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book report good Why do book reports strike terror in the hearts of most students? Simply, writing a book report is not easy. A book report challenges students to think and write critically about what they’ve read. In the early elementary grades, extra support is given, often with book report worksheets that prompt students to write about a favorite character and other book details. But as children progress through upper elementary, middle, and high school, they are expected to write book reports independently. At Time4Writing, we work with students on spi publisher an individual basis to strategy develop their writing skills through online writing courses. We hope this roadmap helps your child navigate writing a school book report with a minimum amount of terror!
How to Write a Book Report. Before you write, read. There’s no substitute for reading the book. Choose a book you’ll enjoy—reading should be fun, not a chore! Read with a pen and paper at your side. Jotting down page numbers and notes about significant passages will be very useful when it comes time to write. Remember, unless your book is a personal copy, don’t write in services the book itself. Test! Use a Book Report Outline.
After reading the book, you are ready to start the writing process. When writing a book report, or when answering any writing prompt, you#8217;ll find writing easier if you follow the services, proven steps of the writing process: prewriting, writing, revising, editing, and censorship, publishing. In the first step, prewriting, you’ll plan what you want to spi publisher services say. An outline is a great prewriting tool for book reports. Start your book report outline with the following five ideas. Essay Against Random Drug Testing! Each idea should correspond to a paragraph: 2. Summary of Book. Spi Publisher! 3. Book Details: Characters. 4. Book Details: Plot.
5. Evaluation and Conclusion. Statement Family! In organizing your thoughts, jot down a few ideas for each of these paragraphs. Reminder: Every grade level (and teacher) has different requirements for book report content. Review your teacher’s instructions before you create your book report outline. Most book reports begin with the basic information about the book: the book’s title, author, genre, and publication information (publisher, number of pages, and year published). Services! The opening paragraph is term also your opportunity to build interest by mentioning any unusual facts or circumstances about the spi publisher services, writing of the censorship games, book or noteworthy credentials of the author. Was the book a bestseller? Is the services, author a well-known authority on the subject? Book reports are personal, too, so it’s perfectly acceptable to state why you chose to read it.
In the expository games, body of the book report—paragraphs two, three, and four—you’ll describe what the book is about. This is your chance to show you’ve read and understood the book. Assuming you’ve read a fiction book, below are helpful writing tips: Summary: Start this paragraph by writing an overview of the story, including its setting, time period, main characters, and plot. Spi Publisher! Specify who tells the story (point of censorship games view) and the tone or atmosphere of the spi publisher, book. Is it a creepy tale of suspense or a lighthearted adventure? Character Details: In this paragraph, describe the main characters and censorship, identify the major conflict or problem the main characters are trying to solve. You can also write another paragraph about the other characters in the book. Plot Details: In writing about the plot, you don’t need to tell every detail of the story. Instead, focus on the main sequence of services events. You can discuss plot highlights, from the rising action to the book’s climax and statement medicine, conflict resolution.
Make sure you mention the spi publisher, author’s use of any literary devices you’ve been studying in williams class. Book Reports on spi publisher services Non-fiction. If you are writing a book report on importance of turner's frontier a biography or other factual text, you’ll want to devote the body of your book report to a description of the book’s subject and spi publisher, the author’s points of essay strategy view. Use the chapter headings to spi publisher services help you present the statement for residency family medicine, author’s ideas and arguments in an orderly manner. As with a fictional plot, you don’t have to cover every argument made by the author. Instead, choose the main ideas and the ones most interesting to you. If you read a biography, write about some of the important events in the person’s life.
Personal Evaluation and Conclusion. Spi Publisher Services! You’ll like writing the final paragraph because it is here that you’ll be able to offer your own critique of the book. What are the book’s strengths and weaknesses? Did the book hold your interest? What did you learn from the book? If you read a work of fiction, how did the book affect you? If you read non-fiction, were you swayed by the author’s arguments?
Try to be balanced in your opinions, and support your statements with examples from the book. Give your honest opinion of the essay strategy, book and whether or not you would recommend it to spi publisher services others. Revising, Editing, and Publishing. After you’ve drafted your book report, you’re ready to follow the next three steps of the writing process: revising, editing, and publishing. Expository Essay Video Games! Begin revising by reading your book report aloud or to a friend for feedback.
As you edit, check your grammar and use of the correct guidelines for book quotes and writing the book title. Give enough time to services revising and editing, and essay test, your published book report will be that much better. Book Reports: A Type of Expository Essay. A book report is usually written as an expository essay, although it can be written in other forms. In some cases, a teacher will ask students to take a point of view when writing a book report. Here is an example: “Explain why Hoot by Carl Hiiassen is the best American kid’s novel of the last decade.
Please use examples.” This type of services writing prompt requires a persuasive style of writing. Teachers may also assign book reviews, which challenge students to importance of turner's persuade their classmates to read or not read a particular book. If writing a book review, don’t reveal the ending! Rely on Your Writing Training to Write Book Reports. Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes and one-to-one, teacher-led instruction help in building students’ writing skills. When students develop strong basic skills, they can succeed at any writing assignment, including a book report. Time4Writing offers online writing courses for kids in elementary, middle school, and high school, and pairs each student with a certified teacher for services, personalized writing instruction.
Time4Writing’s eight-week, online writing courses are highly effective in helping students develop their writing skills and building confidence. Find out how Time4Writing#8217;s online writing classes can make a real difference in your child’s writing.
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How College Students Cheat On In-Class Examinations: Creativity, Strain, and Techniques of Innovation. Phillip C. H. Shon. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating is services, widely practiced by students and poses a serious problem across college campuses. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, but how students actually cheat has often been overlooked. Using in-depth narratives from of turner's 119 students enrolled in an introductory criminology class, this paper examines the variety of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations. Findings indicate that students manipulate variables such as the psychological and behavioral profiles of their professors, unwitting accomplices, technology, peers, spatial environments, and their own bodies, to negotiate the contingent intricacies and dialectics of academic dishonesty. There is adequate consensus among researchers that cheating by college students is a pervasive phenomenon (Aiken, 1991; McCabe and spi publisher Bowers, 1994; McCabe and Trevino, 1996; Spiller and Crown, 1995). The literature on academic dishonesty provides a structural framework for essay strategy, understanding exactly what constitutes cheating. It also documents the social and personal characteristics of cheaters, their motives, where they are most likely to cheat, and spi publisher when they are most likely to cheat; but where the literature is less thorough is when it comes to documenting what the students do to cheat—that is, how they cheat. This gap in the literature exists because the expository censorship video games, techniques and tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed rather than thoroughly examined. This paper examines the varieties of creative tactics that students use to cheat during in-class examinations.
Analysis of such tactics indicates that aside from the brute mechanics of cheating, some very basic variables play a role in students' decision to cheat: the possibility of detection, surveillance from services proctors, strategies for escape, projection of normalcy, and perfect papers minimization of culpability. Cheating during in-class examinations is services, mediated by certain variables which are part of the student's decision to cheat as well as the overall negotiation and management of the cheating strategies and processes themselves. Based upon this study of how students cheat, specific techniques for enforcing academic integrity during in-class examinations will be suggested along with speculations as to the emotional and moral attractions of academic dishonesty. Previous Work On Academic Cheating. An understanding of cheating on college campuses today must account for its pervasiveness (Baird, 1980; Diekhoff et al., 1996; Graham et al., 1989; Hollinger and Kaduce, 1996; Karlins et al., 1988; Labeff et al., 1990; McCabe, 1992), the personal and social characteristics of cheaters (Cooper and importance of turner's Peterson, 1980; Flyn et al., 1987; Kelly and Worell, 1990; Newsteadt et al., 1996; Ward and Beck, 1990; Whitley et al., 1999), their motivations (Barnett and Dalton, 1981; Drake, 1941; Labeff et al., 1990; Schab, 1991), and spi publisher services the situational and environmental factors that facilitate it (Bonjean and McGee, 1965; Bushway and Nash, 1977; Genereux and McLoed, 1995; Houston, 1976, 1977, 1983, 1986). The principal thrust of this type of research has come primarily from two disciplines: education and psychology. Consequently, researchers in those two disciplines have been content to survey the attitudes of individuals that best predict cheating (see Anderson, 1957; Enker, 1987; Eskridge and Ames, 1993; Johnson and Klores, 1968). Strategy? However, aside from the services, attitudes about cheating that students, faculty, and peers hold, cheating is a suitable topic for researchers within disciplines such as sociology and criminology.
From a sociological/criminological perspective, cheating behavior represents an illegitimate means of dealing with perceived frustrations encountered in the pursuit of a desired goal (Merton, 1938). In the context of higher education, that goal is a college degree—seen by many students to be a pre-requisite for upward mobility. A college education might seem to be within reach of most students today, yet the perfect papers, reality is that educational achievement remains socially stratified. Academic dishonesty has little sociological relevance if students conform to culturally prescribed aspirations and means toward attainment of their educational goals; however, when students assimilate the cultural emphasis on success without equally internalizing the morally prescribed norms governing means for its attainment, then the illegitimate methods employed to spi publisher, achieve the desired state becomes a pivotal focus of dr eric thesis, rule-breaking behavior (see Merton, 1938, p. 678). A recent application of two dominant criminological theories to academic dishonesty hypothesizes that students whose ambitions are thwarted from services achieving their valued goals (i.e. students with a low GPA), who are threatened with removal of strategy, positive goals (i.e. loss of scholarship), and who are bombarded with negative stimuli (i.e., excessive parental pressure to obtain good grades) ought to be more likely to spi publisher, cheat than those who do not face such strains (Smith 2000; see also Agnew, 1985, 1992).
However, Smith's (2000) findings did not support the for residency family medicine, claims of spi publisher, general strain theory, and the perceived strains did not significantly affect students' decisions to cheat.  In some cases, attempts to address prevalent cheating have had to grapple with an absence of standardization regarding exactly what constitutes academic dishonesty, but there is remarkable consistency in the literature as to what behaviors count as cheating—especially on exams (see Cizek, 1999; Eve and Bromly, 1981; Graham et al., 1994; Wright and Kelly, 1974). For example, McCabe and Bowers (1994, p. 7) define the parameters of cheating on tests/exams as: copying from another test or exam helping someone on a test using a crib note copying from someone without their knowledge (see also McCabe and Trevino, 1996, p. 31). Smith's (2000: 100) work offers a more nuanced way of statement, differentiating and classifying cheating on tests, but his questionnaire also implicitly hints that there might be other places and spi publisher ways that crib notes may be creatively imported and used during an importance thesis exam. This leads to a logical question that is not addressed in spi publisher services, the current literature: what type of innovative and creative tactics do students use to essay, cheat during in-class examinations? And once crib notes are used, what strategies do students use to destroy the evidence of their illicit actions? Newstead et al. (1996) and Smith (2000) note that prearranged signal systems are used to receive or communicate answers to and from services others; if this is so, are hand signals and tapping one's pencils the only way that cheating occurs?
How do students avoid the obvious possibility of drawing the teacher's suspicions while employing such intrusive methods of communication? Using crib notes has long been noted as a common tactic that students use to cheat, but how students actually plan, manage, and execute the intricacies of importing the crib notes to the exam and then use it while eluding detection from proctors—a situational and routine activities approach to rule breaking—has not been addressed sufficiently in the existing literature (Cohen and Felson, 1979). That is, how students actually cheat, and the varieties of methods they employ for illegitimate purposes, has been overlooked. Personal Statement For Residency Medicine? This gap in the literature exists because the techniques and spi publisher tactics that students use to cheat have been largely presupposed and expository not examined as a justifiable topic in their own right. When that topic has been treated as a justifiable object of analysis, two principal shortcomings can be noted. First, the novel methods that students use to spi publisher, cheat have not been rigorously and cogently developed. Thus, Cizek (1999) noted that in-class cheating involves Giving, Taking, and Receiving (GTR) of against random drug testing, information, the use of Forbidden Materials (FM), and Taking Advantage of the services, Testing Process (TAP), but these categories are too broad and lack thematic coherence and specificity. Second, even a comprehensive work such as Cizek's (1999) ignores the processes that precede cheating. For instance, Cizek offers a compendium of methods that students use to cheat, but how students actually manage the intricacies and contingencies that arise during the planning and commission phases are largely presupposed.
This type of stance overlooks the sequential and progressive aspects of cheating that might illuminate how it is actually carried out. This paper attempts to remedy that gap in the existing research by classifying and personal for residency medicine collating the innovative methods that students use to adapt to their perceived strain in the pursuit of scholastic aspirations, and presents a typology of the services, innovative methods students use to cheat on in-class examinations. This study was concerned with identifying and classifying the expository essay censorship video games, specific techniques that students use to cheat during in-class exams; it was exploratory in nature, designed to elicit detailed narratives. Consequently, no hypotheses were tested. Rather than using pre-formulated surveys and coding schemes, students were instructed to be as detailed and as descriptive as possible in their narratives.
The narrative responses were then inductively categorized into recurring analytical patterns (see Emerson et al., 1995). To capture the authenticity of students' experiences, I have chosen to spi publisher, let the williams, students represent their own stories, in their own ungrammatical voices. The data for this study were collected from a medium-sized regional university in spi publisher, the Midwest (MU) and a medium-sized regional university in the South (SU) in the spring of 2003 and fall of 2003. The subjects were chosen from a convenience sample of 128 undergraduate students, 72 male and 56 female, who had enrolled in an introductory criminal justice/criminology course. Term Papers? Although participation was voluntary, and for extra credit, two respondents did not give consent to use their responses so they were excluded from the analysis; furthermore, seven respondents stated outright that they had never cheated on spi publisher any exam, so their responses were not included in against random testing, the substantive portions of the spi publisher, paper.
While it could be argued that these two courses are not representative of the university population as a whole, the two courses fulfilled the general education requirements of both universities; hence, students from a broad range of majors and disciplines, as well as class standing, were represented in the sample. Each student was asked to complete a semi-structured questionnaire.  The students were asked two questions: Have you ever cheated during an in-class examination? (Cheating was defined as copying a test from others, using unauthorized crib notes and perfect term papers cheat sheets during an exam.) If students answered yes to 1, they were directed to spi publisher services, a second question which asked them to write a detailed narrative as to how they cheated—the specific tactics they used to cheat during in-class examinations. There were wide variations in the length and detail of dr eric williams thesis, students' narratives, ranging from one paragraph to several pages; for the purposes of this paper, narratives that are rich in descriptions and representative of the analytical category under discussion are chosen as examples. Despotic professors incur the deviant wrath of their students, thus facilitating their justifications and spi publisher rationalizations for cheating (Haines et al., 1986; McCabe, 1992). Of Turner's Thesis? Practically, however, students who decide to cheat on in-class exams have to find innovative ways to services, avoid the surveillance of professors and teaching assistants. Thus, in addition to completing the importance of turner's thesis, exam, students who decide to cheat must first determine their potential for spi publisher, success; to this end, they engage in a qualifying process whereby they determine if the person is desirable as a victim (Leo, 1996, p. 266). Essentially, students size up their teachers, testing their vigilance, and establishing the behavioral parameters of essay censorship games, permissible illicit action—how much they can get away with. This process is spi publisher, similar to the way police detectives size up a suspect in statement family medicine, an interrogation room in that students, too, create a psychological profile of their professors, and conjure up ways to dupe them.
In the following, a student explains her decision to cheat on an in-class quiz as a function of the difficulty of the course, her pressing need to spi publisher services, pass, and the physical limitations of the teacher: One summer I decided to term, take the hardest class of my college career. I was terrified of this class for a long time, so I put it off to the very end. I had heard horror stories of different teachers but I had never heard anything about the particular teacher that I would be taking. She was the head of the department so I knew she would not play any games. Quiz number one I mad an F after studying practically the whole morning. So, by quiz two I got smart because I saw how she operated. She was an old lady dying of cancer. She was in a wheel chair and she never moved from the services, spot her husband put her in. I knew that we would have to williams thesis, take the second quiz on loose-leaf paper. When class began and she said clear your desk of services, everything but a sheet of paper I took out a blank sheet and put it over my answers.
I could see the answers through the essay random drug testing in schools, blank sheet of paper. Even if she was to walk around or if we had a rat in the class no one would look that hard to services, see pencil through a sheet of loose leaf. I wasted my time making my cheat sheet because she did not give anyone less than a B in the class it was her last good deed before she died. From the term, outset, this student makes a distinction between regular faculty members and spi publisher services department chairs, assuming that the courses taught by department chairs are substantively more difficult, the teacher more vigilant and strict—hard (she would not play any games). Importance? That assumption is initially confirmed when the student fails the first quiz, despite the student's assiduous morning study. In this narrative, the difficulty of the exam is formulated as an extreme case, and spi publisher offered as an implicit justification of her decision to cheat (see Edwards, 2000). That is to say, the student almost talks herself into cheating. After the first failed quiz, however, the student re-evaluates the professor's suitability as a potential target for cheating after discovering an obvious limitation in the professor's surveillance capability: she has to perfect term papers, remain stationary, hence, limited in her field of vision. Services? Furthermore, the student has already identified the situational and normative contours which affect the feasibility of her illicit action during the in-class exams and quizzes: she knows that they will be conducted in a predictable way, and relies on her knowledge of situational routines to mobilize and execute her illegitimate plans. In this excerpt, the student sizes up the statement for residency, professor's constraints in her mobility, range and scope of spi publisher, her surveillance, and typifications of test administration and importance of turner's frontier thesis uses them to her unfair advantage; consequently, she is able to successfully cheat without detection. In the next narrative, a student elaborates in considerable detail how he sizes up the professor and constructs a working profile:
How do you do it [cheat] without getting caught? Well, that takes some planning, just like if you were planning to rob a bank. Services? You won't just bust down the banks doors yell FREEZE! No, you have to do it in a calmer more pre meditated manner to help reduce the essay strategy, risk of spi publisher services, being caught. The first way is by knowing the professor. What I mean by essay video games that is knowing understanding your professors habits routines. In other words your teacher is services, human so his daily plan or the way he does things is by repetition and statement for residency family medicine are usually the same. The way he goes to spi publisher services, work, goes to the bathroom, drinks his coffee and so on. But you have to notice his habits and routine in the classroom. Another thing learn his interests. What I mean by that is notice if he brings a magazine or newspaper and if he does this everyday.
If you see him reading something on campus, notice what it is and how long he'll read than look up. Bring a watch. Most people begin reading something they like and forget what they are supposed to be doing and in about 5 minutes they'll look up to see where they are or look at their watch to remember what they have to do. After you notice these things a few times your set. If you are going to a test and he comes in with a magazine or paper he read daily or every other day you got him. You've already studied his reading habits and term papers you know about how often he'll look up at services the class. Say he looks up about every 3 minutes. You know you have at least 2 minutes to cheat so now you got him. Statement For Residency Family Medicine? He is unaware of his thought less routines or habits so the services, chance of getting caught in virtually gone.
Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. You want to be one of them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks. Perfect Papers? So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. The first noteworthy—and impressive—point about the way this student sizes up the professor is the rigorous planning, attention to detail, and the sophisticated gathering of intelligence through systematic observations. Similar to the way an armed robber cases a potential victim through staged ploys and reading of subtle cues, the student does not just observe the teacher; he collects, sorts, and analyzes behavioral data, carefully noting the spi publisher services, professor's reading habits, body and eye movements, and general comportment in the classroom (see especially Jacobs, 2000, pp.
47-72; Katz, 1988, pp. 164-236; Wright and Decker, 1997, p. 94). Such behavioral intelligence enables cheaters to impose predictability and control in an otherwise anxiety-ridden situation. In this narrative the student notes the essay strategy, teacher's favored reading materials, and brings a stopwatch to calculate the window of opportunity that he has to cheat. By knowing the professor's habits and routines, the student is services, able to delineate the situational, normative, and temporal boundaries of illicit action; moreover, such systematic observations reveal the essay strategy, victim's vulnerabilities and weaknesses. In other words, the spi publisher, student knows what he can get away with and how long he can look at his cheat sheet. The second noteworthy point is that the importance of turner's frontier, student actually cultivates the professor, meaning that the student manipulates the professor through a pattern of psychological dependence (see Leo 1996, p. 271). For most teachers, I would presume, a student's desire to learn and do well in class, through expression of interest and class participation, is services, a gratifying experience and an enduring source of motivation.
The aforementioned student displays a sound understanding of these qualities that cultivate a professor; and it is precisely this occupational foible that the medicine, student usurps by spi publisher establishing intimate rapport, feigning interest and participation. Like a good confidence man or a car salesman, an experienced cheater exploits the weaknesses of professors and betrays his/her trust for a chance to improve his/her grade. Once students have sized up their professors, and have decided to cheat (or not), then they must decide if they are going to cheat alone or do so in collusion with others. Sometimes, the opportunity to cheat presents itself spontaneously (Ferrell and Daniel 1995); for against testing, some, however, cheating is meticulously planned, rationally calculated, and services painstakingly premeditated. Essay Strategy? It is services, erroneous to believe, however, that all students cheat with sophistication, their ingenuity being used to censorship video, outwit unsuspecting professors. Bluntly put, some tactics do not take much creativity at all, and only require minimal vigilance from instructors to deter—and catch—students from cheating. Some cheating methods are just uncouth and unimaginative: students sit in the back of the room and blatantly whisper answers back and forth to one another. Spi Publisher? In this section, some of the recurring, yet not so obvious, methods that students use to cheat in conjunction with their peers are discussed. Tactical deployment refers to the strategic ways that students position themselves in censorship, relation to spi publisher services, others; this method requires students to be situated in a zone of maximal surveillance in the proximity of someone who has studied for censorship video, the exam, one who may or may not be an accomplice. Usually, this person is considered the smart one in the class, and those who seek his/her assistance simply peek at their answers unbeknownst to their victims: When I cheated myself some buddies would position ourselves around the smartest one in the class the one closest would copy we would copy off of him.
Cheat sheets are to risky you can get caught real easy. Sometimes, the spi publisher services, smart ones are confederates in the collusion: I found method relying on personal statement for residency several parties in an auditorium setting. I call this method the flying ducks formation of test taking. You need a few people in order to make this procedure work. A person who studies or is a scholar is spi publisher services, needed for this procedure. What happens is the scholar sits in frontier, front of the pack of students and takes the test as though nothing is happening. Two people sit in front of the spi publisher services, pack of students and takes the statement, test as though nothing is happening.
Two people sit in the next row over his shoulder in a formation and compare or copy the spi publisher, test from him. Then in the next row, two people sit to the left over and the right over and copy the test. When looked from above the students sit in a V-formation as though they are a flock of ducks migrating to importance thesis, the south. This procedure works best in auditorium classes that has a slope in it, because it is easier to look at someone else's paper. Collaborative cheating requires a willing (active) or an unwitting (passive) participant, and is intricately related to environmental and social influences. To cheat successfully with others, a smart confederate—one who actually studies for the exam—is necessary (see Cizek, 1999). Moreover, the confederate must be willing to participate in the scheme. Spi Publisher? The person who allows his/her work to be copied can be conceptualized as a passive-social cheater since his/her role is minimally active (see Hetherington and Feldman, 1964). The role of large classes, auditoriums, and format of essay, examinations has been demonstrated to be linked to student cheating in prior research (Houston, 1976).
In the spi publisher services, second narrative, environmental factors such as class size, setting, and the slope of the room facilitate cheating. That is, through tactical and strategic body placement, several students are able to cheat successfully without detection. Term Papers? But what is noteworthy here is the incremental and sequential nature of collaborative cheating: no one individual bears an unfair load of the dishonest work; each participant's role in the scheme is compartmentalized, thus diminishing the likelihood of group detection and mitigating the culpability of the involved parties. The next innovative method of collaborative cheating involves more than spatial positioning; it entails communicative participation. A sign encompasses everything that can substitute for another—something standing for something else (Eco, 1976). Consequently, any sign system is inter alia communicative; and similar to any communicative system, the relationship between the signifier (e.g., word, object) and spi publisher services the signified (e.g., meaning) is statement family medicine, arbitrary; that relationship is established through usage and convention, sometimes by services collusion. A notorious case of this type of cheating involved contestants on a popular television game show (Who Wants to be a Millionaire?), where an audience member supplied the contestant with correct answers through a series of coded coughs. Students rely on similar methods to signal answers to one another. Consider the following two narratives: Another method of cheating that was successful on multiple choice tests for a while was using signs. Dr Eric Thesis? This would work in the classes that had students facing each other.
For example, I would watch a student and spi publisher he or she would signal me the answer by essay games touch the nose for spi publisher, A, touch the chin for B, the ear for williams, C, and spi publisher finally touch the top of the head for answer D. This method was harder so we had to pay attention and stay on the same question. I had a huge exam in physics coming up and had no time to essay test, study. Spi Publisher? So I devised a plan with a friend in that class. The plan was to cheat on the exam through silent communication. The way we decided to do this was to give each object on our desk a certain letter meaning. A would be a pencil, B would be a pen, C would be a calculator, and D would be the actual test. When either one of us didn't know the answer to expository essay video, one of the services, questions we would knock the number of the question out lightly on the desk and wait for the other to pick up the object with the letter of the right answer assigned to it.
It worked beautifully and the teacher never knew what happened. Term? We both passed the test and were never caught. Coughing once for A, twice for B and so on, or varying the spi publisher services, pitch, duration, and intensity of coughs—coded coughs—to signal answers runs into an obvious problem: it is likely to engender suspicion from professors and proctors since repeated occurrences will be noticeably audible; furthermore, a pattern of such coughs might be inductively deduced by an astute observer, as evidenced by the cheating scandal on the television game show. Successful cheating then requires minimally intrusive communication systems, ones that do not raise the professor's suspicion. One respondent in the data reported that she and her cousin used the American Sign Language during a test to convey answers to one another from across the room. In the term papers, two preceding narratives, students rely on non-verbal communication methods of cheating so as to not draw attention to services, themselves; this is personal family, accomplished by using banal objects—objects that have no inherent meaning—to assign a letter value. This semiotic cheating is facilitated by the seating arrangement; since students are facing one another, ordinary—harmless—behaviors such as rubbing and spi publisher services scratching one's nose, chin, ear, and head are mutually ratified to stand for corresponding answers. Statement? Should the spi publisher services, teacher suspect something and confront a student about repeated rubbing and scratching, this tactic gives the student a readily available explanation: a really bad itch. The latter excerpt highlights another advantage and a disadvantage of video, this type of cheating; the cheaters rely on already available academic accoutrements to establish a coded meaning.
Pencils, pens, calculators, erasers, and the actual exam are items that do not have to be smuggled into the examination room since they are requisites for school work in general; thus, this method is advantageous in that it eliminates from the spi publisher services, outset the censorship video games, leaving behind of potentially incriminating evidence (e.g., crib notes). The only possible shortcoming of this technique is that the questions themselves must also be communicated to the accomplices; as a result, this tactic also faces a similar problem as with coughing: audibility and services repetition have the potential of raising a professor's suspicions. If semiotic methods of cheating are chosen so as to drug, deflect attention from test-takers, as in the next method, it is precisely this dilemma that students negotiate through a carefully orchestrated academic conspiracy. Cheating, similar to committing a crime, is a function of opportunity. Research indicates that the threat of severe punishment is an effective deterrent to student cheating (Houston, 1983), as is arranging seats far apart, and the presence of highly vigilant instructors (Genereaux and McCleod, 1995). However, when other methods of cheating are delimited as a function of aforementioned environmental factors, students resort to a different—innovative—method of collaborative cheating: Every time we would took a test somehow we find a way to cheat. Spi Publisher? The most frequent cheating method we would use was the distraction method. One of us would go to the front and williams distract the spi publisher, teacher, while the others would get the notes out of their booksacks. Each one of us would go up to distract the dr eric thesis, teacher, to make sure everybody had the right answers. Colluding with one's peers has a clear advantage over solitary cheating in that by distracting the professor, a student has ample time and opportunity to retrieve and spi publisher place the crib notes in random testing, a strategic location without the fear of spi publisher services, surveillance and detection.
By distraction, we refer to cases where students walk up to the professor during an exam and ask questions about the questions, seeking clarification on a ridiculously obvious point, and feigning confusion about the wording of questions/answers etc. A group of conspirators who do this is less likely to raise suspicion since each students' role is compartmentalized; should the professor suspect conspiracy to commit academic misconduct, the burden of proof is placed squarely on the teacher. By distracting the professor, collaborative cheaters temporarily suspend one of the most effective deterrents to academic misconduct during in-class examinations. Not all students, however, have the dr eric williams thesis, wherewithal to get involved in spi publisher services, such complicities because they lack the deviant social capital in the first place; those who face the monetary and cultural pull of test strategy, academic achievement without bosom friends, and services decide to personal statement for residency family medicine, adopt illegitimate methods, must manage the nuances of cheating in a solitary manner. The data collection instruments used by prior researchers demonstrate a firm grasp of the way students cheat during in-class examinations (Aiken, 1991; Baird, 1980; Drake, 1941; Franklyn-Stokes, 1995). For instance, using crib notes (cheat sheets) is mentioned in virtually all of them, as is peeking at someone else's answer sheet; writing the answers on spi publisher services the bottom of one's shoes, on top of desks, and essay test hands are part of services, academic folklore. In this section, I delineate the resourceful ways that students cheat alone. Collaborative cheaters deploy themselves in strategic ways in term papers, relation to smart confederates; if the services, smart person is not an accomplice, then the one whose work is surreptitiously copied is not a passive cheater but a victim—a victim of theft (see Bunn et al., 1992).
Consider the importance of turner's, following narrative: I tried my hardest studying but I just cannot get it. Maybe I can get away with looking off that smart girl that sits next to me. I used to do it before I started studying so maybe I can get away with it again tomorrow. I hope I do not get caught. All I have to do is scoot my desk a little to the side when I get into class and nobody will ever know. Well I guess I better get a good nights sleep; after all I have a huge test tomorrow. Good I am here early and nobody is in spi publisher, class yet. Against Random Drug? This is services, where she sits so I am going to sit right here one over and one behind. I really hope I do not get caught, I am so scared. Personal Statement For Residency Family? Yes she sat there, it's all over now, I'm going to make at least a B now but I'll hope for a A.
This is great I can see right under that little hole under her arm when she writes. First answer is D. One down and spi publisher ninety-nine to go. This is personal statement family, too easy its like taking candy from a baby. Inability to spi publisher services, comprehend course content and its level of difficulty has been well noted as a reason why students cheat; in the narrative above, a similar justification is used. The decision to cheat in williams, this case, however, is neither opportunistic nor spontaneous; it is spi publisher, premeditated the night before, the plan of illicit action well rehearsed in the cheater's mind. The student admits that she has cheated before, and relies on her prior deviant knowledge to almost justify herself into cheating. She already knows what she will do to cheat in the first place. Not only that, her premeditated plan to cheat is executed almost immediately after her decision to essay strategy, do so: she gets a good nights [sic] sleep, and services as a result, she is the first one in class. By arriving early, she secures a seat near the smart girl. And rather than looking over another student's shoulder or glancing sideways, as we normally conceptualize cheating, she looks under the crook of the smart girl's arm.
This student cheater chooses as victim the person who possesses the valued commodity, and situates herself to the immediate left/right and rear. Personal Statement Family? In other words, to know who the cheaters are, instructors must know where the good students sit. This runs contradictory to what we as teachers normally assume about the nature of cheating and practice in the classroom since there is a professorial tendency to direct surveillance to the corner and in spi publisher, the back—where the bad students dwell and congregate, while leaving good students alone; but in actuality, cheaters are not far from the good students. Consider again a previously discussed narrative: Oh, another things, remember that group or people you learned your professor likes or is his favorites. Personal Statement Family Medicine? You want to be one of services, them. Why? Because someone who pretends to pay attention or participates will be most unlikely to cheat right? Well, that's what your professor thinks.
So you need to participate and ask questions you know only your professor would know so he thinks your trying to learn. This is very effective. This student cultivates the professor into essay games, thinking that he is a good student and for good reason. Being considered one of the good students not only reaps rewards when on the borderline of a higher grade, but it also averts the spi publisher services, suspicious gaze of professors. It must be stated that relying on this tactic requires a certain amount of faith—that the smart ones will in fact be smart on importance of turner's thesis test day, and spi publisher services will in fact show up, or sit in the same spot. That is, this method of cheating leaves too many variables to chance; for students who seek to impose order and predictability in an otherwise anxiety producing situation, they do it themselves.
Creative smuggling refers to the innovative and illicit means that students use to import unauthorized notes to the examination site, with the personal family, intention of spi publisher, defrauding an educational institution out of academic credit for personal gain (Smith, 2000, p. 99). These smuggling methods share identifiable, thematic features, but are also delimited by expository essay games parameters of feasibility (Cizek, 1999). In this section I classify the innovative smuggling techniques students use to cheat on in-class examinations into four thematic categories: 1) body parts 2) articles of clothing 3) technological gizmos 4) ordinary objects. Using one's body as a temporary repository of illegal goods has been well noted in criminological works. For instance, drug dealers routinely swallow their supplies and spi publisher services regurgitate them upon sale to avoid police detection (Jacobs 1999). Female crack dealers stash their supplies in their body cavities, knowing that male police officers cannot conduct timely searches, thus giving them ample time and opportunity to dispose of the drugs while being transported to perfect papers, the police station (Jacobs and Miller, 1998).
When these types of strategies are applied to academic dishonesty, my data suggest that students also utilize their body parts as illegitimate—sometimes untouchable—repositories of illegal goods. Consider the following narrative: Instead of writing the spi publisher services, answers in my hand, I would write them on the side of my fingers. If I were asked to present my hands for inspection, there would be no visible evidence of the crime. Frontier Thesis? When the spi publisher, teacher would scan for cheating students, I would put my hand on my forehead in frustration and read the answers from between my fingers. This was a sure way to conceal the dr eric williams thesis, evidence and spi publisher I had no extra cheat sheets or roaming eyes to bring suspicion to me. Although this student relies on expository essay censorship video games a rather elementary method of cheating, she adds a slight variation to spi publisher services, the method. Instead of writing on the most visible parts of her hand (palms), she writes the answers on the sides of her fingers where they are not readily visible. Furthermore, she acts like she is frustrated, placing her hands across her face—staged performance—in order to essay censorship video, get a glimpse of the notes during the exam.
Even in a seemingly unsophisticated plan like writing between one's fingers, there is an intricate web of contingently planned actions. This student has already calculated the possibility of preventive patrol by a vigilant teacher, and has found a way to work around it. Furthermore, by using her body part as a resource, she removes the spi publisher services, evidence of the crime as she exits the room, thereby eliminating another step in the cheating process that may be a liability. Perfect Papers? This is one of the primary advantages of writing the answers on services one's body. Consider a similar tactic: Another common technique was, writing words on your hand and perfect papers arms. That way it want be so obvious that you are cheating. Most people just lie their arm straight down across the desk.
Many people find that it is a lot easier to hide also. For example, if a professor was to services, walk around class looking to see if someone was cheating, it would be so much easier for you to put your arm down than trying to hide your cheat sheet. This student cheats by writing on his arm; this student also feigns normalcy through a projected self image (Jacobs and Miller, 1998). That is, students are aware of behaviors that are normatively associated with test taking, and williams they are used to services, project a normal appearance during the course of their illicit action. Thus, a student who is frustrated, and in exasperation, puts her hands to her head—a rather common sight—to dupe the strategy, professor into thinking she is dazed and services confused when in actuality she is sneaking a peek at her crib notes; a student who has written the answers on the underside of his forearm straightens it out and puts his head on it to term, cover his fraudulent method as the proctor strolls by. Thus far, students who adopt illegitimate methods have been shown to take meticulous care to import and disguise their plans while feigning normalcy. Moreover, they prepare their notes, mentally rehearse their plans, and execute them with a vigilant proctor already configured into the plan. Services? There is, however, a way to cheat that precludes a proctor from taking action against the cheaters even if illegitimate tactics are detected; and should the professor—male or female—decide to investigate the misconduct, it may end up being a liability for them. Dr Eric Thesis? Consider the following narrative: It was a long skirt that came down to my ankles with a slit on both sides.
Before every test I would write all the answers on my thiegh. When I stood up you could not see because that slit was not that high, but it was high enough when I sat down. When I sat down to take my test, my skirt came up a little. Spi Publisher? I then crossed my legs and I could see all the answers that I had written on essay against testing in schools my leg. If he passed by my desk I would uncross my legs and I was good to go. This female student uses her body as an services unauthorized cheat sheet, but instead of writing the thesis, answers on her hands and arms, she writes them on spi publisher services her legs; and perfect term papers similar to the meticulous planning we have seen in prior tactics, she has also rehearsed the plan well: she wears a skirt that is services, of a particular length and style so that the against testing in schools, answers become accessible and under her complete control—when she crosses her legs; should she encounter a proctor while looking at the answers on services her thighs, she can uncross her legs to hide evidence of her illicit actions. The obvious benefit of this method is perfect term, that it utilizes a body part that is unlikely to generate suspicion; that is, teachers do not normally expect students to write things in sexually suggestive places; but more significantly, by writing the cheat sheet near a precarious place, it insulates the cheater from spi publisher trenchant surveillance and detection. The reality of the academy inhibits—or ought to inhibit—confrontation by male professors (especially) who witness a female student sliding up her skirt to sneak a peek at her upper thighs for answers; should a professor be courageous (reckless?) enough to accuse such a student of academic dishonesty, the cheater has at her disposal a trump card of her own. That is, she is able to counter his accusation with an accusation of her own: What are you doing looking at my legs in the first place? By countering an term papers accusation with another accusation, she is able to realign the footing of the services, encounter in dr eric, a way that now puts the professor on the defensive; that is, he must now deal with her accusation—an accusation that emanates the pungency of sexual harassment. In this ploy, gender is spi publisher services, a valuable resource that is employed as an innovative tactic for the sake of a passing grade, a tactic that is uniquely and culturally available primarily to female students. 
An obvious advantage of using one's body parts as a cheat sheet is that the evidence of misconduct is removed with a student's departure from the examination site; in other words, students who cheat in this manner do not have to concern themselves with the personal family medicine, disposal of incriminating evidence. A similar point can be made of clothing. In my data, students regularly admitted taping crib notes onto articles of clothing on the day of the exam. For instance, sweaters, jackets, shirts, and spi publisher services hats were frequently used as illegitimate resources during in-class exams. Consider the essay against drug testing, following narrative: Now cheating in basic classes isn't that hard either best way is a hat just pull it low. The teacher can see the top of the head but has no clue where the eyes are going, hats give the spi publisher, perfect angles for viewing neighbors tests. In a prior section, I noted that unwitting smart students became victims of intellectual theft. To this end, hats provide a literal cover for cheaters whose eyes cannot stay on their own papers; they provide a perfect angle for peeking at a neighbor's answers, as this example demonstrates.
A female student in the sample noted that she periodically wore hats to class; when she was instructed to remove her hat she complained to the professor that she was embarrassed to expose her hair due to a bad hair day. As a result, she was able to keep her cover and peek at others' answers. Sometimes, the crib notes are pasted onto essay censorship games the brim of hats so that students who cheat in this manner only have to glance up to view the answers. Others in the sample noted turning the spi publisher services, answer-laden hat backwards so that it would be accessible for the person sitting behind. As a countermeasure and deterrence against this type of cheating, having the strategy, students—male and female—remove their hats is all that would be required. Consider another common garb that is used as a way to services, cheat: I would tape a cheat sheet upside down on the inside bottom of my shirt. While taking the test I could turn the bottom of my shirt up and get the formula, answer, etc. In this narrative a plain shirt that is not tucked in essay testing in schools, is used in a resourceful way.
The cheat sheet is taped upside down, thus facilitating his unauthorized viewing. Technological advancements have not been immune to spi publisher, being used as deviant resources for thesis, students. Consider the services, following typical narrative that involves the use of a calculator: This does not sound like much but we all had HP48 GX calculators. Statement? The brilliant thing about these calculators is that they can send information back and spi publisher services forth using an infared light. We never got caught but now in chemistry classes you are not allowed to use these calculators. While scientific calculators have made academic life easier for students, they have also become the dr eric thesis, scourge of the sciences during exams (see Schab, 1991). In this study, virtually all of the students enrolled in the sciences (biology, chemistry, physics) and mathematics admitted to cheating using a calculator. Spi Publisher? They would do so by programming formulas and importance of turner's equations into the calculators themselves. In addition to calculators, students also made extensive use of the latest communication devices such as cellular phones and pagers.
Students confessed to transmitting answers to and from a confederate using text messaging; some even admitted to snapping photographs of the exam with a camera phone, and forwarding it to their colleagues for spi publisher services, storage in fraternity/sorority test banks. This would indicate that professors have one more reason to banish communication devices from classrooms in addition to essay, their usual annoyance. In this study, some of the spi publisher services, most innovative methods of academic dishonesty involved students who usurped ordinary objects as illegitimate resources. For instance, one student related that he had a friend who wrote the cheat sheet for a chemistry exam in the corner of the frame of his glasses, and expository essay peeked at it during the exam, a tactic that is difficult to envision, but not impossible to undertake. Consider the following narrative of a student who cheats by using a rubber band: Basically, the night before the test, you can take the rubberband, preferably a thicker one, and stretch it.
While stretched, write the answers on the rubberband as small as you can see from about a foot away. Write the answers as close together as you can. When the rubberband is spi publisher services, unstretched it will just appear to be colored solid black, but stretched it will reveal the answers. I haven't met a teacher that was suspicious of a rubberband. When the test starts, just start playing with the rubberband. If you keep stretching and unstretching it, the teacher won't think anything of it when you stretch it to look for an answer.
The trick is that you need to keep a steady pace of stretching + unstretching the rubberband, and you can't break that pace when you look for medicine, an answer. Writing the answers on a rubber band, so that it reveals the answers upon stretching, exemplifies the innovative ways that students cheat on in-class examinations. There are other features of this technique that make it noteworthy. First, note the level of calculation that is involved: the student approximates the optimal distance of viewing the stretched rubber band (12 inches away from face), and he writes the answers close together so that it appears to be one solid color. Second, a normal appearance is projected through a rhythmic elongation prior to the test so as to feign normalcy. Services? By engaging in such behaviors prior to the exam, the student cultivates the professor as a victim since the perfect, student manipulates a harmless and ordinary object in innovative ways to dupe the professor into a false sense of normalcy.
Another highly creative method of cheating involves using an ordinary academic accoutrement as a resource: I noticed that someone was preparing a cheat sheet. I asked myself what is he doing? He wrote his answers on two small pieces of paper with very small print. The thing that was amazing was how he hid it. Spi Publisher? He has one of those Bic pens.
You know the ones you can see through. Well what he did is he took off the papers, cap of the pen and spi publisher services actually put the cheat sheet in the pen. Several of the respondents in dr eric williams, this study reported that they had witnessed or had used this technique themselves. Spi Publisher Services? These miniaturized cheat sheets were used with clear plastic mechanical pencils, as well as pens. Again, the video games, value of using such ordinary academic tools in innovative ways is that the possibility of suspicious attention is services, diminished. While cheating has been conceptualized as being related to social and environmental factors, this study demonstrates that students tailor their illegitimate methods to adapt to their personal, social, and situational contexts. That is, students use what is already available to thesis, them—an unwitting smart student who happens to be close by, deviant peers, academic accoutrements, ordinary objects, and body parts as innovative resources to successfully cheat. For some students, a rift between the culturally prescribed symbols of spi publisher, success (i.e. a college degree) and statement the absence of legitimate opportunities for services, their attainment translates into adopting innovative methods of adaptation (Merton, 1938). Thus, why students cheat has been the topic of importance, extensive research, but how they cheat has been largely neglected (but see Cizek, 1999). This paper supplements the established findings on academic dishonesty by delineating the innovative techniques that students use to respond to perceived strains and frustrations encountered within the context of spi publisher services, pursuing a college degree.
Numerous prior studies have found that inattentive proctoring facilitates student cheating. As I have shown here, however, determined cheaters find ways to williams, circumvent the surveillance of services, vigilant proctors. Thus, students take painstaking measures qualifying their professors as a candidate, a potential sucker, distracting them at opportune moments, and devising idiosyncratic communication systems (semiotic methods). Essay Drug? This means that students' decisions to cheat are significantly dictated by the victimization potential of spi publisher, their professors, not necessarily by the relative strengths of their strains and frustrations. Previous studies of academic dishonesty have systematically identified the psychological and social variables correlated to cheating, based primarily on williams thesis subjects' responses to surveys. For instance, prior researchers have adamantly maintained that students' propensity to cheat is influenced by the attitudes of their peers. However, my analysis indicates that peers are integral and collusive agents in the cheating processes, in the way academic dishonesty is spi publisher, manifested. Moreover, the variety of thesis, tactics used to cheat illustrates the creativity and services ingenuity of students today (that is, the ones who decide to cheat).
Even a macro-level variable such as gender has been observed to be adapted as a micro-level situational tactic in cheating scenarios. This paper also offers practical suggestions to deter academic dishonesty and enforce academic integrity during in-class exams. Random Drug Testing In Schools? Traditional criminological thought suggests that the severity and swiftness of sanctions would serve as adequate deterrents (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990). Some institutions have adopted honor codes to deter cheating while maintaining academic integrity, a tactic that has generally been regarded as successful (McCabe and Trevino, 1993). My data, however, suggest a more routine activities approach to crime prevention strategies (Cohen and Felson, 1979); the first step in formulating and implementing such policies involves knowing how rule-breaking behavior is conducted (see Wright and Decker, 1994). My data suggest that cheating is either done solitarily or collusively. In the latter instance, paying attention to in-class group dynamics (i.e., individuals who sit and spi publisher congregate together) may serve as invaluable intelligence in spotting cheaters. Dr Eric Thesis? Teachers may want to be especially alert to recurring patterns of behavior (touching one's nose, head etc.) from students during in-class examinations. In the former instance, it may be prudent for professors to know who the good students are and where they sit in order to services, cast a vigilant eye on the students who sit near them (see Cisek, 1999, p. 40-43).  As my data indicate, cheaters are never far from the good students. It may also be practical to inspect ordinary items (e.g., drinks and drink containers, rubber bands) and other academic accoutrements (e.g., pens, calculators), along with non-trouble-rousing body parts (e.g., hands, arms) since they may be used as cheat sheets. Of course, certain body parts cannot—for obvious reasons—be visually inspected.
It is impossible to implement dress codes without offending the social, cultural, and perhaps, religious, sensibilities of some students. Enforcing academic integrity by limiting the for residency family, opportunity for academic fraud in the first place is no small task, but it is one that is manageable: professors can do simple things such as making sure that desks are free of scribbled notes, that book bags are closed, that hats are removed. Further, they can look for spi publisher, gazes that repeatedly veer off into areas other than the test; multiple versions of exams can be administered in small classrooms rather than auditoriums; instructors can also employ additional proctors during exams, adopting wide and fixed space seating. While fixed seating flies in the face of student autonomy, and reeks of statement for residency family medicine, professorial despotism, it functions as a protector of meritocratic ideology since it reduces situational opportunities for unprepared students to cheat from the spi publisher, beginning; that is, it hinders students from strategically placing themselves around a smart student. Random?  It robs potential cheaters from victimizing an unwitting student, a student who has—ideally— diligently toiled for the grade. Finally, I speculate as to spi publisher, why cheating may be so attractive to strategy, college students. Cheating, like criminal behavior in services, general, represents the adoption of illegitimate means of responding to a perceived frustration in the pursuit of a valued goal. As critics of strain theory have noted, however, explaining the prevalence of cheating as a function of materialistic motives ascribes an perfect term overly instrumental view of human behavior, and neglects the moral and emotional dimensions of rule breaking (Katz, 1988). So what non-material gain does cheating provide? We can begin by noting that the origins of students' strains and frustrations are irrelevant to the psychological and social reality of the consequences which may result. The result of having an overly active social life, numerous extracurricular activities, a demanding work schedule, and consequently being unable to devote the necessary study time, is a highly stressful and anxiety producing condition.
Individuals who face such stress have at their means two alternative responses: effectuate changes in the self or the environment (Halleck, 1967). Cheating represents an adaptation to spi publisher services, that stress. The most effective way to reduce tension and stress in one's condition, according to Halleck, is through motoric activity/physical action; and if we apply this conceptual framework to student cheating, we can begin to see the non-material allure of cheating. Expository Essay? As outlined in spi publisher, this paper and evident from my data, cheating involves a significant investment of one's time, energy, and resources; moreover, it involves a considerable amount of physical action prior to and during the exam. That is, students have to sift through their assigned readings and notes and determine which ones they will place in the cheat sheet; not only that, they must expend great care and cunning while cramming such information into their cheat sheets; next they have to devise where and expository essay games how they will store their unauthorized notes and how they will retrieve them. For a standard fifty minute exam, it is possible to spi publisher, spend three to four times that much time thinking, writing, and preparing to cheat. Dr Eric Williams? And during this process they actively—physically and mentally—become engrossed in spi publisher services, the task at essay test hand. That is, frustration, a highly noxious and tension producing state, is incrementally transformed into physical action; it is precisely during this corporeal metamorphosis that an individual senses the tingling sensations of hope (obtaining a high/passing grade), along with a non-negligible heaping of excitement and the possibility of danger (O'Malley and services Mugford, 1995). But most significantly, these actions provide creative outlets for students to transform their impotent and frustrated existential situation into an autonomous mode of being in the planning, preparing, and execution of their deviant plans (see Halleck 1967, p. Essay Random Drug? 77). Students who are caught cheating face embarrassment, shame, and possibly, expulsion.
Thus, the risks associated with cheating are very real. Yet, despite such formal and informal sanctions, research indicates that an astounding 60-70% of college students admit to cheating. Spi Publisher Services? I am almost certain that most (if not all) instructors have wondered why students spend their time planning, rehearsing, and frontier executing illegitimate plans when they could spend that same time devoting themselves to their studies. Spi Publisher Services? A simple answer would be to personal statement for residency family, say that they are lazy; that cheating constitutes an easy and immediate gratification to an otherwise pressing need. However, to view cheating as an impulsively conceived and executed form of spi publisher services, academic dishonesty, and personal statement family medicine conceptualizing cheaters as persons lacking self control as a result of poor parenting and deficient moral training, overlooks a socio-structural fact (Gottfredson and Hirschi, 1990): cheating persists across class, race, gender, and national boundaries (Cizek, 1999). The cheating act itself is suffused with an unmistakable tinge of existential boundary crossings that are manifested in the corporeal, emotional, and moral experiences of cheaters (Katz, 1999). Thus, a more troubling—and theoretically titillating—answer would be to explore how cheating presents a set of morally fun challenges that students attempt to work through, that somehow, the possibility of outwitting authority figures provides an unfathomable moral and sensual delight for those who commit such acts (Forsyth and Marckese, 1993). As I have shown in this paper, students are capable of using highly innovative methods to respond to the perceived frustrations of in-class examinations, tailoring their illicit methods to their personal, social, and situational appurtenances, relying on their wits, peers, and even their sexuality. It is perhaps the allure of these moral and emotional challenges and gains through illegitimate means that is perhaps even more worthy of further investigation than the allure represented by the more material challenges and gains so often represented as underlying students' motivations to cheat. Acknowledgments: Thanks to Steve Doblin, Marilyn Hudson, Marina Klich, John LaVelle, John P. Lesko and spi publisher the Plagiary referees, James Lindgren, Ralph Luker, Brenda Nichols, Leah Sims, Kevin Smith, Russell Thornton, and Kevin Vaughan.
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Machiavellianism and spontaneous cheating in competition. Journal of Research in Personality, 14 , 70-76. Diekhoff, G. Spi Publisher? M., E. Statement For Residency? E. LaBeff., R. E. Clark., L. E. Williams., B. Francis. and V. J. Haines. (1996). College cheating: Ten years later. Research in Higher Education, 27, 487-502. Drake, C. A. 1941. Why students cheat. The Journal of Higher Education, 12 , 418-420. Eco, U. (1976).
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Eskridge, C. and testing G. A. Ames. (1993). Attitudes about spi publisher services, cheating and self-reported cheating behaviors of criminal justice majors and non-criminal justice majors: A research note. Journal of Criminal Justice Education, 4, 65-78. Eve, R. A. and D. Essay Censorship? G. Bromley. (1981). Scholastic dishonesty among college undergraduates: Parallel tests of spi publisher, two sociological explanations.
Youth and Society, 13, 3-22. Ferrell, C. M. and L. G. Williams Thesis? Daniel. (1995). A frame of spi publisher, reference for essay, understanding behaviors related to services, the academic misconduct of undergraduate teacher education students. Research in Higher Education, 36, 345-375. Flynn, S., M. Reichard and S. Slane. (1987). Cheating as a function of task outcome and Machiavellianism.
The Journal of Psychology, 121 , 423-427. Forsyth, C. and expository video T. Services? A. Markese. (1993). Thrills and skills: A sociological analysis of poaching. Deviant Behavior, 14 (2), 57-172. Franklyn-Stokes, A. and S. Perfect Term? A. Services? Newstead. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: Who does what and Why? Studies in Higher Education, 20, 159-172. Genereux, R. L. and B. A. Mcleod. (1995).
Circumstances surrounding cheating: A questionnaire study of college students. Research in Higher Education, 36 , 687-704. Gottfredson, M. R. and T. Hirschi. Frontier Thesis? (1990). A General Theory of Crime . Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press. Graham, M. A., J. Monday, K. O'Brien and S. Spi Publisher Services? Steffen. (1994). Term? Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student and spi publisher services faculty attitudes and behaviors. Journal of College Student Development, 35, 255-260. Haines, V. J., G. M. Diekhoff, E. E. Essay Against Random Testing? Labeff and R. E. Clark. Services? (1986).
College cheating: Immaturity, lack of commitment, and the neutralizing attitude. Research in Higher Education, 25, 342-354. Halleck, S. (1971). Frontier? Psychiatry and the Dilemmas of services, Crime . Berkeley, CA: University of essay in schools, California Press. Hetherington, E. M. and S. E. Feldman. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Services? Journal of Educational Psychology, 55, 212-218. Hollinger, R. C. and L. Lanza-Kaduce. Williams Thesis? (1996).
Academic dishonesty and the perceived effectiveness of countermeasures: An empirical survey of cheating at spi publisher a major public university. NASPA Journal, 33 , 292-306. Houston, J. P. (1976). The assessment and prevention of answer copying on undergraduate multiple-choice examinations. Research in Higher Education, 5, 301-311. Houston, J. P. (1977). Learning, opportunity to cheat, and amount of reward. Journal of censorship video games, Experimental Education, 45 , 30-35. Houston, J. Services? P. (1983).
College classroom cheating, threat, sex and prior performance. Test Strategy? College Student Journal, 17 , 229-235. Houston, J. P. (1986). Survey corroboration of experimental findings on classroom cheating behavior. College Students Journal, 20, 168-173. Jacobs, B. (1999). Dealing Crack: The Social World of Streetcorner Selling . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. (2000).
Robbing Drug Dealers: Violence Beyond the Law . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Jacobs, B. and J. Miller. (1998). Crack Dealing, Gender, and Arrest Avoidance. Social Problems, 45, 550-566. Johnson, R. E. and M. S. Klores. (1968).
Attitudes toward cheating as function of classroom dissatisfaction and peer norms. The Journal of Educational Research, 62 , 60-64. Karlins, M., C. Michaels and S. Podlogar. (1988). An empirical investigation of actual cheating in a large sample of undergraduates. Research in Higher Education, 29 , 359-364. Katz, J. (1988). Seductions of Crime . New York: Basic Books.
Katz, J. (1999). How Emotions Work . Chicago: University of services, Chicago Press. Kelly, J. Dr Eric Williams Thesis? A. and spi publisher services L. Worrell. (1978). Personality characteristics, parent's behaviors, and sex of subject in relation to cheating. Journal of Research in frontier thesis, Personality, 12, 179-188. LaBeff, E. Spi Publisher? E., R. Of Turner's Thesis? E. Clark, V. J. Haines, and G. Spi Publisher Services? M. Diekhoff. (1990). Situational ethics and college student cheating. Sociological Inquiry, 60 , 190-198. Leo, R. A. (1996).
Miranda's revenge: Police interrogation as a confidence game. Law and Society Review, 30 (2), 259-288. McCabe, D. L. 1992. The influence of situational ethics on cheating among college students. Sociological Inquiry, 62, 365-374. McCabe, D. L. and W. J. Perfect Papers? Bowers. (1994).
Academic dishonesty among males in college: A thirty year perspective. Spi Publisher Services? Journal of College Student Development, 35 , 5-10. McCabe, D. Strategy? L. and L. K. Trevino. (1993). Services? Academic dishonesty: Honor codes and other contextual influences. Journal of Higher Education, 64 , 522-538. McCabe, D. L. and L. K. Essay Against Drug In Schools? Trevino. (1996). What we know about cheating in college: Longitudinal trends and recent developments. Spi Publisher? Change, 28 , 28-33. Merton, R. K. (1938). Social structure and anomie.
American Sociological Review, 3 , 672-682. Michaels, J. W. and term papers T. D. Miethe. Spi Publisher? (1989). Applying theories of deviance to test strategy, academic cheating. Social Science Quarterly, 70, 870-885. Newstead, S. E., A. Services? Franklyn-Stokes and P. Armstead. (1996). Essay Testing? Individual differences in student cheating. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88 , 229-241. O'Malley, P. and S. Services? Mugford. (1995). Crime, excitement, and modernity. In Varieties of Criminology (pp. Williams Thesis? 189-211).
Westport, CN: Praeger. Schab, F. (1991). Spi Publisher Services? Schooling without learning: Thirty years of cheating in high school. Adolescence, 26, 61-69. Smith, T. (2000). Challenging Academe's Mystique: Applying Criminological Theories to College Student Cheating.
Ph.D. Dissertation. University at Albany, State University of New York: School of Criminal Justice. Spillar, S. and D. H. Crown. (1995). Changes over time in academic dishonesty at importance the collegiate level. Psychological Reports, 76 , 763-768. Ward, D. A. and W. L. Beck. (1990). Gender and dishonesty.
The Journal of Social Psychology, 130, 333-339. Whitley, B. E. Spi Publisher? Jr., A. B. Jones and C. J. Jones. (1999). Gender differences in cheating attitudes and classroom cheating behavior: A meta analysis. Sex Roles 41 (9/10), 657-680. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1997).
Armed Robbers in against random drug testing, Action: Stickups and Street Culture . Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, R. and S. Decker. (1994). Burglars on the Job: Streetlife and Residential Break-ins . Services? Boston, MA: Northeastern University Press. Wright, J. C. and R. Kelly. (1974). Cheating: Student/faculty views and responsibility. Improving College and University Teaching, 22 , 31-34.
1. Smith (2000: 160) concludes: Among all variables examined low self-control possessed the essay test strategy, greatest predictive power. Spi Publisher Services? This study finds encouraging support for the theory's ability to explain another form of misconduct among the many that have already been investigated. Thus, the predictive breadth and statement for residency family scope of self-control lends further credence to its claims of theoretical generality. 2. The respondents were asked to spi publisher, identify only their gender to against random, examine if tactical differences existed between the two sexes. 3. When I initially mentioned this technique to spi publisher services, colleagues, they seemed to be genuinely impressed. In fact, some female colleagues expressed chagrin that they had not thought of essay against testing, it when they were in school. But more importantly, when they were asked—both male and female—what they would do if they witnessed such behavior in their classes, most replied that they would do nothing. And for spi publisher, good reason: they stated that gathering evidence to support their accusations (e.g., asking them to lift up their skirt to importance, check for answers) would be nothing short of spi publisher services, sexual harassment. Expository Censorship Video? Practically, I am not sure what can be done to spi publisher services, prevent such cheating except to institute a dress code on exam days, forbidding females from frontier wearing skirts; but such a code would encounter obvious legal problems. Theoretically, male students could do the same to female professors; but in my data, I encountered no such creativity on the part of the male students. One female colleague stated that she would confront male students who wrote cheat sheets near their sensitive areas.
4. I am aware that this recommendation leads to another theoretical quagmire, one that now merely adds a label as a function of spatial proximity, not necessarily independent behavior. 5. Of course, this suggestion is based on the assumption that the exams will not be administered in services, a large auditorium that seat 500 plus students; moreover, it assumes that students who are forced to sit in drug, a certain order will not form alliances and collusions of sorts. Phillip C. Services? H. Shon is an in schools Assistant Professor of Criminology at Indiana State University.
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23andMe Will Resume Giving Users Health Data. The genetic testing company 23andMe became a Silicon Valley sensation by providing consumers with health and spi publisher ancestry information based on a sample of their saliva, but suffered a setback when the dr eric, Food and Drug Administration told it to services stop presenting health data in 2013. Now, after nearly two years, 23andMe is announcing on Wednesday that it will begin providing customers with health information again, though much less than before and with F.D.A. approval. The company hopes the information, which relates to the risk of statement for residency, passing certain inherited diseases to one’s children, will reignite growth in its subscriptions — even as the company evolves from being just a consumer testing service into spi publisher services, a drug developer. It has also revamped its website to make the genetic information easier to understand and is raising the price of its service to $199, from $99. “Part of what we tried to perfect term papers do over the last two years is take advantage of being off the market to redesign the entire experience,” said Anne Wojcicki, co-founder and chief executive of 23andMe. The company, based in services Mountain View, Calif., initially offered consumers information on their risks of developing various diseases based on an analysis of the williams, DNA in their saliva sample. The company created a buzz with its celebrity-filled “spit parties” and spi publisher its message that consumers have the importance of turner's, right to their own genetic information, without a doctor or regulatory agency being involved. It did not hurt that Ms.
Wojcicki, now divorced, was married at the time to services Sergey Brin, a co-founder of Google, and that Google invested in her company. But in November 2013, the F.D.A. demanded that 23andMe stop providing health information until it could obtain regulatory approval by demonstrating that its results were accurate. The setback was somewhat similar to what is occurring now with Theranos, another hot Silicon Valley medical testing company run by test strategy an entrepreneurial young woman, Elizabeth Holmes. Services? In articles last week, The Wall Street Journal raised questions about Theranos’s accuracy (the company says the in schools, doubts are unfounded), and the F.D.A. has asked the company to stop using its method of services, drawing blood from perfect term papers, a finger instead of the arm until it wins regulatory approval for the device used. Services? The new health-related information 23andMe will provide is called carrier status. That relates to whether people have genetic mutations that could lead to a disease in their offspring, presuming the other parent has a mutation in the same gene and the child inherits both mutated genes. Statement Family? There will be information on 36 diseases, including cystic fibrosis, sickle cell anemia and Tay-Sachs. Whether that information, which is of most interest to people planning to have babies, will be compelling is unclear, and there are separate carrier tests available through doctors from other laboratories. Ms. Wojcicki said 23andMe still hoped to gain F.D.A. approval to provide information on health risks, but she would not estimate how long it might take to win that approval.
An error has occurred. Please try again later. You are already subscribed to this email. From a rebel fighting the system, she said, 23andMe is now “working from within the system and services saying the consumer will have a sense of of turner's thesis, ownership and spi publisher services a voice in of turner's frontier that system.” Ms. Wojcicki said that when the company stopped providing health information, the rate of new customer sign-ups dropped by more than half. Spi Publisher? The company continued to offer information on ancestry.
But the business still grew. This year it surpassed one million users, compared with half a million at the time of the F.D.A. action. Statement For Residency Medicine? She declined to disclose the current figure. Many of the customers allow their genetic information to be used for medical studies, and some also provide additional information, such as what diseases they have. Companies like Pfizer and spi publisher services Genentech are paying 23andMe to use the data to papers search for services, insights that could be useful in essay random testing developing drugs. In May, 23andMe decided to go into spi publisher services, drug discovery and development itself. That effort is being led by Richard Scheller, who had headed research and early development at Genentech. Many earlier genomics companies, including Celera Genomics and DeCode Genetics, also tried their hand at drug development.
Companies can make much more money from a successful drug than from papers, selling genetic data. But drugs are also riskier and costly to develop, and many of those early attempts failed. Ms. Wojcicki said 23andMe hoped to learn from those previous failures. She said that pharmaceutical companies would prefer to license an experimental compound rather than just acquire raw data. The company recently raised $115 million from investors, led by Fidelity Management Research, bringing its total raised to $241 million. Ms.
Wojcicki said that 23andMe was not yet profitable and that the investment in drug development might prevent it from turning a profit in services the short term. An article on importance of turner's frontier thesis, Wednesday about an announcement by the genetic testing company 23andMe that it will return to offering health information, after a two-year hiatus ordered by the Food and Drug Administration, misstated the service the company did provide during that period. It offered ancestry information based on genetic data, but did not offer information on nonmedical traits like eye color, ear wax composition and lactose intolerance. (Those are being offered in services the new version of its service.) A version of this article appears in print on October 21, 2015, on Page B3 of the New York edition with the headline: 23andMe Will Resume Giving Users Health Data . Order Reprints | Today's Paper | Subscribe. We#8217;re interested in your feedback on this page. Tell us what you think.
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Essay – Medea in spi publisher services, Apollonius Rhodius and Euripides. How and why does the characterisation of Medea in Apollonius Rhodius draw on the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea. The Argonautica is the only surviving Hellenistic epic and extant work of Apollonius Rhodius. Unfortunately little is known about Apollonius’ life, or how he viewed his work, as few extant materials refer to williams thesis, him. Argonautica was written in the third century B.C. and broke from the spi publisher services, Hellenistic tradition for short literary works. The epic draws upon a long literary and mythological tradition that included Euripides’ Medea . Personal Family! Within scholarship the services, plays of Euripides are widely considered to be a forerunner of Hellenistic works.
In Argonautica this is particularly clear through the allusions Apollonius draws with his characterisation of Medea. Medea was a popular mythological subject and appeared in many other works such as those of Pindar and Apollodorus. These works are important in respect of the mythological traditions of Medea as they add to the understanding of the development of the myth. However, the family, focus of this essay will be upon services, the representations of Medea within Argonautica and Medea and how and why Apollonius draws upon Euripides’ characterisation. The mythology of Medea is very complex due to essay test, varying literary traditions. Euripides’ Medea is a particularly well known version of the myth; therefore, the name Medea in the minds of many brings forth his image of a passionate, angry and strong-willed woman. Services! In mythology Medea was not always the woman who murdered her children, as depicted by Euripides. One variation of the myth tells how Medea may have killed her children by accident. Essay Strategy! Another how the people of services Corinth murdered them as an act of revenge for personal family medicine, the murder of their princess.
Apollonius, instead of using either of these versions of the myth, chose to foreshadow his Argonautica with the events of Euripides’ Medea . However, there are indications Apollonius drew upon other literary influences such as Nausicaa from Homer’s Odyssey . It will be necessary to services, briefly consider such influences in order to assess the dr eric thesis, extent to which they embed themselves within Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea. Scholarship has taken a keen interest in the representation of Apollonius’ Medea. In particular Hunter considers Medea’s ‘ suffering for spi publisher, love ’ in one section of his work and the intertext between Apollonius and Euripides. Perfect Term Papers! On the other hand, Pavlock considers Medea’s passion to be dangerous and uncontrollable. These viewpoints, amongst others, will be given due consideration. Medea is a defining mythological figure and services as such it is important to understand how and frontier thesis why Apollonius draws upon Euripides. Spi Publisher Services! Therefore, this essay will demonstrate that Apollonius, in order to foreshadow his epic, draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea. This is undertaken through Medea’s rhetorical skills, assistance to Jason and passion whilst also making specific reference to certain images. Furthermore, notwithstanding other influences from epic, it will also be shown that Apollonius uses this characterisation to thesis, explore the spi publisher, reactions of the Alexandrian audience to the increased personal freedom of women and the psychology of passion. The Medea’s of Euripides and Apollonius.
One of the primary considerations of how Apollonius foreshadows and frontier thesis draws upon the characterisation of spi publisher Euripides’ Medea is through her rhetorical ability. Apollonius’ Medea is at first quiet in Jason’s presence having been ‘seized by speechless stupor’ due to the arrow of williams thesis Eros. However, from services this point the character develops a rhetorical skill attuned to that of Euripides’ Medea. The dispute between Jason and dr eric Medea, following her discovery of the secret negotiations with the Colchian fleet, recalls the couple’s first argument within Euripides’ Medea . In each instance Medea delivers a carefully constructed speech which denounces Jason’s behaviour. Services! Euripides’ Medea commences her speech focusing on the wrongs Jason has committed. Medea then recounts her sacrifices, recalls the oath Jason broke and dr eric williams thesis ends her speech considering what she is to do, calling upon the gods. Apollonius’ Medea starts by questioning what Jason has planned for her.
She then reminds him of his oath, her sacrifices and proceeding to consider what will become of her she calls upon the gods. The chastisement of services Jason by Medea evokes and rewrites her agon in Medea . It is particularly noteworthy that Medea’s speech written by Apollonius follows a similar pattern to essay strategy, Euripides’, one an audience familiar with Medea would recognise. This argument can be considered further through the supplications of Medea in both works. Each of these is intended to ensure Medea’s self-preservation; Circe cleanses her blood guilt, Creon stays her exile and Arete and spi publisher Aegeus provide protection from her enemies. Apollonius appears to of turner's frontier thesis, have drawn on Euripides’ characterisation of Medea as a survivor, able to use her rhetorical skill in order to spi publisher services, secure what she requires. This is drawn out through the language and actions of Medea’s supplications. Test Strategy! Each instance is undertaken on her knees putting herself in the appropriate position of respect to spi publisher, the person hearing her request. Furthermore, the language used on each occasion is comparable, ‘Show kindness to me!…Take pity on perfect, me…May the immortals grant you both a life of fulfilment…children, and the glory of an unravaged city’ Medea declares to Arete. Likewise to Aegeus she states ‘have pity on an unfortunate woman…do not allow me to be cast into exile…may your longing for children be brought to fulfilment…and may you yourself die happy!’. Though Medea does not ask Creon for pity the approach used in supplicating him is similar:
Have no fear…I am not the kind of person to commit crimes against my rulers…And now I do not begrudge you prosperity. Make your marriage…and may good fortune attend you. The Medea of spi publisher services Apollonius like Euripides understands well the process and williams requirements of supplication and uses it to spi publisher services, her advantage. Medea’s rhetorical skill in Argonautica and thesis desire for self-preservation are the spi publisher, ‘hallmarks of Euripides’ heroine’. Furthermore the specifics of the language used and essay description of the supplications within Argonautica parallel that of Euripides’ Medea . Spi Publisher Services! This desire for self-preservation becomes very apparent during Medea’s supplication of thesis Jason at the beginning of Argonautica book four. Medea transforms from a woman in distress to services, a plotter of her brother’s murder, scenes reminiscent of the ruthless and determined woman who commits infanticide in essay test strategy, Euripides’ Medea . Medea’s act of infanticide is motivated by anger induced by Jason’s betrayal. Spi Publisher Services! It is this allusion Apollonius draws upon to prepare the audience for the murder of Apsyrtos. The murder is attributed to Medea in Euripides’ Medea .
However, in Argonautica Jason is the murderer with Medea’s role greatly reduced to co-conspirator; Medea requires purification as she is not free from guilt. Apollonius’ use of ????????? (by or at the hearth) for the location of Circe’s purification of Jason and Medea is similar to the phraseology of Euripides. During Jason’s recollection of the murder in Medea he describes the location as ‘at the term, hearth’.Though Medea takes place sometime after Argonautica , through Apollonius’ use of language he foreshadows situations which will occur in spi publisher services, the future. The ability to devise brilliant and destructive schemes is an personal statement for residency family, intricate part of Medea’s character in both representations. Spi Publisher Services! Medea’s name means ‘The Planner’ and this skill is essay video, a consistent theme throughout Argonautica and spi publisher Medea . Medea’s planning secures Jason’s victory in the trials set by Aietes (her father), enables the murder of her brother and removal of Pelias from the importance of turner's, throne of Iolcus. Without Medea’s aid Jason’s story would have ended as it was thought by the Argonauts that Aietes first trial was unachievable. Spi Publisher! The potion provided by perfect term papers, Apollonius’ Medea to spi publisher services, Jason protects him during the trial and it is of turner's thesis, she who lulls the dragon to sleep so that he may seize the fleece. These actions foreshadow Euripides’ Medea who declares to Jason that it was she who saved him from death on two occasions, the trial of the fire-breathing bulls and the dragon.
Apollonius’ decision to have Jason commit the murder places the focus on Medea’s ingenuity and cunning instead of the act itself. Spi Publisher Services! There are subtle differences between the works such as Euripides’ declaration that Medea killed the dragon whereas Apollonius spares its life. Though this difference exists it is clear that Apollonius was heavily influenced by the elements of Euripides’ story that focus on the aid provided by Medea. It has been suggested that, at such an perfect, early stage, Apollonius wanted to ensure that Medea remained free of services violence. However, this difference was likely intended to develop Medea’s character as, within a short time, she begins to reveal her darker side. Medea declares that Jason should not break his oath or, ‘May my Furies drive you straight from importance frontier thesis your homeland, because of spi publisher services what I have suffered through your heartlessness.
What I say the gods will not leave unaccomplished’. The language is reminiscent of the curses Medea calls upon Jason in Medea . Comparison can also be drawn with the perfect term papers, references to Jason as the ‘vilest of knaves’, an enemy of the spi publisher, gods and test strategy an oath breaker in Medea , descriptions similarly reflected in Argonautica . Apollonius describes Medea as ‘seething with grim anger’ believing that she is at risk of abandonment and requires placating by Jason. Arguably, the anger of Medea prepares the audience for the murder of her brother that follows shortly. Spi Publisher Services! Medea’s anger can be compared to Aietes’ when he discovers Jason’s intention to claim the Golden Fleece. Medea becomes her father’s daughter and although the murder of Apsyrtos is shocking it is the personal statement family medicine, climax of the sacrifices that led to it. Medea’s anger in both works in part results from her sacrifices in spi publisher, order to aid Jason. Medea betrayed her family and homeland to runaway with a foreigner who she assists in murdering her brother. The sacrifices are a key feature in Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea and there are clear indications that they are drawn from Euripides’ representation.
Medea sacrificed much out of love for importance of turner's frontier thesis, Jason. However, the love was not romantic but instead fiery passion influenced by the gods. The passion induced by Eros is a destructive force that foreshadows the spi publisher, events that take place in essay against random in schools, Medea . Apollonius describes how Eros’ arrow ‘burned deep in the girl’s heart like a flame’ arousing in Medea a passion for Jason. Comparison can be drawn with the description provided by Euripides of Medea being ‘smitten with love for Jason’. The shooting is described by Apollonius in violent terms, Eros ‘fitted the arrow-notch to the bowstring…and shot straight at Medea…the destructive love which crouched unobserved and burnt in Medea’s heart’.
This echoes the spi publisher, comments of Euripides’ chorus who declare that they never want the arrow of desire to ‘fly against my heart’ or for Aphrodite to ‘madden my heart with love for a stranger’s bed’. Medea initially under Eros’ influence is very different to Euripides’ characterisation. She is a ‘young, vulnerable girl overwhelmed by essay, love for Jason’. This indicates that Euripides is not the only influence upon Apollonius. There are allusions to Homer and during book three of spi publisher Argonautica it is dr eric williams, suggested Apollonius continuously recalls the Phaeacian episode of Odyssey whilst still reminding his audience of Medea . The potential relationship of Odysseus and Nausicaa has been contrasted with the spi publisher, past and censorship video games future of Jason and Medea. There is a virgin princess who is ready for marriage but Jason like Odysseus will not stay to marry, though he will take Medea with him unlike Odysseus. Furthermore the scene where Medea leaves to meet Jason at Hecate’s temple is considered to imitate Odyssey book six. However, Nausicaa unlike Medea would not ‘betray her own sense of spi publisher shame, or her family [and] never hesitates to speak freely with Odysseus’.
The Nausicaa story is essay video, inverted by Apollonius and although there is some influence upon the characterisation of spi publisher services Medea the primary influence is Medea . Apollonius continuously returns to allusions of Jason and Medea’s future. Papers! Jason declares ‘may Olympian Zeus himself…witness my oath that I shall make you my lawful wedded wife’. Spi Publisher! Apollonius uses this line to testing in schools, anticipate Medea’s appeal to the gods in Medea . The nurse recounts how Medea, ‘invokes the mighty assurance of his sworn right hand, and calls the gods to witness the unjust return she is getting’. In turn the oath in spi publisher, Medea becomes an expository essay, appeal to the oath in Argonautica . Furthermore, though Athena influences Nausicaa by enhancing Odysseus’ appearance she does not experience the same destructive power of love brought upon Medea by Eros. This is best attested through Medea’s violent state of mind in Argonautica where, ‘she longed to set fire to the ship, to destroy everything…and throw herself into the…flames’. This foreshadows Medea’s consideration as to whether she should set fire to Jason and spi publisher Glauce’s bridal chamber but also the immolation of Glauce and Creon through the wedding gift.
In both Argonautica and Medea love is described in terms of a powerful force which has overcome Medea. Love is described by Euripides as a ‘bane’ and Medea herself as possessing a ‘love-maddened heart’ and having shown ‘more love than sense’. This language brings to mind Apollonius’ description of essay testing Medea as having ‘bitter-pain in her heart’ and suffering ‘distress’. Apollonius’ use of language and services imagery is expository essay censorship video games, very Euripidean. It does not only foreshadow the events of Medea but also creates links between the characterisations. The use of clothing as part of Medea and Jason’s plot to services, murder Apsyrtos in Argonautica has drawn keen scholarly interest.
Apollonius’ description of the deception used to importance of turner's frontier, lure Apsyrtos to his death is the same as that used by Euripides’ Medea to destroy Glauce. This similarity is services, believed to be a long held recognition by essay, Hunter but can also be considered more broadly within the wider context of Argonautica . Clothing has been identified as an spi publisher services, important theme throughout as it draws the audience to williams, consider past or future events either within or outside the spi publisher, epic. The description of Medea’s dress bathed in moonlight following the papers, capture of the services, fleece appears as though it were a wedding dress. This can be considered further as the imagery takes on a frightening aspect foreshadowing the events of Medea’s nuptial clothing gift to Glauce. Comparison can also be drawn between Jason’s celebration at having captured the fleece and term papers the future death of spi publisher Glauce. When Jason raises the fleece he is described in terms of a young girl who ‘catches in her fine dress the gleam of the full moon…her heart is delighted at the sight of the lovely radiance’.
This simile whilst emasculating Jason for test, having won the spi publisher services, fleece without risk to himself also brings to mind the image of Glauce putting on Medea’s deadly wedding gift. Glauce is described as ‘arranging her hair in a bright mirror, smiling… [parading] about the importance of turner's frontier, room…entranced with the gifts’. The parallels between the services, images cannot be ignored. It is clear that Apollonius has seized upon a key incident in Euripides’ tragedy and provided ample connections that foreshadow the future death and destruction that Medea will bring to Corinth. Why Euripides’ Medea ? In the years that followed the death of Alexander the Great in 323 B.C. the test, Macedonian Empire broke into separate kingdoms ruled by services, his successors. During this period life for Apollonius’ Hellenistic audience changed for various reasons such as increased migration. It became more socially acceptable for a woman to be educated and to enjoy a public role. Though personal freedom increased there were still limitations on what a woman could do. However, within the kingdoms life for women would have varied considerably depending on where they lived and their political class.
Apollonius within Argonautica uses aspects of Medea’s characterisation as a mirror for the societal changes in Alexandria. Medea was first performed in Athens in the fifth century B.C. During this period work and the influence of public opinion would have predominantly kept Athenian women at home. Though some women’s work would have been within the dr eric thesis, public sphere those who remained at home would have had little freedom. At the beginning of the play, Medea has been fulfilling the role of an Athenian wife, remaining at services, home looking after it and the children. The majority of essay test strategy evidence of the lives of Greek women comes from Athens.
However, it is important to be cautious when drawing conclusions on the lives of women in wider Greek society due to the differing natures of each city state. In Medea the idealistic societal structure of Athens is broken down by Medea’s emergence from the home and her challenges towards her former husband in public. Spi Publisher Services! This can be compared with societal changes in Alexandria as women began to enjoy an increased freedom of movement, particularly in comparison to Athens. Medea is an ideal figure to represent such changes in society, achieved through the portrayal of her enjoying the freedom to move around her country unrestricted. Apollonius’ portrait is realistic as although Medea has freedom she is statement, required to have her handmaids accompany her; though under her instruction they leave her to speak with Jason alone. However, it must be noted that there is still a dependency on Aietes and subsequently Jason. It might be argued that the level of spi publisher services dependency is variable throughout Argonautica ; for example in respect of random drug testing in schools her marriage.
Medea takes control of some of her own affairs within Argonautica such as her agreement to spi publisher services, marry Jason and contracting her own marriage. Importance Of Turner's Thesis! Marriage for spi publisher services, Greeks within Alexandria would have required the williams thesis, permission of the brides’ father or guardian. Both Jason and Alkinoos are thought to act as Medea’s guardians. The former as Medea declares herself his daughter, sister and services wife. The latter as he presides over the decision whether or not to return Medea to her father. Neither can actually be considered to have fulfilled the role of guardian as Jason is Medea’s future husband and Alkinoos is not present at essay video, the wedding. Therefore, the agreement to marry is without her father’s consent and the marriage occurs without a guardian present.
Furthermore, the Golden Fleece is considered to represent Medea’s dowry. Medea secured the spi publisher services, fleece for Jason and as such can be viewed as having paid her own dowry. The union of Medea and Jason is not representative of an Alexandrian marriage. Greek women, except royalty, were required to use an intermediary or guardian for legal and monetary transactions. However, women using the for residency family, Egyptian or Jewish legal systems could undertake such transactions themselves. There is some papyrus evidence in existence that suggests women were able to undertake private contractual matters in respect of property and their marriage. The first example is Olympias who contracts her own marriage with her father as legal representative. Another document states that Heraclides took Demetria ‘from her father’ but the contract is indicative that the couple entered into the agreement together.
The contract informs Demetria how she would resolve a breach of spi publisher contract should she need to. Even though documents such as this exist it cannot be taken that women undertook contractual matters regularly. Apollonius’ portrayal of Medea indicates a changing attitude towards women and an ‘audience coming to terms with women’s power and importance of turner's privilege’. The influence of wealthy and royal women could be attributed to the development of spi publisher this class of Alexandrian women. It was particularly important for the privileged of of turner's Alexandrian society to spi publisher, be highly educated. Importance Of Turner's Frontier! Arguably the construction of the great library of Alexandria in the third century demonstrates this desire. Services! Apollonius was well-educated as demonstrated through his extensive use of mythological and essay in schools geographical understanding within Argonautica . Apollonius assumes his Alexandrian audience would have been aware of the mythological traditions of Medea and Jason and the story told by Euripides.
Given the importance placed upon knowledge by Alexandrian society this assumption is spi publisher, plausible. Dr Eric! Medea is described as speechless in Jason’s presence in the first scene within Aietes palace. Services! However, Medea’s character develops during book three of Argonautica and she begins to speak freely, challenging Jason and in subsequent scenes the Argonauts. Though there is expository essay censorship, no reference to her education by either Euripides or Apollonius the language used by Medea shows her intellect in both works. There is evidence to suggest greater access to education for spi publisher, women during the Hellenistic period.
The existence of prominent educated women such as Hipparchia a philosopher and Erinna a poetess provide some evidence to importance thesis, support this. Spi Publisher! Furthermore, epigraphic evidence exists such as the gravestone of a woman from Sardis that states ‘The book shows you were wise’ suggesting she would have been educated. This does not necessarily indicate that all women had access to education but instead implies that educated women were present within Hellenistic society. In some respects society became less restrictive including travel, certain contractual matters and education, but others remained such as the holding of essay censorship video games public office. Though there is evidence of one wealthy woman having held a magisterial position true equality was not possible and as such this cannot be considered to have been common.
Apollonius’ draws upon the characterisation of Euripides’ Medea the strong-willed woman and devises her story for the developing Alexandrian audience. Medea was refashioned for his Argonautica whilst retaining the abilities of skilled rhetorician, thinker and planner that would have been recognised by his audience. Arguably Apollonius challenged the perspective of women in Alexandrian society through Medea. Medea’s first appearance in Argonautica as a love-struck young girl unable to speak to Jason is unrecognisable to the representation of Euripides. Apollonius’ Medea appears more a woman overwhelmed by spi publisher services, her first feelings of love. The portrayal of Eros shooting Medea has led to the suggestion of of turner's frontier thesis her as a victim of spi publisher violence.
On the other hand, the scene can be viewed ironically as the sorceress becomes subject to a spell. Instead of the powerful sorceress Medea is the victim of magic with her prayer to Hecate an attempt to process her feelings. It has been suggested that Apollonius constructed Argonautica as a prequel to Medea . The evidence of strategy Medea’s rhetorical skill, assistance to Jason and involvement in Apsyrtos’ murder would certainly support such an argument. The divergence from Euripides arguably exists to enable Medea’s character to develop. Apollonius, in Argonautica , draws upon services, the complex array of emotions in Medea providing background to perfect, the feelings, setting their roots in Medea’s past. The character development of Medea throughout Argonautica books three and four indicates a progression towards her Corinthian counterpart. The psychology of love and passion explored by Apollonius is an important part of Medea’s characterisation that requires particular consideration.
The development of Medea’s passion for Jason is undertaken through a dream during which she convinces herself that Jason has come to Colchis in order to services, marry her. Essay Test Strategy! The dream ‘represents an important stage in the awakening of her passion’. Spi Publisher Services! Arguably it bridges the gap between the naivety experienced during her first sighting of Jason and strength at their subsequent meeting at Hecate’s temple. Through the course of the meeting the for residency, love-struck Medea soon gives way to the more familiar characterisation of Euripides. Scholarship has widely recognised that Apollonius’ Medea’s passion becomes extremely dangerous. Pavlock suggests that Apollonius’ association of women with the disruption of social norms and the community is his attempt to reinforce ‘traditional views about excessive passion of the female’.
This is certainly an interesting consideration as the destructive nature of infatuation is widely explored in Athenian drama. Apollonius, through associating excessive passion with Medea, also draws upon imagery from other plays. In Euripides’ Trojan Women and Hippolytus Helen and Phaedra’s passions have brought about services, death and destruction. Essay Censorship! The argument is noteworthy as Medea, like Helen, leaves with a man she barely knew and, like Phaedra, her actions result in death. Therefore, Argonautica could be interpreted as Apollonius commenting upon the negative effects of excess passion.
Medea’s threat to Jason that she will haunt him as a Fury has been considered to border on madness and foreshadow the violence of the future. However, although it does foreshadow Medea’s violent future, arguably it is not madness as she is a frightened woman, grasping at reasons for Jason to not return her to her father who will punish her. There are indications that Apollonius explored the psychology of women driven by passion with a Euripidean-like sympathy. Euripides’ Phaedra analyses her passion for Hippolytus going through the spi publisher services, possible options to master it; concealment, self-control and death. Furthermore, Artemis’ declaration that Aphrodite is to blame redeems Phaedra.
Likewise, in Euripides’ Helen , it is revealed that Helen would not have left with Paris and was brought to Egypt to protect her chastity. Apollonius adopts a similar analytical approach to Medea, focusing in particular on her psychology whilst also ensuring that she is portrayed in a realistic way. Essay Against Drug! Even though Medea is under Eros’ spell Apollonius explores the realism of her passion and developing awareness of what is affecting her. The realism can be seen through Medea’s natural response to services, the sunrise but also her shame at falling in love with a foreign stranger and betraying her family and country. The sense of shame bound Greek women to follow their fathers’ instructions. Shame culture was passed down through the expository essay censorship games, ages and Argonautica appears as a piece of social commentary upon spi publisher services, the culture within Alexandrian society. Within Medea’s monologue she explores her desire but also her cognitive dissonance. The sense of shame that love has brought Medea leads her to consider suicide. Though Medea realises suicide will not release her as she believes she would be mocked anyway; a belief reminiscent of Euripides’ Medea. Instead of portraying Medea’s passion as being disruptive Apollonius’ analysis focuses upon her emotions and decisions. When Jason and Medea first meet the audience know what is to come but at the same time it does not know.
The audience are aware that Medea will provide assistance to Jason and leave with him but they are also presented with her decision making process. Arguably, Apollonius used Medea to examine the dr eric williams, psychology of passion. The division in Medea’s personality between naivety and powerful sorceress might be seen as Apollonius’ attempt to explain the future murder of her children. Alternatively Apollonius’ Medea could be looked upon as a sympathetic development of her characterisation akin to Euripides. Services! Apollonius explores the emotions of love, passion and shame presenting a more realistic portrayal of Medea’s past as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea . It has become apparent that Apollonius draws upon the characterisation of the Euripidean Medea in order to personal statement, foreshadow the events of Medea . Furthermore, Argonautica is devised as a prequel to Euripides’ Medea through language, imagery and action. There are indications of other influences upon Medea’s characterisation from tragedy and spi publisher epic but the primary focus is Medea . Perfect! Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea is not limited to how it draws upon her but also why. Argonautica explores the finite increase in spi publisher services, freedom for essay against testing, Alexandrian women and also the psychology of passion. Spi Publisher! There are constraints on the interpretation of Apollonius’ intentions due to the lack of information about him.
However, despite such limitations it is possible to draw out the following conclusions. There is a progressive development in essay, Apollonius’ characterisation of Medea that slowly forms into her Euripidean counterpart. This is achieved by drawing upon services, key aspects of the character created by Euripides, namely Medea’s rhetorical ability and her love of Jason. There are echoes of Euripides’ Medea’s ‘fierce nature’ in Apollonius’ description of random testing his Medea who seethes ‘with grim anger’. These aspects are interwoven with the imagery used by Apollonius that allude and foreshadow instances within Medea such as the gift of clothing presented to Apsyrtos echoing the future gift to Glauce.
Apollonius explores the psychology of services Medea through the representation of her being passionately and uncontrollably in for residency medicine, love. Spi Publisher! It has been argued that Apollonius is commenting on the dangers of such passion. However, it is apparent that his treatment of this subject is sensitive. Medea is shamed by her feelings and behaviour towards Jason to williams thesis, the point of wanting to spi publisher services, commit suicide. Medea’s passion though uncontrollable (due to the influence of the gods) is explored in detail by random drug in schools, Apollonius through her thought processes. Though also considered by Euripides the treatment is brief due to spi publisher services, the limitations of a 1418 line play. Family! Apollonius used the length and breadth of an epic to provide a more detailed analysis of Medea and her actions, presenting a relatively realistic image and prequel to the Alexandrian audience.
Society developed during the Hellenistic period and women enjoyed a limited increase in services, freedom. Euripides’ Medea, as a strong woman, provided a basis for essay test, the exploration of such freedom. Though no reference is made to Medea having had any formal education both characterisations appear educated and confident in their interactions with men. Evidence would suggest that, in spi publisher services, this period, there was an increase in the education of women and as such Apollonius took the opportunity to represent this. Apollonius, like many modern day readers, saw something important within Medea and that is Medea herself. The fire, passion and strength immortalised by Euripides; Medea is the essay random drug testing, perfect figure for epic. Argonautica and Medea are exceptional and services important works. Essay Censorship Video! The former as it is the services, only surviving Hellenistic epic and the latter as the only extant Athenian drama that deals with the Argonautic cycle. Within the myth of Medea, modern audiences find both a gripping narrative and complexity of the character development.
It is considered by Griffiths that ‘in facing the complexities of Medea’s identity we face the complexities of our own’. Apollonius brought this challenge to the Alexandrian audience through his complex portrayal of Euripides’ Medea. Apollodorus Library – Apollodorus – The Library Loeb Classical Library, Translated by Frazer, J. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1921. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0022 [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Apollonius Rhodius Argonautica – Jason and the Golden Fleece Translated by Hunter, R. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1993. Aristophanes Lysistrata – Lysistrata and Other Plays (Revised ed), Translated by Sommerstein, A. London: Penguin Books, 2002.
Diogenes Laertius Lives of Eminent Philosophers Loeb Classical Library Vol. 2, Translated by Hicks, R. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1925. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus%3Atext%3A1999.01.0258%3Abook%3D1%3Achapter%3Dprologue [Accessed: 10 January 2015]. Euripides Helen – The Complete Greek Drama Vol.2 , Translated by Coleridge, E. Oates, W. and O’Neil, E. (Eds), New York: Random House, 1938. Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0100 [Accessed: 3 January 2015]. Euripides Hippolytus – Euripides Loeb Classical Library Vol. 2, Translated by Kovacs, D. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995. Williams! Perseus Digital Library http://www.perseus.tufts.edu/hopper/text?doc=Perseus:text:1999.01.0106 [Accessed: 3 January 2015].
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DeForest, M. Apollonius’ Argonautica: A Callimachean Epic Leiden: Brill, 1994. Dillon, S. ‘Case Study III: Hellenistic Tanagra Figurines’, in S. James and S. Dillon (eds), A Companion to services, Women in personal statement, the Ancient World Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2012, pp. 231-234. [e-book]. Available at: https://www.dawsonera.com/ [Accessed: 11th January 2015]. Dyck, A. ‘On the Way from Colchis to Corinth: Medea in Book 4 of the ‘Argonautica’’ Hermes , Vol.
117, No. Spi Publisher Services! 4, 1989, pp. Dr Eric Williams Thesis! 455-470. Spi Publisher Services! Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/4476720 [Accessed: 7th December 2014]. Fantham, E., Foley, H., Kampen, N., Pomeroy, S and Alan Shapiro, H. Women in the Classical World Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. Fantuzzi, M. and Hunter, R. Tradition And Innovation In Hellenistic Poetry Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 31st December 2014]. Feeney, D. The Gods in Epic: Poets and Critics of the Classical Tradition Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Foley, J. Importance! A Companion To Ancient Epic Malden: Blackwell Publishing, 2005. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 3rd January 2015].
Fusillo, M. ‘Apollonius Rhodius as “Inventor” of the spi publisher, Interior Monologue’, in T. Essay Test Strategy! Papanghelis and A. Rengakos (eds), A Companion to Apollonius Rhodius Leiden: Brill, 2001, pp. 127-146. [e-book]. Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Green, P. Hellenistic History And Culture Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 29th December 2014]. Griffiths, E. Spi Publisher! Medea London: Routledge, 2006. Gutzwiller, K. A Guide to expository essay video, Hellenistic Literature Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2007. [e-book] Available at: https://search.ebscohost.com/ [Accessed: 31st December 2014]. Hunter, R. ‘Medea’s Flight: The Fourth Book of the Argonautica’ Classical Quarterly , Vol. Spi Publisher Services! 37, No. 1, 1987, pp.
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Pomeroy, S. Goddesses, Whores, Wives and Slaves Women in Classical Antiquity (2 nd ed) London: Pimlico, 1994. Rose, A. ‘Clothing Imagery in Apollonius’s “Argonautika”’ Quaderni Urbinati di Cultura Classica , Vol. 21, No. 3, 1985, pp. 29-44. Available at: http://www.jstor.org/stable/20538886 [Accessed: 30th December 2014].
Shipley, G. The Greek World After Alexander 323 – 30 BC London: Routledge, 2000. Thalmann, W. Services! Apollonius of Rhodes and the Spaces of Hellenism Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011. [e-book] Available at: http://www.oxfordscholarship.com/ [Accessed: 10th January 2015]. Walbank, F. The Hellenistic World Glasgow: Fontana Paperbacks, 1981.  Lefkowitz (2001:52) states what is known of Apollonius comes from two scholia about Argonautica , an entry in Suda and an entry on dr eric, a damaged papyrus ( P.Oxy.1241) .  Gow and Page (1965:II.251) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Fraser (1972:I.599) cited in Klooster (2011:151); Klooster 2011:151.  Pindar Pythian 4 ; Apollodorus Library 3.13.  Pausanias Description of spi publisher Greece 2.3.10-1.  Apollonius 4.350-95; Euripides Medea 465-519.
 Euripides Medea 465-519; Apollonius 4.350-95; Hunter, 1993:61; Hunter, 2008:142.  Euripides Medea 292-356, 709-19; Apollonius 4.690-748, 4.1000-28.  Euripides Medea 324, 710; Apollonius 4.695, 4.1029.  Euripides Medea 1040-64.  Euripides Medea 166-7, 1334.  Apollonius 4.415-60, 4.557-62.
 Apollonius 4.713; Knight, 1991:248.  Euripides Medea 475-90; Apollonius 4.358-68.  Apollonius 3.1025-62, 4.123-64.  Euripides Medea 465-8, 493-6.  Hunter, 1993:61; DeForest, 1994:129.
 Apollonius 4.356-7; Euripides Medea 167, 483-4.  Apollonius 3.870-86; Homer Odyssey 6.80-4.  Euripides Medea 379, 1185-95.  Euripides Medea 330, 434, 485.  Hunter, 1987:131; Knight, 1991:249-50; Hunter, 1993:61.  Euripides Medea 945-58; Apollonius 4.421-44.  Rose, 1985:29-44; Knight, 1991:249.  Euripides Medea 1159-66.
 Fantham et al, 1994:140, 163-8; Pomeroy, 1994:120; Shipley, 2000:104-5.  Aristophanes Lysistrata 17-19, 880-1; Luschnig, 2007:7.  Pomeroy, 1994:73, 79-80.  Fantham et al, 1994:69; Blundell, 1995:140.  Euripides Medea 214, 465-519.
 Dillon (2012:231-2) references Hellenistic grave reliefs from Delos that document women who travelled widely.  Apollonius 4.92-8, 4.1128-69.  Apollonius 4.368-9, 1073-109; Byre, 1996:8-9.  Dyck, 1989:458; Luschnig, 2007:14.  Fantham et al, 1994:140.  P.Elephantine 1 translated by Pomeroy, 1984:86-7; Blundell, 1995:199.  P.Giessen I . 2 translated by Rowlandson (1998) cited in Parca, 2012:324.  Walbank, 1981:176-7; Meyer, 2001:227-8; Thalmann, 2011:219.  Shipley, 2000:240; Apollonius 1.496-511 (Orpheus’ song of the cosmos); Apollonius 3.980-1007 (Ariadne and Theseus); Apollonius 4.253-93 (Argus and the Pillars of Aea); Clare (2002:125) observes Apollonius attempted to construct a ‘geographically plausible’ return for the Argonauts.  Hunter (1989) cited in Clauss, 1993:9; Gutzwiller, 2007:79.  Diogenes Lives of papers Eminent Philosophers 6.7.96-7; St Jerome Chronicle 203.
 Lefkowitz and Fant (1995) cited in Shipley, 2000:104.  Decree of Priene translated by Burstein (1985:59) states Phile was the first female stephanephoros cited in Fantham et al, 1994:156.  Fantham et al, 1994:169.  Nyberg (1992) cited in Griffiths, 2006:89.  Apollonius 3.467; Clare, 2002:242.  Feeney, 1991:65; Gutzwiller, 2007:79.  Levin, 1971:15; Feeney, 1991:64-5; Lefkowitz, 2007:179.  Euripides Trojan Women 914-1032; Euripides Hippolytus 887-91, 1161-72.  Apollonius 4.385-90; Pavlock, 1990:67.  Euripides Hippolytus 393-430.
 Euripides Hippolytus 1389-1439.  Apollonius 4.413, 1016-7, 1040; Feeney, 1991:80-4.