further defined as the use, without giving reasonable and library, appropriate credit to or acknowledging the author or source, of another person's original work, whether such work is made up of code, formulas, ideas, language, research, strategies, writing or other form(s). Sources Clarke plagiarized include a 2002 ACLU report about The Government's Demand for proposal nursing, New and Unnecessary Powers After September 11, a 2003 ACLU report critical of the FBI's records-collection practices, a 2007 ACLU report on fusion centers, and a 2011 ACLU report on the need to overhaul secrecy laws. Other sources Clarke lifted words from include: the library 9/11 Commission Report, a 2011 article in binding london bridge the Homeland Security Affairs journal, the Pew Research Center, a 2012 report by the Constitution Project, a 2003 report by the US General Accounting Office, a 2011 Brennan Center report, a 2013 Washington Post article about the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court, Comparative Homeland Security: Global Lessons, a textbook by Nadav Morag, and Safe Cities Project, a research paper published by help, the Manhattan Institute. Clarke also lifted language from former President George W. Bush's book, Decision Points. Clarke announced on mcphs essay, Thursday that he had received the appointment to help, the DHS office of partnership and programs where he will serve as a liaison with law enforcement at several levels across the thesis london country.

A spokesperson for DHS later said Thursday that no announcement had been made regarding Clarke's appointment. Clarke is known for his eyebrow-raising comments, including calling Black Lives Matter a hate group and calling the organization Black Lies Matter. Clarke has also faced criticism for his management of a Milwaukee County Jail, where local prosecutors say an inmate died of library, dehydration after going a week without water. After CNN's KFile attempted to contact Clarke for comment on this story, he took to binding thesis bridge, Twitter, writing, This @CNN hack @KFILE oppo research MO is to library, accuse plagiarism. I'm next. Did it to Rand Paul, Monica Crowley et al.

Clarke later told the Milwaukee Journal Sentinel: Only someone with a political agenda would say this is essay on the plagiarism. In a statement, a spokesperson for the Naval Postgraduate School said standard procedure would be to launch an library investigation into a thesis when allegations of plagiarism are made. Like all academic institutions, the Naval Postgraduate School takes the integrity of our students' work very seriously, perhaps even more than our peers given the unique nature of our mission and student body, Lt. Cdr. Clint Phillips said. Standard procedure to any formal accusation of plagiarism is to pull the kids school student's thesis, and help library, perform an investigation into the validity of the claims. The university's academic conduct code, and our procedures in checking for plagiarism at thesis on educational the time of thesis submission, and following graduation, can change from library year to year. In this particular case, we would be unable to determine any violation until the mcphs essay full investigation is complete.

for the outright abolition of the CIA on the. grounds that it had demonstrated it. failing to forecast the fall of the library Soviet Union. Senator Daniel Patrick Moynihan (D-NY) for the outright abolition of the Agency, on. grounds that it had demonstrated its. failing to forecast the mcphs essay fall of the Soviet Union.

intelligence agencies working in library so much secrecy. are untrustworthy, and that it is west an. abandonment of a. core American principle that a government. for the people and by the people must be. transparent to the people. government secrecy and. core American principle that a government.

transparent to the people. branch which enforces the library law, to insulate itself from public criticism, and illegal activity. to insulate itself from kids school projects public criticism and, in. congressional and judicial oversight, which in. increases the likelihood of help, unwise, illegal, and improper activity.

information within an kids projects agency. travels up and down in an organization with. little sharing horizontally between. organizations--prevented the library reporting out thesis on educational, of. counter terror information. the stove piping of. information. Library? With stove-piping, travels up and down in an organization, with. little sharing horizontally between. Homeland Security (DHS) was created to kids school, be the. for problems that featured.

so prominently in help the 9/11 attacks, such as. securing transportation, immigration, Customs. critical infrastructure and. assistance to critical incidents. so prominently in the 9/11 story, such as. securing transportation and other parts of our. assistance, and working with the research nursing private sector.

to assess vulnerabilities. its first priority, the job of defending America. from domestic attack. first priority, the job of defending America from. Internet communication. Help? For a phone call it. could include the duration of binding, a. call, the phone numbers involved, and when it happened.

For an email it would. include the library sender and recipient, time, but not. the subject or content, and. in both cases it could include location. internet communication. For a phone call this. could include the duration of a phone. call, the phone number.

and when it happened. For an email it would. include the sender and recipient, time, but not. the subject or content. In both cases it could include location. liberties could create a backlash that would. impair the collection of needed information. that would impair the essay collection of needed.

security intelligence work. is intrusive and risks infringing on civil. risk of terrorism is that. politicians find extreme and alarmist. possibilities so much more appealing than. discussions of broader context, much less of. Hysteria and alarmism rarely make much sense but.

risk of terrorism is that reporters and. politicians find extreme and alarmist. possibilities so much more appealing than. discussions of broader context, much less of. statistical reality. That is, although. hysteria and alarmism rarely make much sense, institutions like state and local.

fusion centers must be planned in library a public, open. manner with carefully thought-out and thesis on educational, debated. implications for privacy and other key values. important in library a democracy. manner, and kids school, their. implications for library, privacy and other key values.

carefully thought out and debated . at the local level as officers tried to establish a role in defending the research proposal example homeland. among state and local law enforcement officers. to establish a role in defending homeland. by developing their own intelligence. DHS official described the. fusion center as the ‘wild west,’ where officials. free to library, use a variety of technologies before. politics catches up and limits the on educational management options.

question of who is in charge of fusion centers at. a recent congressional hearing, a Department of library, Homeland Security official could only offer that. ‘fusion centers are in charge of fusion centers.’ One analyst reportedly described his. fusion center as the “wild west,” where officials. free to “use a variety of technologies before. ‘politics’ catches up and limits options. benefits of mcphs essay, working with. fusion centers without officially taking. benefits of working with the.

fusion centers without officially taking. interests and the intelligence needs of law. enforcement and national security. from the conflict between individual privacy. interests and the intelligence needs of law. enforcement and national security. Internet play in library the GWOT, critics fear that. to assemble information, will result in essay increased. and unchecked government power.

technologies for antiterrorism efforts are clear, the risks to individual privacy and. the potential for abuse and harm to individual. by Government officials and employees deploying. such technologies are equally established. Civil. libertarians, privacy advocates, and others worry. that the Government’s increased capability.

to assemble information will result in increased. and unchecked government power. system appears to library, have been successful in. increasing security within the school U.S., but that. intelligence system appears to have been.

successful in increasing security within the US, as demonstrated by numerous foiled terrorist plots. and the help lack of another major successful attack on. American soil since 9/11. But there is also bad. gains are coming at the cost of increasing domestic surveillance and at elkins the risk of civil.

The ACLU and EPIC have argued that the use of. surveillance systems to monitor public spaces may, nevertheless, infringe upon help, freedom of expression. under the First Amendment, believing that it. might “chill” protestors from demonstrating in. expectation of privacy under the thesis bridge Fourth Amendment. for activities visible to the public , the ACLU and EPIC have argued that the use of. surveillance systems to monitor public spaces may.

nevertheless infringe upon freedom of expression. under the First Amendment. recommendations, a group of policy experts and. legal practitioners write that although. fusion centers have the potential to.

without effective limits on data collection, storage, and use, these. centers can pose serious risks to civil. liberties, including rights to. free speech, free assembly, freedom of religion, unnecessary government intrusion. Fusion centers have the potential to. strengthen the nation’s law enforcement and. counterterrorism efforts. However, without effective limits on data collection, storage and library, use, fusion. centers can pose serious risks to civil.

liberties, including rights of. free speech, free assembly, freedom of projects, religion, racial and religious equality, privacy. and the library right to be free from. unnecessary government intrusion. people in the United States it. suspicion that they. are linked to any.

criminal activity. A lack of proper training, reporting, and oversight came up in this report as. equal protection and freedom of expression are. always present when. law enforcement agencies collect information on. people in the United States. Research Proposal Example? . In addition, new. systems of collecting and disseminating reports of.

suspicious activity observed by local law. could result in the creation of vast databases. compiled on help, individuals without reasonable. suspicion that these individuals. terrorism or any other. fusion centers is a lack of. accountability due to. the secrecy that surrounds these centers, makes public oversight. fusion centers is. the secrecy that surrounds fusion centers. capabilities by giving.

access to mcphs essay, tools like roving wiretaps that. to track suspects who changed cell phone numbers, freeze terrorist assets. Additionally, it. government to seek warrants to examine the. business records of suspected terrorists, such as. credit card information, apartment leases and library records. capabilities by help library, giving investigators. access to binding london bridge, tools like roving wiretaps, which. to track suspects who changed cell phone numbers— an authority that had long been used to catch. drug traffickers and mob bosses.

It authorized aggressive financial measures to. freeze terrorist assets. And it included. judicial and congressional oversight to protect. civil liberties. One provision created a little. discomfort at home. Help Library? The PATRIOT Act allowed the. government to thesis, seek warrants to examine the.

business records of suspected terrorists, such as. credit card receipts, apartment leases, and library records. multiple new federal. crimes and greatly expands the authority of the. government to conduct surveillance and searches. contains extensive revisions. that expand law enforcement’s.

investigative powers to library, obtain and analyze. personal information and allows for greater. authority for tracking and intercepting. communications for both foreign and domestic law. enforcement collection. Proposal Example Nursing? The NSA, whose mission had. traditionally been devoted to. foreign intelligence gathering, is increasing. their focus on domestic communications.

multiple new federal terrorism. crimes, and greatly expands the authority of the. government to conduct surveillance and searches. // The Patriot Act. contains extensive revisions to FISA. that expand law enforcement agency’s. investigative powers to obtain and analyze. personal information. It more easily allows. investigators to maneuver between. criminal information collection.

kind of help, surveillance has been critical. it allows counterterrorism officials. to discover whether known or suspected terror. have been in contact with persons in the United States. who may be involved in terror. reporters aboard Air Force One that the. kind of surveillance at issue “has been a. in protecting the nation from terror threats as.

it allows counterterrorism personnel. to discover whether known or suspected. have been in contact with other persons. activities, particularly people located inside. the United States .”. in attempting to effectively combat terrorism. has to do with the reality that confronting a. serious terror threat requires measures that strengthen the power of. government over the individual, and that in turn.

the freedoms and protections that people have. traditionally enjoyed before 9/11 happened. faced by on educational, liberal democracies in attempting to. combat terrorism effectively has to do with the help fact that combating a serious terrorist threat effectively. requires measures that strengthen the power of. government over the individual and that, in one. way or another, reduce. the freedoms and protections that individuals. been much less attention paid to the role that.

local police played. in homeland security and protecting critical. national infrastructure in the United States. Once inside our borders, it is the police-not the. FBI or CIA-who have the best tools for detecting. and prosecuting crimes like forged documents, identity theft, illegal narcotic sales, and other.

minor crimes along with jail and prison. defining the new responsibilities and. relationships that should obtain between federal. agencies (FBI, CIA, NSA, and elkins virginia, the Pentagon), there. been much less attention paid to the role that. police must play. in homeland security and protecting critical.

national infrastructure. This is unfortunate, because terrorism’s equivalent to fare jumping in. the New York City subways are illegal border. crossings, forged documents, and other relatively. minor crimes that terrorists use to fund their. Once inside our borders, it is the police—not the. FBI or CIA—who have the best tools for detecting. and prosecuting these crimes. intelligence information is.

fractured among the many layers of help, law. enforcement that characterize America’s federal. system of government. In the UK , the local police. department, Special Branch, and national. intelligence agencies are in constant contact with. each other. What is research nursing missing today in U.S. domestic intelligence is an is an “all channels network” where expertise and intelligence and. can be disseminated quickly and effectively.

throughout the law enforcement community from coast-to-coast and from chief. executives down to street officers. system, the help police may not have access to the. kinds of day-to-day relationships that develop in. the U.K. , where local police departments, Special. Branch, and intermountain, national. intelligence agencies are in constant contact. // The practices—the know-how—are. out there, but they are. fractured among the many layers of law. enforcement that characterize America’s federal.

system of government. What is help library needed now is an “all-channel. throughout the kids school law-enforcement community, from coast to help, coast, and from. police chiefs to on the, officers at the street level . To paraphrase Benjamin Franklin, we must all learn. how to hang together or we will most assuredly all. strategy chosen must, regardless of which.

approach is decided on, either as a law. enforcement or war. continuum, not lose sight of help library, what is research nursing being. the very existence of a liberal democratic. state based in the rule of law. The liberal democratic state must. provide for library, the maximum number and type of rights. and freedoms for its inhabitants. strategy chosen must, regardless of its placement.

along the war-fighting/law. continuum, not lose sight of what is being. the very existence of the liberal-democratic state. // The liberal-democratic state must also endeavor to. provide for the maximum number and type of rights. and freedoms for its inhabitants, such as freedom. of speech, assembly, and religion; the right to. due process; and intermountain west, the right to equality before the. cannot do when investigation individuals. -An individual’s right to privacy cannot be. overridden without very good cause.

allowed to do when investigating an individual. There are laws (covering MI5 and others) which. an individual's right to privacy cannot be. overridden without very good cause. commissioners to ensure that they comply with the. Commissioners to ensure that they comply with the. interfere with property or conduct “intrusive. surveillance” a warrant must be obtained which. authorizes precisely what actions will be taken. These warrants last. for up to six months.

interfere with property or conduct “intrusive. surveillance” a warrant must be obtained which. authorizes precisely what actions will be taken. Such warrants are issued by help library, the. Secretary of State [Home Secretary] and remain.

valid until the operation is complete, or. for up to six months (whichever is the shorter). senior official in. the Home Office but only after. the Secretary of State has granted. These warrants last from bridge two to five days. with the independent review process, is a legal.

safeguard, which ensures that MI5 does not use any. intrusive techniques without. senior official within. the Home Office, but only where. the Secretary of State has given express. permission to the official. These warrants last for library, between only mcphs essay two and five days (depending on the type of action) unless they are confirmed by the Secretary of. State. “Directed surveillance” is deemed less. intrusive (a person being watched in public is a. lesser invasion of library, privacy) and this kind of. action can be authorized by nursing, officers within MI5. Nevertheless, such authorizations are still.

subject to independent review by help library, the. The warrant and authorization system, together. with the independent review process, is a legal. safeguard which ensures that MI5 does not use any. intrusive techniques without very. specific, cannot amend basic guarantees of human. rights and must be limited in time. geographically specific, cannot amend basic. guarantees of human rights, and must be limited in.

time (UK Civil Contingencies Act, Part 2, Sections 20–23, n.d.). piece of mcphs essay, non-emergency legislation. but also provided for. stronger guarantees for. rights of suspects and greater allowance for. judicial scrutiny. Detainees. suspected of terror involvement can. appeals commission that at least ensures some.

of judicial oversight. piece of nonemergency legislation for dealing. with terrorism. The act incorporated some elements. from previous emergency legislation. but also provided.

stronger guarantees for the. rights of help library, suspects and greater allowance for. judicial scrutiny. Following the 9/11 attacks, Parliament passed the Anti-Terrorism, Crime and. Security Act 2001.

This law afforded the executive. the power to detain, without charge, non-UK. suspected of terrorist activities but who could. not be deported to their countries of origin for. fear that they would be mistreated—although it did.

allow for detainees to. appeal their status to proposal example, a special immigration. appeals commission, thus ensuring some degree. any and all means of intelligence gathering with. little attention paid to safeguarding. rights to privacy and. other civil liberties. any and all means of intelligence gathering. without the need to safeguard. rights to privacy or.

other civil liberties, as it usually targets. noncitizens in the territory of foreign countries. that it views the “enemy” not. carrying out specific criminal acts. of the continuum, is based on an entirely different philosophy and. modus operandi. The goal here is not to library, kill the. enemy to deny them the ability to conduct hostile. acts. In fact, the law enforcement approach, unlike the war-fighting approach, does not, at. least for school, purposes of prosecution, generally view.

collectively, but rather. as individuals. Help Library? These individuals may or may not. be organized into terrorist groups, but in nursing any. case they are not treated as a collective. threatening the library state, but rather as distinct. carrying out specific criminal acts for which. each has to school, be prosecuted independently. democratic state and. are subject to the.

legal restrictions designed to protect. the basic rights of the population. combating terrorism generally spend most of. time operating within the borders of library, the. democratic state and thus. legal restrictions designed to safeguard. the basic rights of the elkins intermountain newspaper west virginia population in those.

leaked surveillance programs hamstrung those. what they could disclose and many felt that. concern or protest. a former Ranking Member of the House Intelligence. Committee indicated that you can’t talk to. anybody about what you learn in briefings and. there is no way then for staff to do research, which would make for more successful oversight. on these controversial programs felt so. handcuffed by restrictions on. what they could do with the highly classified.

information they received, they thought. their only recourse was to help library, file secret letters of. concern or protest. Representative. Jane Harman, who as. a former Ranking Member of the House Intelligence. Committee regularly received classified. briefings from executive agencies, described the. current practice of congressional notification: allows the thesis management Executive Branch to keep itself.

from public criticism and. increases the help likelihood of. illegal and improper activity. congressional and judicial oversight , which in. increases the london bridge likelihood of library, unwise, illegal, and improper activity. has the authority and. must take the lead in challenging. laws and research proposal example nursing, practices that allow little. our national security and domestic intelligence. laws and practices that have allowed excessive. secrecy to become the help library dominant feature of.

our national security culture. to tell members of the Intelligence Oversight. they cannot share what they learn in. briefings with other members of Congress. tell members of the Intelligence Commitees or. the Gang of Eight. they cannot share what they learn in these. briefings with other members of Congress. members of the Senate Judiciary Committee. frustration with the Justice Department’s refusal. to submit to Congressional oversight.

senior members of the Senate Judiciary Committee. frustration with the Justice Department’s refusal. to submit to congressional oversight. declassified aspects of NSA. surveillance and intelligence programs to. surveillance and intelligence collection. programs in hope that it will help.

dispel some of the myths and add necessary. context to what has been published about government surveillance of Americans' phone records and foreigners' Internet use. the court lacks the tools to independently verify. how often government surveillance breaks court. rules that aim to protect privacy. Surveillance Court said. the court lacks the tools to mcphs essay, independently verify. government’s surveillance breaks the court’s.

rules that aim to help library, protect Americans’ privacy. branch has been saying in trying to reassure the. the court’s oversight role. Thesis On Educational Management? They have been. that the court provides central checks and.

balances on government spying and library, that people. The court’s description of its practical. limitations contrasts with repeated assurances. from the kids school projects Obama administration and intelligence. that the court provides central checks and.

balances on the government’s broad spying. efforts. They have said that Americans. should feel comfortable that the secret. intelligence court provides robust oversight of.

government surveillance and protects their privacy. from rogue intrusions. Read Clarke's thesis. Design by Sergio Hernandez and Tal Yellin, CNN. Help? Illustration by binding thesis bridge, Will Mullery, CNN.

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Writing the A2 Art Personal Study: examples, help and help library guidance. February 8, 2017 by Amiria Gale. This article has been written for CIE A Level Art students who are working on their A2 Art Personal Study. It focuses purely on how to write the text of the on educational Study; a previous article outlines how to come up with a good topic; a future article will address the help illustrations and presentation methods. The Personal Study is an area of uncertainty for many A Level Art students. Binding London Bridge? It differs from projects that are usually completed within high school Art programmes, as it involves a substantial written component (maximum 3,500 words) – something which can intimidate students, especially if they are unfamiliar with how to critically analyse an artwork, make informed judgements and help library write personal evaluations. With few examples of quality Personal Studies available, it can be difficult to know what is expected and kids school how to begin.

This article aims to ease this uncertainty and to make the Personal Study a more easily understood Component. This is the cover page of an library A* Personal Study by elkins newspaper, Nikau Hindin, exploring the topic: ‘Identity, Consumerism, Popular Culture: How Composition Conveys a Message’. The project analyses artwork by New Zealand artist Kelsy Taratoa. The Personal Study should be comprised of informed personal views – that is, views that are supported and shaped by an in-depth understanding of the issues discussed. Help Library? Before starting the project, students should conduct thorough background research, selecting and recording information from second-hand sources (such as books, websites and on educational management other publications) and first-hand sources (interviews with artists, studio visits / gallery visits etc). Interviews with artists should be planned thoroughly, after preliminary second-hand research has been completed (as findings from research will suggest important issues to discuss with the help library artist). Students are often uncertain about how to phrase questions, so sample questions have been included below (the exact questions asked will depend on mcphs essay the topic and focus of the study):

Please talk me through the help process you follow when designing your paintings. Do you work instinctively, directly onto mcphs essay the canvas, or are your works pre-planned, using sketches and help photographs? What influences your choice of colour? I am interested particularly in proposal nursing, the colours used in library, [insert name of elkins virginia painting/s]. Could you explain your thought process behind the help library use of colour in this work, particularly the [give example]? I notice that your work has been described as [insert relevant comment from second-hand sources]. On Educational Management? Do you agree with this statement? How do you respond to this?

I notice that [insert an help library aesthetic feature of their artwork i.e. On Educational? ‘angular line’ or ‘organic form’] is a dominant feature of your work. Is this strongly connected to the ideas that you are exploring? Have you used these elements deliberately? Can you show me work in progress or semi-complete artwork? I would love to understand the process you go through and how you apply media at different stages. Are there any tips you would give to help library, someone who was attempting to emulate your painting style? Which artists have influenced your work?

In what way has your work been shaped by others people, events or situations? 2. Evaluate and interpret research findings. Conducting research is critical for creating an excellent Personal Study, however, it should be noted that submitting research on its own will not gain a student any marks. Photocopying, cutting and school projects pasting or transcribing information from other sources is not acceptable. Examiners do not want to help library, read long lists of school projects facts or chronological sequences of events. Library? They do not want long-winded technical processes or the inclusion of broad periods of art history; nor entire interviews with artists (interviews can be submitted as part of an appendix if necessary). Students should not include an extensive artist biography (only brief and relevant details are needed) nor include vast passages of text that have been regurgitated from other sources. Instead, students must select the information which is relevant and analyse this in detail, evaluating and interpreting findings in relation to newspaper west, the focus of their study . Research should be used to help form intelligent, knowledgeable, personal responses : to explain, justify or support the viewpoints, judgements and conclusions that are presented. Evidence of research might be demonstrated, for example, through the use of carefully chosen quotes (to support or contrast the student’s own ideas) or through the inclusion of help library correct terminology and background knowledge to communicate an in-depth understanding of thesis on educational relevant issues. Library? Evidence might also be indicated photographically, with images depicting first-hand meetings between the student and artist/s. This Personal Study by CIE A2 Level Art and Design student Alice Ham, from ACG Parnell College, shows a cleverly selected quote alongside images by New Zealand charcoal artist Liam Gerrard.

Alice was awarded full marks (100%) for this component (99% overall for A Level). A carefully composed Personal Study page for 9704 CIE Art and Design. 3. Structure the Personal Study in a logical and management clear manner. Before writing the Personal Study, students should plan the library content, order and structure of their study thoroughly (often in conjunction with planning the layout of their project – this will discussed in projects, more detail in a subsequent post). Help? This should include headings and subheadings of material discussed and mcphs essay rough diagrams indicating how this will be supported by images. The proposed structure should then be checked and approved by a teacher, with recommendations and clear guidance given. While the structure of help each Personal Study will differ, depending on the topic chosen, every study should follow the basic format outlined below: Introduction . This is where students outline the purpose, focus or mission of their study.

This may include question/s they are going to answer; themes they are going to explore; issues they hope to address etc. It should set the scene for the project and may include reasons for selecting a topic and an indication of how / why the topic is of personal relevance or interest to the student. It is thesis management important that the library intentions of the project are clearly set out in kids projects, this section, so that the remainder of the help library project can be structured accordingly. Body . This is the main part of the elkins intermountain newspaper Personal Study and will need careful thought. It is usually organised into separate sections (which may be formal chapters, or simply different areas of a visual study), usually with individual headings and sometimes sub-headings. (I recommend wording headings so that they sum up the material contained – i.e. ‘ Analysis of Composition: [artwork title] ’ rather than ‘ Chapter 3 ’. This means that the examiner is able to see immediately that the student has covered a range of appropriate areas). The sections should be ordered logically and library address the kids projects focus of the project; they should NOT ramble haphazardly from library, one issue to essay butter, the next. High school Art students have a tendency to write without any preconceived order or structure, discussing issues spontaneously as they think of help them.

While this can be a suitable approach for more creative writing tasks – and can pulled off by certain students – this strategy runs the risk of thesis bridge creating a muddled and library incoherent Personal Study. Conclusion . This is research proposal where students summarise key points from the project, arrive at final conclusions and make considered personal judgements about what has been learnt. This is one of the concluding paragraphs in a Personal Study by Nikau Hindin (who achieved 98% for CIE A Level Art while studying at ACG Parnell College), entitled ‘ Identity, Consumerism Popular Culture: How composition conveys a message ‘. The project was focused upon the analysis of artwork by New Zealand artist Kelcy Taratoa, with comparisons made with the work of American artist Bill Barminski: Taratoa’s use of composition helps convey his message concerning identity construction. The arrangement of elements is symbolic of an unconscious hierarchy within his paintings that forces the viewer to question and analyse them. The contents of the paintings can be identified, as they reflect New Zealand society. Taratoa’s use of colour is help vibrant and modern, echoing the technological era we live in.

Barminski has a more dynamic and humorous approach to conveying his message. He mocks consumerism with his witty and blunt slogans and replications of consumer products. While these two artists are very different, they both communicate their own attitudes about society. Management? Making a political statement through your paintings forces an audience to engage. Ultimately we want our art to be remembered and admired and help I think if the message of a painting is clear then the elkins intermountain viewer is more likely to go away and help think about it.

Paintings are a powerful tool to communicate a meaning that is mcphs essay deeper than the help 2mm of thesis management paint on a canvas. Paintings are an artist’s voice. Bibliography / References / Acknowledgements . This should list any resources that students have used in help library, their project, including books, websites, articles and essay butter videos. Library? It might also include sources of first-hand information, such as museums, galleries or websites, as well as acknowledgements, thanking the artist for their time. While examiners are sympathetic towards a student whose first language is not English, a similar sympathy does not extend towards those who submit sloppy, poorly edited material.

Just as it is expected that a Coursework project should contain beautiful well-composed artwork, a Personal Study is expected to contain well-structured, well-edited material. Even if a student has chosen to produce a largely visual project, submitting a sequence of annotated images, the text should communicate with intention and the writing quality should match that achieved by an A Level English student. Poor grammar, spelling errors and ‘txt’ speak are inexcusable. As with any important written project, drafts should be rewritten and research nursing refined several times: chapters re-arranged; paragraphs and annotation reorganised; repetitive material, waffle and help library unnecessary regurgitation eliminated. Teachers, parents and friends can all be recruited to thesis management, read through drafts, highlighting spelling errors and identifying areas where the writing is muddled. While the work must of course remain entirely that of the library student, feedback from a fresh set of mcphs essay eyes is invaluable. A Personal Study should include an appropriate range of Art related terms and vocabulary. While the exact words used will be dependent upon help, the nature and focus of the study, there are a number of general Art-specific terms which students should be familiar with (these will be listed, with their definitions, in an upcoming article).

Use of appropriate vocabulary helps to fulfil the ‘Knowledge and critical understanding’ assessment criteria. As the intermountain virginia title indicates, a Personal Study must communicate distinctly personal opinions, insights, judgements and responses, demonstrating a clear engagement with the artwork studied. This excerpt from an 100% OCR A Level Art Personal Study by Yantra Scott entitled ‘ An investigation into gender roles in contemporary art ‘ illustrates this: I first encountered Sarah Lucas whist briskly strolling through the crowded rooms of the Tate. Help? Amongst oils and finely crafted sculpture my eyes were transfixed in a two-way glare with a slightly butch, totally intense woman, with eggs for t*ts. Ever since then I’ve been hooked. It is evident that Yantra not only thesis on educational management, visited and help library viewed artwork in kids school projects, the flesh, but had a strong personal reaction to it. Help Library? It could never be assumed that this segment had been reworded from thesis bridge, a textbook: it is absolutely the words of a passionate high school Art student. Although Yantra uses coarse language within her study (something which should be emulated with caution) this project is an exceptional example of an intelligent and personal response to help, a topic. (More of Yantra’s work, as well as the entire text of her study, can be read in full on the great Julia Stubbs’ website). Similarly, this quote from an 88% OCR A2 Art Personal Study (one of the examples given in the OCR A2 Art Exemplar Work – Personal Study document) shows a personal response integrated within the analysis of Damien Hurst’s work, illustrated below. The glass is thick, so thick that it is intimidating.

It is elkins intermountain virginia as if it is holding something terrible back. It makes you question the help formaldehyde and research proposal query, what if the tank did break? The formaldehyde is not clear as I expected but is library quite strongly coloured by a blue and research nursing green pigment. This colour is very clinical and has the connotations of a hospital… The musings about the tank breaking and the formaldehyde differing from expectations are clearly the library individual thoughts of a high school art student. Some Comfort Gained from the Acceptance of the thesis Inherent Lies in Everything 2006, Damien Hurst. Within the Personal Study, students must demonstrate an understanding of cultural context – an understanding that an artist does not create work in isolation, but rather creates work that is shaped and influenced by the circumstance/s they finds themselves in. Help? This might mean that discussion of the influence of natural, social, political or cultural environments is appropriate, or that – as is more common – the influence of research example other artists is discussed, with comparisons made between artwork that has been created in similar or differing contexts. ‘One night in Mong Kok’ by help library, Akif Hakan Celebi.

The excerpt below is from a CIE A Level Art and Design Personal Study by Tirion Jenkins, of YMCA of Hong Kong Christian College. Titled ‘Alternative Fashion Photography’, her Personal Study was awarded Best in Hong Kong (2012) and includes analysis of ‘One night in example, Mong Kok’ by photographer Akif Hakan Celebi. Library? Tirion demonstrates a clear understanding of the interrelationship between a photographer’s work and research proposal example the setting in which it was created. The setting itself creates an intoxicating atmosphere with the rows of library fluorescent light bulbs and layers of luminous signs that form an endless maze of thesis on educational gaudy colours. However, the setting does not overwhelm the two models who draw my eyes despite the help signs above them. They create the focal point of the image through the binding thesis bridge use of the help rule of thirds as they are placed off-centre and through their quirky appearance which magnetises the elkins virginia eye towards them.

They seem to belong to a different world to library, the passersby behind them with their flare of red hair and audacious choice of feathered flittered clothes. Akif has further crafted the image through the use of makeup as their chalk white faces further segregates and emphasises their surreal doll-like appearances. …Akif’s pictures are reminiscent of elkins intermountain newspaper Japanese cinema which he says he is so influenced by. “I like…its writhed and crazy stories; I feel very close to that way of looking at the world.” This photograph is particularly mystical due to library, the vibrant and decorative bokeh of Hong Kong’s street lights in the background. The core of the A2 Art Personal Study is the thesis london bridge in-depth analysis of selected artist works. Some of these artworks must be viewed in person, however it is common (and completely acceptable) for students to analyse work from a combination of primary and secondary sources. In the best studies, artworks are chosen specifically to facilitate the library discussion of issues which are relevant to the study. The advice in this section is intermountain newspaper west virginia particularly important and should be read closely by students who are hoping to achieve a high grade for their Personal Study. When analysing artwork, it is library helpful to analyse the work in terms of on the book composition, format, structure and visual elements (such as shape, line, texture, colour, space, tone) . Students might de-construct an artwork and view it in library, terms of a single visual element and/or discuss how the visual elements interact, relate, contrast, balance and connect with one another. Descriptions of important terms have been included below to aid this process: Composition is the placement or organisation of visual elements within an artwork – the way these have been composed, combined or ‘put together’.

Composition may be instinctual or the result of elaborate planning (or a combination of both). A ‘compositional device’ is an elkins west aspect of a composition which has a certain effect (such as the use of frames within frames, which might help create a sense of distance or space within an artwork). Format is the overall shape, size and library orientation (portrait or landscape) of an artwork, i.e. whether a work is thesis london painted on a long, horizontal oblong canvas, or upon a vertically orientated A4 portrait board. Format can be influenced by practical considerations (i.e. the nature and library shape of the object or scene depicted) as well as being an mcphs essay active decision by help, the artist to help communicate a particular meaning or idea. The structure of an artwork is the organisation of basic forms within a composition (this will be illustrated in more detail in the subsequent post focusing on imagery). Lines are a visual element that can direct a viewer’s gaze and elkins west create a visual path. These can direct attention to a focal point and library create depth through perspective or horizon lines. Different lines can create different effects: hard angular lines provoke a different response than soft, organic lines, for mcphs essay example. Repetition of lines can create a sense of library movement or rhythm. Binding Thesis London? Shape is a visual element that is help created by the junction of lines or changes in tone: the perceived boundaries of form. Larger shapes can become dominant focal points within an artwork; similar shapes can be repeated to create balance and proposal nursing create unity / visual harmony.

Shapes can be symbolic, i.e. they can represent more complex forms and carry meaning. As with lines, the types of shapes used can communicate certain feelings – rigorous ordered shapes tend to create a different mood than irregular, free-flowing shapes. Shapes might also be used to create borders / frames and boundaries that connect, overlap or intersect, perhaps helping to draw viewers from the foreground / middle-ground to background. Space – the library absence of form – is an often overlooked visual element. Described as being either positive (the space contained within the boundary of an object) or negative (the background space in and around an object), space can determine how busy and cluttered a painting is. A busy composition can overwhelm a viewer; a simple and sparse composition may appear boring. Careful integration of space is fundamental to any artwork.

Form is a visual element that is usually discussed more easily in relation to london bridge, three dimensional objects (as three-dimensional forms are usually described within two dimensional works in terms of shape, tone and line). Colour (or hue) is a visual element that is often discussed in combination with tone(how light or dark a colour appears). Colour can affect the mood of an help artwork due to colour associations – i.e. blue might indicate sadness. Mcphs Essay? Tone can help to help, communicate a sense of distance (items that are further away generally appear lighter – due to ‘atmospheric perspective’). Both tone and colour can be used to create contrast within an artwork, attracting the essay battle book viewer’s attention and helping to create focal areas. Library? Alternatively, both tone and colour can be used to create harmonious, peaceful non-contrasting areas. Essay Battle Book? Use of light and shadow or warm and help cool might also be an important area to discuss. Thesis Bridge? Texture can be real (the result of brush strokes, irregularities in materials, and help the application of a range of materials) or implied…i.e. a surface that is made to looktextured.

As with the other visual elements, texture should be integrated so that it balances and thesis management becomes an aesthetically pleasing addition to help library, an artwork. Surface qualities – along with other detailed areas and intricate patterns – are only able to be appreciated fully when viewed in person. It should be noted here that students should not submit reams of text explaining how certain visual elements affect artworks in general, but rather use this knowledge to write informed analysis about the artworks in question. Here is another example by Nikau Hindin, discussing the use of line in paintings by Kelcy Taratoa. This text was accompanied by diagrams illustrating the linear elements in the artwork. …Taratoa uses strong angular forms that create diagonal perspective lines. These lines are called ‘leading lines’ and binding thesis london direct us to the focal point of this painting, which is a portrait of Taratoa. They also lead our eyes past him and make us look at help library the background.

This helps to convey Taratoa’s message that one’s identity is linked to thesis management, social circumstance, upbringing (background) and popular culture. Street markings form white lines and also draw our attention to the focal point. Street markings represent paths and therefore they may be paths to finding and constructing ones identity. Help Library? They create a sense of movement and highlight the direction one’s eyes should travel within the painting. The street markings in ‘Episode 007’ are curvaceous which creates movement.

The curvy lines mirror the organic forms of the superhero’s muscular body, creating a visual link. In ‘Episode 0010’ the repetition of newspaper line of the zebra crossing creates a sense of rhythm and help library leads us to the portrait of Taratoa in example, the left corner. Horizontal lines are repeated in the background of the painting to unite separate parts of the painting. As well as the help aesthetic qualities discussed above, most students also include sections where they analyse artwork in terms of thesis materials, processes, stylistic influences, techniques (use of media) . For some, this is the primary focus of the Personal Study. This might include analysis of the way an artist has applied paint to a canvas (mark-making, brush strokes), the sequence of building up layers of paint over a prepared ground, or the sequence of events involved in creating a graphic design: from conceptual sketches, development of ideas, construction in Photoshop, through to proofing, paper selection and help library final printing. It might involve discussion about the way a composition is elkins intermountain west planned and designed and then the various processes that are undertaken in its completion.

It might include cultural contexts and stylistic influences from other artists. In any sections of the Personal Study which are dedicated to process and technique, it is important to note (as mentioned above) that the examiners do not want the regurgitation of long, technical processes, but rather would like to see personal observations about how processes effect and influence the artwork that has been created. In all analysis of artwork, whether this involves discussion of help composition, aesthetic qualities, cultural contexts, use of media, or approach to a theme, it is newspaper important that students move beyond simple observations and add perceptive, personal insight. For example, if a student notices that colour has been used to create strong contrast in certain areas of an artwork, they might follow this with a detailed and thoughtful assumption about why this is the case: for example, perhaps the contrast was created deliberately to draw attention to a focal point in the artwork, helping the artist to help convey thematic ideas. These personal insights could be backed up by earlier research, confirmed or suggested by the artist, or might be educated assumptions made by the student, based upon their own responses and personal interaction with the artwork.

Some final recommendations are included below: ‘Analysis of artwork’ does not mean ‘description of artwork’ . Analysis means taking an artwork apart (thinking about it in help, terms of research proposal individual elements, such as line, or colour or technique), analysing these individually and/or in terms of how they relate to help, one another, and making personal observations and judgements, connecting this to projects, the theme or focus of the assignment. Saying “I like this” or “I don’t like this” without any further explanation or justification is not analysis . Writing should be carefully integrated with the images , so that it is help clear which text relates to which images (this will be discussed more in the subsequent post). Alice Ham, a Year 13 student at ACG Parnell College (awarded 100% for her Personal Study) has produced some excellent analysis of artwork by Liam Gerrard: In most works (the exception usually applies to those done in commission) the focus of the piece is centred, surrounded by empty space and never grounded through shadow or the like. This is another way in which Gerrard plays with commonly held opinions. Intermountain Newspaper West Virginia? Typically, a most aesthetically pleasing composition will follow the rule of thirds – a well known ‘rule’ that correlates to the focus of artworks being offset within the composition, and the entire image being visually divided into 3 sections. Liam has little care for this standardised rule, yet his compositions are visually pleasing all the same. I believe this could be because of the negative space, there is no overcrowding and it allows the viewer to focus on the subject. I also think this space is played upon in the display of the artwork.

Galleries in general will have white or very light coloured walls so as not to distract from what is on display. By placing these white canvases on the white walls, hung without obvious framing, the help library artwork is allowed to ‘flow’ into the viewer’s world, there is no line of separation. Thesis On Educational Management? This forces the viewer to study Gerrard’s pieces, and perhaps consider the personal message they address for the viewer in everyday life. Analysis of artwork within an A Level Art Personal Study by Alice Ham. Some of the text above has been reproduced here to aid ease of reading: The expression on the pig’s face is perhaps what would draw the viewer into this picture the most. It directly contradicts the gruesome depiction of decapitation and appears almost to be laughing. This work like most of Gerrard’s others is a single object centred on a stark white background. The amount of empty space in this picture is help very eye catching and directs the viewer’s vision inwards, there is no chance of distraction by details in a menial part of the work.

Once again Gerrard uses charcoal in his personal style, leaving the artwork in proposal nursing, black and white. This lack of colour is cold, it presents the reality of the library grisly scene without the embellishment of colours. Elkins Newspaper West Virginia? This does not allow the audience to be caught up in what is ‘pretty’ but forces them to take in every details in it’s highly realistic, and perhaps disturbing, state. The shock factor of this piece is emphasised ten- fold by the sheer size. It cannot be realised until you view this piece in reality, but being dwarfed looking up into a pig’s head captured mid laugh brings upon you a bizarre sense of fascination. 9. Explain the relationship to Coursework (if appropriate)

As explained in the previous post about topic selection, it is no longer necessary that the Personal Study relate to library, a student’s Coursework project. Thesis On Educational? If there is a strong relationship, however, students may wish to include a section in their Personal Study where relevant comparisons are made with their Coursework project. The maximum word count for CIE Art Design Personal Studies is help library 3,500 words. This is a maximum and fewer words is more than appropriate (especially in primarily visual studies). If a student is slightly over the word count, this is unlikely to be an mcphs essay issue (it is rare that examiners would know your exact word count, as no-one is likely to count every word in a project from start to help, finish); however, if a student is significantly over the word limit, this is obvious and research example a problem, running the risk that the examiners will run out of time (or enthusiasm) to read your project in its entirety. Almost all cases of help library word count breaches come from students who have attempted to bulk up their study with unnecessary information from second-hand sources. If you are encroaching the word limit, you should immediately ensure that you have not included supplementary research material or unnecessary information summarised from textbooks. If you are still battling with the mcphs essay word count and inclusion of material from second-hand sources is not an issue, you should re-edit your project, eliminating waffle, and ensuring you communicate succinctly.

I encourage teachers to help, locate and print the excerpts from Personal Studies that are included in the 9704 Standards booklet on the CIE Teachers’ password protected site, which can be downloaded as a PDF document from the A Level Art Design page. Essay Book? This document is invaluable. Finally, we are actively looking for help library more examples of high achieving Personal Studies to mcphs essay, share on the Student Art Guide. If you or someone you know someone who excelled in this Component, please read our submission guidelines for help library more information. If you found this information helpful, you may wish to read the previous article in this series: How to select a great A2 Art Personal Study Topic or our overview of the thesis on educational CIE A Level Art: Personal Study. This article was written by Amiria Gale. Amiria has been a teacher of help library Art Design and a Curriculum Co-ordinator for seven years, responsible for the course design and assessment of Art and thesis on educational Design work in two high-achieving Auckland schools.

Amiria has a Bachelor of Architectural Studies, Bachelor of help library Architecture (First Class Honours) and a Graduate Diploma of Teaching. She is a CIE Accredited Art Design Coursework Assessor. Elkins Intermountain West Virginia? Follow Student Art Guide on Pinterest. Join over 15,000 people who receive our free newsletter. You will be notified first when free resources are available: new art project ideas, teaching handouts, printable lesson plans, tips and advice from experienced teachers.

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Revue internationale de politique comparee. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte. Help. Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. « Ces diverses critiques d’hommes de gauche ne peuvent empecher que je me considere comme un “homme de gauche”, et j’ajouterai, en guise de defense personnelle et parce que la chose me parait exacte, que les Etats-Unis sont une nation ou les ideaux de gauche predominent ».C’est ainsi que Seymour Martin Lipset, dans sa preface a l’edition francaise de Political Man [1] [1] LIPSET S.M., L’homme et la politique, Paris, Seuil. Mcphs Essay. , entendait repondre a ceux qui voyaient en lui « un intellectuel bourgeois », un renegat qui professait des theses sociologiques conservatrices. Library. S’en suivait un long plaidoyer ou l’homme blesse par les critiques qu’il jugeait ideologiques jouait sur le double tableau du militant convaincu que la democratie n’est possible que la ou les inegalites sociales sont combattues, et du sociologue amoureux des contre-pieds aux idees recues.

D’une certaine maniere, tout Lipset est la, resume dans ce melange parfois detonant d’homme de gauche et d’homme de science, d’ancien radical reconverti au reformisme, de grand comparatiste et de specialiste de l’exceptionnalisme americain. Il est des auteurs etrangers que la science politique francaise semble parfois affectionner de meconnaitre. Kids School Projects. Dans ce grand cimetiere des ?uvres classiques non traduites, des citations tronquees et des references paresseusement inscrites en bas de pages, Seymour Martin Lipset occupe indeniablement une place respectable. Library. Certes, son nom n’est pas inconnu du milieu academique. Essay On The Battle. Les etudiants de premier cycle apprennent et recitent qu’une lointaine theorie des clivages fut ainsi construite par « Lipset-et-Rokkan » et dont on help library, peut aujourd’hui encore verifier les effets de resilience. Mcphs Essay. On s’interrogera d’ailleurs peut-etre un jour sur l’importance mnemotechnique de ces couples dont on help library, ne parvient plus a dissocier les individualites, sur ces vrais-faux jumeaux que des decennies d’enseignement ont indefectiblement soudes : « Almond-et-Verba », « Bachrach-et-Baratz », « Berger-et-Luckmann », « Michelat-et-Simon » ! Certains, plus curieux ou plus chanceux, decouvriront que Martin Lipset publia au debut des annees 1960 L’homme et la politique, son unique ouvrage paru en francais, accompagne d’une preface de Jean-Marie Domenach dans laquelle ce dernier se depechait de marquer son desaccord avec certaines analyses de l’auteur, jugees « typiques de la mentalite americaine », concernant notamment les developpements sur la democratie. En lui consacrant son cinquantieme numero, la Revue Internationale de Politique Comparee n’entend pas benoitement alimenter la chronique des « Chers disparus » en s’efforcant de faire revivre le Grand Homme injustement oublie. Research Nursing. Il ne s’agit pas de crier au complot ou de denoncer une quelconque internationale francophone du silence, mais de revisiter de maniere critique une ?uvre mal connue quoique prolifique, mal comprise puisque paradoxale, trop peu utilisee quoique frequemment citee.

Seymour Martin Lipset est ne a Harlem en 1922 de parents juifs emigres de Russie. Help Library. En 1943, alors etudiant a l’Universite Columbia a New York, il milita dans differentes formations de la gauche antistalinienne, et devint meme le president de la Young People’s Socialist League, frayant pendant plusieurs annees dans les milieux intellectuels de la gauche marxiste americaine. Thesis Bridge. Ayant grandi pendant les annees de la Depression et dans un environnement paternel syndicaliste, Lipset fut profondement marque par les theories marxistes, leninistes et trotskistes. Help. En 1960, il quittait cependant le petit Parti socialiste qu’il qualifiait brutalement « d’organisation futile », et devenait centriste, ou comme il le disait lui-meme « democrate conservateur », marquant des lors son opposition au radicalisme et a l’idee de revolution. Elkins West Virginia. Selon Larry Diamond, cette evolution, accomplie au moment meme ou les campus americains entraient en revolte contre la guerre du Vietnam et mobilisaient les valeurs que Ronald Inglehart allaient bientot qualifiees de post-materialistes fut certes mal comprise par nombre de ses collegues, mais correspondait a une profonde reflexion menee par Lipset sur les roles historiques de la bourgeoisie et des classes moyennes dans la construction sociale de la democratie. Help Library. Lecteur d’Aristote, de Tocqueville, de Weber, de Schumpeter et de Washington, Seymour Lipset employa une grande partie de son energie intellectuelle et scientifique a penser la societe de son temps, ses evolutions mais egalement ses contradictions les plus tenaces.

Sa carriere fut longue et a plus d’un titre exemplaire des canons de la reussite academique aux Etats-Unis. Proposal Nursing. En plus d’une activite impressionnante de publications en tout genre, Lipset occupa en effet de tres nombreuses fonctions de direction et de representation (il fut notamment le seul a avoir ete a la fois president de l’American Sociological Association, de l’American Political Science Association et de l’International Political Science Association) dont il tira profit pour multiplier les projets collectifs pluridisciplinaires et les operations scientifiques a echelle comparative internationale. Help. Successivement professeur aux Universites de Toronto, Berkeley, Harvard, Columbia, et a la Hoover Institution, Lipset forma des generations d’etudiants qu’il sut associer regulierement a ses propres travaux. Mcphs Essay. Sa disparition, le 31 decembre 2006, a l’age de 84 ans, fit l’objet d’un deferlement d’hommages qui, bien au-dela de tout caractere convenu, temoignait de l’importance reconnue d’une ?uvre largement primee, dont l’une des qualites premieres etait notamment de s’inscrire pleinement dans son siecle. Trois bonnes raisons expliquent le retour que notre Revue consacre a Seymour Martin Lipset : il fut d’abord un grand comparatiste, il fut ensuite un formidable reinventeur d’objets de recherche, il fut enfin un infatigable theoricien de la democratie. « Celui qui ne connait qu’un seul pays, n’en connait aucun ». Library. Lipset aimait le repeter a ses etudiants, les invitant constamment dans leurs etudes a depasser les frontieres de leur pays, a mettre en perspective les contextes sociopolitiques afin d’en reveler les originalites. On The Book. Meme dans ses travaux qui partaient pourtant d’un questionnement indigene – pourquoi n’y a-t-il pas de socialisme en Amerique ? Lipset s’employait toujours a ouvrir sa focale et a etablir des passerelles avec d’autres situations qu’il estimait comparables. Help. Des son premier ouvrage, issu de sa these de doctorat, Agrarian Socialism, il s’efforcait de rapporter les conclusions qu’il tirait de son terrain canadien sur l’experience historique des Etats-Unis, multipliant ainsi les montees en generalite.

Par la suite, il n’est plus un ouvrage de Lipset qui ne se soit resolument inscrit dans la demarche comparative, soit pour l’utiliser comme modalite de contre-epreuve et de validation ou plus frequemment encore comme structure d’une vaste enquete menee sur plusieurs fronts. Nous avons decide de publier la bibliographie de Seymour Martin Lipset, non seulement pour mettre a la disposition des lecteurs francophones une source utile de references, mais aussi pour temoigner de l’extraordinaire puissance de travail de Lipset. Example. Peu d’objets de la science politique ont en effet echappe a sa curiosite, a son appetit : les origines politiques et sociales de la democratie, l’autoritarisme de la classe ouvriere, les causes et consequences des conflits de classe, les effets de la mobilite sociale, les alignements electoraux, les dynamiques de l’opinion publique, les rapports entre les clivages sociaux et culturels et les systemes partisans, le comportement politique des juifs americains, les politiques d’education, les syndicats, etc. Help Library. Soit une quarantaine d’ouvrages et pres de trois cents articles ! Dans cet ocean de travaux menes seul ou en collaboration, quelques fidelites thematiques et philosophiques apparaissent. Kids School. Tout d’abord, une inclination a la fois scientifique et personnelle pour la democratie moderee, pour les valeurs de raison, de tolerance et de pragmatisme qu’ils consideraient comme les fondements indispensables d’une societe decente. Help. Ce fil rouge politique et moral parcourt toute son ?uvre, et explique sa constante recherche d’equilibre, de consensus, mais aussi son aversion profonde pour toutes les inegalites. Mcphs Essay. Certaines critiques en ont profite pour ranger Lipset dans les tiroirs d’une science politique de guerre froide, epoque ou les « social scientists » americains tendaient a confondre les ideaux des Peres fondateurs avec l’horizon du monde libre.

Il n’est pas faux de reconnaitre que certaines argumentations de Lipset sont aujourd’hui quelque peu defraichies. L’etablissement d’une grille de preconditions de l’emergence de gouvernements modernes et non despotiques, construite sur des indicateurs sociaux qui fleurent bon le developpementalisme d’un Rostow, peut aujourd’hui etre considere a juste titre comme relevant d’« un enonce aventureux » [2] [2] BADIE B. Help Library. et HERMET G., La politique comparee, Paris. Research Proposal Example. . Library. On admettra toutefois que le perissable continue d’etre la marque de fabrique de nos travaux contemporains ! Les rapports entre le jeu electoral democratique et les conflits de classes constituent egalement l’un des themes privilegies de l’?uvre de Lipset, l’un de ceux qui aujourd’hui encore continue d’entretenir les debats les plus feconds et les plus passionnes. Management. L’article sur l’autoritarisme de la classe ouvriere, publie en 1959, a joue un role majeur dans la discussion sur la relation entre classe sociale et comportement politique. Library. Selon Lipset, la classe ouvriere est economiquement liberale et a gauche sur des problemes comme la redistribution des revenus, le statut social, et le pouvoir entre les classes. Research Example Nursing. Mais quand le liberalisme est defini en termes politiques et caracterise par la tolerance de la non-conformite, par l’acceptation de styles de vie non conventionnels et par le respect des libertes individuelles, avec un soutien pour les droits civils des minorites ethniques ou raciales, des politiques etrangeres internationalistes et une legislation liberale sur l’immigration, la relation est inverse, la classe ouvriere n’est plus liberale, d’ou la these de son autoritarisme. Help. Cette these a fait l’objet de nombreuses controverses, mais elle reste d’actualite en fonction de resultats electoraux recents dans certains pays europeens. Mais c’est la question de l’exceptionnalisme americain, constamment revisitee par Lipset, qui pour nombre de ses collegues represente le c?ur d’une ?uvre fascinee par l’impasse des correlations les plus communement admises entre le socialisme et le peuple ouvrier. Elkins Virginia. L’une des questions les plus interessantes poses par Lipset est de savoir pourquoi il n’y a pas de socialisme aux Etats-Unis et pourquoi les Etats-Unis n’ont jamais eu de grand parti socialiste, alors que, au Canada voisin, un parti socialiste obtenait des resultats electoraux significatifs. Help. Les Etats-Unis sont, en effet, le seul pays industrialise qui n’a jamais connu de parti socialiste electoralement viable. On Educational Management. Des 1906, le sociologue allemand Werner Sombart, avait d’ailleurs fourni un travail classique sur cet exceptionnalisme americain [3] [3] SOMBART W., Why no socialism in help library the United States. Binding. . Help. Lipset trouva la presence, des deux cotes de la frontiere entre les Etats-Unis et le Canada, du populisme et d’autres formes de radicalisme agrarien, mais cela n’expliquait pas l’absence d’un parti socialiste important. Mcphs Essay. Il a retenu l’hypothese classique d’une difference des modes de scrutin entre les deux pays.

Mais il formula une autre hypothese basee sur la relation entre la societe civique, le role des institutions de mediation et des associations volontaires, et l’institutionnalisation de la democratie. Library. Lipset a beaucoup ecrit sur cette question dans de multiples articles ou chapitres, mais il a ete long a publier un ouvrage complet. Book. Il a fini par publier son manuscrit ecrit depuis longtemps, mais complete par Gary Marks, en 2000 [4] [4] LIPSET S.M. and help library MARKS G., It Didn’t Happen Here: Why. Essay On The Battle Book. . Venons en maintenant a ce que la memoire etudiante a retenu de Lipset, c’est-a-dire le couple « Lipset-et-Rokkan ». Library. On avouera, d’emblee, qu’en matiere de gemellite, il s’agissait de faux jumeaux ! Si Lipset et Rokkan co-dirigerent avec talent l’ouvrage collectif mainte fois cite au titre de son introduction theorique – injustice car il contient de fortes contributions de comparatistes eminents comme Linz, Dogan ou Wallenstein –, cette introduction et le fameux « paradigme de Lipset et Rokkan » sont de Rokkan, du seul Rokkan. London Bridge. Ce dernier s’inspira d’ailleurs de l’experience du multipartisme de son pays, la Norvege. Pourtant, meme putative, Lipset en endossa la paternite. Help. C’est que, faux jumeaux, les deux politistes etaient neanmoins… jumeaux. Thesis On Educational. Complementaires, fils de defenseurs de la peripherie, ils partageaient la meme conception du comparatisme.

Par ailleurs le paradigme des quatre clivages fondamentaux repondait aux preoccupations de Lipset que ne convainquit jamais le simplisme d’un axe gauche-droite. Library. Son interet pour l’autoritarisme de la classe ouvriere lui revela la pluralite des gauches, des droites et des centres et partant la complexite du spectre partisan. On The. Son analyse de la democratie d’une part et de l’autre des tendances autoritaires susceptibles de la deteriorer, l’avait amene a conclure a l’irreductibilite des forces democratiques d’un cote et des autoritarismes de l’autre. Help. Une difference de nature les separe… A ces deux affinites electives, rapprochant Lipset des theses de Rokkan, on on the butter battle, peut ajouter que, des L’homme et la politique, le grand politiste americain affirme sa conviction quant a la necessite des clivages en Democratie, clivages qui la consolident en fait, des lors qu’ils sont integres. Quoi qu’il en soit de la contribution de Lipset au paradigme des quatre clivages fondamentaux, ces derniers restent apres quarante annees la seule theorie des origines des partis politiques en Europe qui tienne la route.

Au vu des etudes qui se fondent sur des « experts judments » convies a ranger les partis le long d’un axe gauche-droite decimetrique, on help, mesure non pas l’identite de ces derniers mais bien l’ampleur de la regression subie par la Science politique depuis la grande epoque de Lipset, Rokkan ou Dahl. « Marty » Lipset fut enfin un infatigable theoricien de la democratie. Kids. Son interet pour cette question etait bien entendu profondement lie a ses propres experiences de militantisme pendant ses jeunes annees, puis a sa reconversion vers une gauche plus moderee. Library. Son interet pour les conditions de la democratie dans une perspective comparative l’a conduit a mener une analyse quantitative des facteurs differenciant les pays democratiques des autres pays qui ne sont pas democratiques Cette analyse a ete publiee dans un article fondamental et tres souvent cite de l’American Political Science Review, en 1959. Management. L’emergence et la diffusion de la democratie sont liees au developpement socio-economique, au changement des structures sociales et professionnelles, au developpement de l’education, a l’homogeneite sociale et a d’autres facteurs. Help Library. Cet article a fait l’objet de nombreux commentaires, critiques dans le sens d’un approfondissement de la notion de democratie. Bridge. Cette notion a beaucoup evolue depuis 1959.

La conception de Lipset, forgee dans la periode et le contexte de la guerre froide, a un moment ou la democratie etait gravement menacee et ou la competition electorale etait reduite et meme absente, est maintenant renforcee par une conception plus large de la democratie. Ce dossier de la Revue Internationale de Politique Comparee entend donc parcourir une partie de cette ?uvre foisonnante, parfois paradoxale, mais constamment stimulante. Help Library. Les themes retenus nous ont semble parfaitement illustrer toute la richesse d’une analyse scientifique qui aura su miser a la fois sur le pluralisme methodologique et l’ethique intellectuelle. Michel HASTINGS, IEP de Lille (CEPEN) Daniel-Louis SEILER, IEP d’Aix-en-Provence (CSPC)

Jean-Louis THIEBAULT, IEP de Lille (CEPEN) LIPSET S.M., L’homme et la politique, Paris, Seuil, 1962, p. Thesis London Bridge. 19. BADIE B. Library. et HERMET G., La politique comparee, Paris, Armand Colin, 2001, p. West. 57. SOMBART W., Why no socialism in library the United States?, New York, Sharpe, 1976. LIPSET S.M. and elkins intermountain newspaper MARKS G., It Didn’t Happen Here: Why Socialism Failed in help library the United States?, Baltimore, W.W. Elkins Virginia. Norton, 2000. Cairn.info utilise des cookies a des fins de statistiques.

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