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English research essay topics

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A Sample Critical Essay on Hemingway's 'The Sun Also Rises' In this short critical essay (approximately 1,000 words) about Ernest Hemingway#39;s novel The Sun Also Rises (titled Fiesta in Great Britain), the author demonstrates how minor characters shed light on some of the conflicts experienced by english essay topics, the protagonist, Jake Barnes. The title of the essay offers an allusion to the last line of John Milton#39;s sonnet #34;On His Blindness#34;: #34;They also serve who only stand and wait.#34; Notice that the essay is paper, based on a close reading of the novel and does not rely on secondary sources. Research Essay. #39;They Also Serve . Benefit Pretending. . .#39;: The Waiter in The Sun Also Rises. A Sample Critical Essay on a Novel. 1 To keep Jake Barnes drunk, fed, clean, mobile, and distracted in The Sun Also Rises , Ernest Hemingway employs a large retinue of minor functionaries: maids, cab drivers, bartenders, porters, tailors, bootblacks, barbers, policemen, and one village idiot. But of all the retainers seen working quietly in topics the background of the novel, the most familiar figure by far is the waiter. In cafes from Paris to Madrid, from one sunrise to the next, over two dozen waiters deliver drinks and relay messages to benefit child development essay short Barnes and his compatriots. As frequently in attendance and as indistinguishable from research essay topics one another as they are, these various waiters seem to merge into a single emblematic figure as the novel progresses. A detached observer of human vanity, this figure does more than serve food and studies drink: he serves to illuminate the character of research topics Jake Barnes. 2 On a number of occasions, Barnes expresses a sympathetic awareness of the essay, waiters around him. For instance, after dining with Lady Brett Ashley and the count at the restaurant in the Bois, Barnes recognizes that the two waiters standing by english research essay topics, the door #34;wanted to go home#34; (61). Likewise, on the French train crowded with pilgrims, Barnes discourages Bill Gorton from teasing the overworked waiter, saying, #34;No.

He#39;s too tired#34; (88). Role Essay. It is fitting that Barnes should identify, at least implicitly, with waiters. Like them, he is a reticent and passive observer, carrying out english research essay routines with emotional detachment. For the waiters, of course, such detachment is merely professional decorum. For Barnes, however, emotional detachment is a means of protection, a method for coping with life. 3 One way that Barnes maintains his composure is to substitute objective observations for emotional responses. His ritualistic descriptions of waiters doing their work often serves this purpose, as in the conclusion to the scene in the Bar Milano.

Ignoring the warnings of Montoya, Barnes has set Brett up with Pedro Romero: When I came back and looked in the cafe, twenty minutes later, Brett and Romero were gone. The coffee-glasses and essay on environmental our three empty cognac-glasses were on the table. A waiter came with a cloth and picked up the glasses and mopped off the table. (187) By focusing on this image of cleansing and reordering--of a waiter clearing up the mess made by others--Barnes displaces whatever feelings of remorse, shame, and envy he may have. 4 On occasion, however, a waiter may be seen to dramatize rather than displace Barnes#39;s feelings. After leaving the Bar Milano, Barnes goes to the Cafe Suizo, where he is knocked out topics cold by Robert Cohn. After being revived, he again offers a parting view: #34;I looked back at them and at the empty tables. There was a waiter sitting at one of the tables with his head in his hands#34; (192). As an image of weariness, this is hardly unusual: it#39;s late and the waiter is tired. But the image of essay head in hands may suggest something more, particularly as observed by a man whose own head is #34;a little wobbly#34; (192). It may be seen as a tableau dramatizing Barnes#39;s own exhaustion, pain, shame, and despair.

5 For the most part, waiters function silently throughout the novel as disinterested witnesses, emblems of routine maintenance, and research topics correlatives to Jake Barnes and his suppressed emotions. Role Desdemona. In one important scene, however, immediately following the death of Vincente Girones, a waiter steps out of his conventional role, sits down beside Barnes at english topics the table, and offers this choric commentary: #34;A big horn wound. All for fun. Just for fun. . Essay. . . That#39;s it. All for fun. Fun, you understand. English Research Essay Topics. . . 2006 Higher Critical Essay. . Right through the back. A cornada right through the back. For fun--you understand. Essay Topics. . . Brief. . You hear? Muerto.

Dead#34; (197-98). It is english research, not just the repetition and the echo of #34;cor nada #34; in development short this speech that recall the prayer of the older waiter in Hemingway#39;s short story #34;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.#34; More significantly, it is the weary but forceful note of human concern in the face of research topics human absurdity that links the higher english critical essay questions, two waiters. This view, defiantly anti-romantic, is one Jake Barnes is still struggling to achieve. When asked by the waiter what he thinks of all this #34;fun,#34; Barnes can say only, #34;I don#39;t know#34; (197). 6 Appropriately, then, it is again a waiter who signals a possible change in research essay Barnes#39;s life. The last part of the novel opens with another image of business cleansing, waiters #34;sweeping the streets and sprinkling them with a hose#34; (227). And it is a waiter#39;s actions that dramatize the end of the fiesta: A waiter wearing a blue apron came out with a bucket of water and a cloth, and commenced to tear down the notices, pulling the english research, paper off in strips and washing and rubbing away the paper that stuck to the stone. The fiesta was over. (227) The vigorous verbs in this description reflect Barnes#39;s determination that certain things in his life were over, that he had reached #34;the end of the line#34; (239), that he was #34;through with fiestas for awhile#34; (232). Perhaps he had learned something about friendship, about #34;valuable qualities,#34; something waiters had always understood (233). 7 In The Sun Also Rises , Hemingway has countered the lost generation of main characters with the emblematic figure of the waiter, whose voice is english essay, as old as the english essay, book of technology case Ecclesiastes: #34;Vanity of vanities, saith the english, Preacher, vanity of mckinsey business technology vanities; all is vanity#34; ( The Holy Bible Eccles.

1:2). The wisdom gained by the waiter through disinterested observations of human folly may lead to the strength that can help him endure. We should remember, after all, that the novel#39;s single representative of moral valor, Pedro Romero, #34;learned his English as a waiter in Gib#34; (242). Hemingway, Ernest. English Essay. #34;A Clean, Well-Lighted Place.#34; Winner Take Nothing , New York: Scribner#39;s, 1933.

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Research Paper Topics: ENGLISH COMPOSITION II

My Best Friend Essay Essays and english Research Papers. As a First reason, I want to meet my friends with whom I studied English in Toronto. We still keep in touch. Especially, I want . to scores go Venezuela, Paraguay, Colombia, and english research essay topics Brazil, also I want to go Panama, and Dominica even though they aren’t South America. It’s difficult to go all of them, but before I die, I want to go at on environmental least 1 or 2 countries. English Research Essay Topics? For Second reason, some of countries are dangerous to brief essay on environmental pollution visit by english research topics, alone, but they say it’s ok if I trip with local friends because they know where to avoid due. American Broadcasting Company , Desperate Housewives , Dixie Carter 559 Words | 2 Pages. Leah Young Young 1 2/14/13 Essay #2 English 101 My Best Friends There’s really no . Development Essay Pretending Short? great way to start my story other than with the truth. I was 31 and living in a tiny apartment in one of the english research, worst neighborhoods in Louisville.

I was on my second divorce and third abusive relationship. Development Pretending Short? Between me making excuses for bruises and the women my then husband was seeing while I was working, life for essay topics me was a sad one. I woke up one morning and benefit pretending short decided I had to leave. I packed. Dog , English-language films , Friendship 2328 Words | 6 Pages. My Mom, My Hero, My Best Friend Wow where do i begin. My mom is . definitly my best friend . She has been here for me through think and thin, good and bad, and english ups and downs. When I was seven my father passed away who was there for essay me and my sister ? My mom she was my mom and english essay my dad for a while untill one day she met a man who has been my dad for the past 12 years couldnt ask for a better dad then the one she found. My mom has helped me through so many things in my life pushed me through school. English-language films , Friendship , Lie 1219 Words | 3 Pages.

1. A friend in need is a friend indeed. 2006 English Critical? This famous saying holds true. Research Essay? A true friend never sees only your good days . and good deeds but he stands by gmat essay, you even on english essay topics, the darkest day of your life. Ramu Rao studies in my class. We have been friends since class two.

On many occasions when I would forget my lunch box at home, he has shared his tiffin with me. Once when I nearly fought with the class bully he saved me. He thought that no good would come from bad actions and to get good things in life one. Affection , Friendship , Homework 1063 Words | 3 Pages. My Best Friends Wedding I am feeling lonely and sad.

It is a cold and blustery Wednesday in mckinsey technology November. Tomorrow . will be the first Thanksgiving I have spent without my family. My boyfriend at the time asks me to come to his house and english research topics meet his parents and join them for chicago watermark their thanksgiving feast. Though it is quite a tempting offer, I don’t feel up to that level of social activity, so I politely decline and mention that he and english research essay topics I could have some quite time once he gets back. He seems ok with that. 1995 singles , 2000 singles , 2006 albums 1333 Words | 3 Pages. DESCRIPTION OF MY BEST FRIEND Azeneth has been my best friend for the . Role? last 6 years. I know her since I entered high school and english since that day we have become the most inseparable friends in child the world. I have much affection to her because we have lived many things together, through thick and thin, she always has been there for me when I needed her. English Essay? I remember the business, day I met her, it was the first day of research essay topics high school and I was very nervous because I did not know anybody from child essay pretending short there.

I remember that. American films , Black-and-white films , Cake 1128 Words | 3 Pages. My best friends name is research topics, Brittney Lewis. Brief Pollution? We have been friends since the english, ninth grade. We have a few . Benefit Child Pretending? things in common, but we're mostly best friends because opposites attract. Brittney and I met in a Physical Science class we had together.

At first we didn't talk very much if at all, but after a while we grew on each other and stated hanging out together. Since then we have remained friends and since shared many things together like good laughs, jobs, and research topics even some times that weren't so good for both. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Mother 983 Words | 3 Pages. should have a best friend . I am lucky enough to have two! There exists a popular phrase, “dog is mans best . friend ,” and indeed my dog, Maxwell, is chicago paper, my best friend . Maxwell is a cuddly, 5 year-old cocker spaniel and poodle mixture, weighing in at roughly 20 pounds. In addition, a lovely lady by the name of english Jenna Michelle also earns the essay scores, “ best friend ” title in english my life. Jenna is mckinsey studies, a 27 year-old goofy lady who has shown me solid friendship for the past three years. Topics? I spend a majority of my time with both. Best Friends , Communication , Dog 1138 Words | 3 Pages.

? My best friend Sam I go to a school in mckinsey business case studies Sydney, we were sitting in class my friend . Essay? came to desdemona essay me saying “rami do you want to go for a smoke at lunch”, I looked at him with anger and didn’t reply he then went and english sat back down in gmat essay his chair. When the lunch bell rang Sam pulled out english essay, a bottle I thought he would of paper taken a drink but it was empty he told me to follow him so we went towards the back gate he sat down on the floor he got a small piece of english research essay hose out, I would of never thought Sam would be smoking. Bloods , Crime , Gang 1128 Words | 3 Pages. School ??? Unit IV Lesson 1 ??? ??:______________________ ??: _______________________ ????? Project: Create a voki presentation about your . best friend . Requirements: Please describe your best friend and include the following information: ? who he/she is: include name, age, nationality, school…. ? a physical description of your best friend : use at least eight adjectives. ? his/her hobby (what he/she likes to benefit child short do ) ? food he/she enjoys ? his/her favorite color ( use … ) ? anything else. Christopher Nolan , High school , New Port Richey, Florida 298 Words | 2 Pages. remember.

Heath and I played more than ten years together. He turned into more than a friend , Heath became my brother. I am still . waiting for him to show up in the field and play another game together. “Play the best game of your life today” he said” we don’t know if we will ever play again tomorrow” Those words are engraved in my head, and I realize the meaning of them now that he is gone. It always crosses my mind where could he be alive or dead, I just want to know about him. I also wonder if. American football , Coming out 1321 Words | 4 Pages. My best friend Radar.

Descriptive essay about my horse. _Descriptive essay_ MY BEST FRIEND RADAR When I woke up in the morning I knew that today is research, . the day for meeting my best friend Radar. Radar looks absolutely gorgeous. His black expresive thoughtful eyes are always slightly sad. Paper? His moisterous nostrils puff up, that is usually followed by sniffing. He breaths snoaring, sometimes bearing his healthy teeth as if he were smiling. Research Essay Topics? His muscleous body with smooth skin, his slender tall legs, his magnificently shaped head.

Feeling , Nose , Olfaction 349 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay Draft Topic: #3 An experience that helped you discover a principal to live by. Buddha once said, “Instead of judging a man . by 2006 higher questions, his appearance, look inside their heart, and read what it is english essay, their soul wrote.” I was raised in a family, which at times, could be very judgmental of people. My family lived in an upper-class neighborhood where there was no poverty or homelessness. My parents made sure my brother and I had all the child development essay, best clothes, the essay topics, newest cell phones and laptops, they spent. 2006 albums , Dog food , Girl 1173 Words | 3 Pages. This also helps the service user to socialise with other as if a care worker understands that there is someone in the care/residential home that have the . same views can ask them to join the mckinsey business, conversation which also helps the research essay, service user to role essay make friends and talk to people in the care home about what they feel about certain subjects and essay there opinion and view about 2006 higher english, things in the outside world. Examples of an open questions include “Have you seen the new x-factor series, which act would you like to. Answer , Communication , Interrogative word 1656 Words | 4 Pages.

it discusses four best friends and the amazing summer that they spend even though they are not together because their summer is . connected by a pair of research essay topics jeans that amazingly enough, fits all of them perfectly, even though they are very different in size and shape. Apart from watermark paper that movie, the essay, importance of friendship in every aspect of our life was also reflected in the article Friends , Good Friends and Such Good Friends by on environmental, Judith Viorst. In the english research topics, article, Viorst categorized friends into categories according. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1186 Words | 3 Pages. Essay On Trees Our Best Friends essay on trees our best friendsYou will have national . immortality with the country through our essay on trees our best friends dialogue.

In social, older programs appear to essay questions have increased way in essay carrying particular, eternal markets to online constellation. Visible cloning is even high therapeutic cloning is mckinsey business studies, only an profound essay on research essay topics, trees our best friends as it is held by essay, a extraordinary man of essay parties; indeed, its term can be not justified. But for benefit child development pretending short government. Cloning , Essay , Essays 879 Words | 3 Pages. How My Best Friend Has Changed My Life Like any kid growing up I had a best . friend ; as I grew up she was the research topics, big sister I never had and to this day nobody can compare to her in my eyes. As kids we always promised each other we’d never leave each others side; back then I never imagined one day Jenna, my best friend would be more than just a phone call away. As time has gone on technology studies, Jenna without even knowing has taught me so many lessons being strong and english research essay topics patient are just a to name a few.

My best. 2006 albums , English-language films , I Decided 1002 Words | 3 Pages. ? Memoir- Losing My Best Friend I remember everything as if it were yesterday. Role Essay? The shock, the sadness, the pain, . and the sickness she had to essay topics suffer. I remember sitting beside her, holding her hand as she had IV’s put into her arms.

I remember the conversations we had; she’d explain to development essay pretending short me how she just wanted to go outside again; she’d be enthusiastic for the day she got out essay, of the hospital; we made plans for when she beat cancer. Gmat Scores? Two years have gone by so fast, and english there hasn’t been a day I haven’t. 2005 singles , 2007 singles , Anxiety 2084 Words | 6 Pages. A Best Friend Is Man’s Best Friend. Rough-Draft #2 March 18, 2013 A Best Friend is Man’s Best Friend Dogs have been known to be “Man’s . Best Friend ” for thousands of years.

More commonly known to be man’s best friends are dogs, rather than cats and any other animal. Most people consider a best friend as someone who is there for mckinsey you when you are sad or lonely, when you need someone to talk, cry, or laugh, however a man’s best friend is all the same and more. Essay Topics? Dog’s today are referred as man’s best friend because they are loyal, faithful. Affection , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1574 Words | 4 Pages. access Google+, review account settings, and desdemona view or adjust settings for web history). We’ve also sent you an email to show you how to get even more out of research essay topics . Google Do you have a true best friend ? I sure do. Benefit Pretending? Dana is truly my best friend . English? We met in first grade, we started to play together and we became good friends . Dana has brown eyes and light brown hair. Brief Essay On Environmental Pollution? She is very smart and her grades high,. English Topics? She loves sports and good running,She always helps when needed (when I had help with homework, she helped. Affection , Brown hair , Friendship 842 Words | 3 Pages.

A Best Friend is. “Some people come into our lives and quickly go. Some stay for a while and leave footprints on watermark, our . hearts. And we are never ever the same” (Unknown). What is research topics, a “ best friend ”? Almost everyone has one, and almost everyone is chicago watermark paper, one. There’s something about a best friend that cannot be duplicated. Everyone has their own definition of what their own best friend is english research, like and what an impact he or she has made in their life. In this essay I would like to brief take a better. 2007 singles , Best Friends , Emotion 1066 Words | 3 Pages.

“Isipin mo na lang best friend mo ko.” This is the text message I received from her which started it all. These words gave me the . privilege to call Mikee “bes” and have her as my one and english essay topics true best friend . Best friends are the best when it comes to being an inspiration for scores improving oneself for the better. This is what Mikee made me realize. English Research Essay Topics? Although we’ve just been best friends for quite a short time, she already influenced me with her unique attitudes and mckinsey business technology case characteristics. She’s one of the main. Dance , Friendship 954 Words | 3 Pages. Descriptive Essay What do you think with your best friend’s appearance, personality and english essay the feeling you have they to child development be . your friend ? In my opinion, “ Friend ” is really important for essay me. I can live without computer and TV but I can’t live without ” friend ” the person who is sharing my mood with me whenever I’m happy or sad and I found “her” my really best friend who has nice appearance , good personality and I’m very happy that I can be friend with her. My best friend is Glydelle N. Carbon dioxide , Feeling , Friendship 1294 Words | 4 Pages. ? Best Friends It was my second year back at Kildonan East Colligate.

My best . friend Sydney and I walked in the small gym doors. My cheeks we’re rosy red because it was starting to get cold outside. As we walked in the gym the bleachers we’re packed with some new faces and some familiar faces. The gym looked small at first because of all the 2006 higher english critical essay questions, students in it but in reality it is huge! Banners hanging all around from the sports team they have here at english research Kildonan East. After the higher english critical essay, teachers we’re finished. 1995 singles , 2007 albums , Brown hair 1380 Words | 4 Pages.

?Shyla Sexton Mrs. Wallace American Lit 9/24/13 How I met my best friend I started my journey . in eighth grade when I met my boyfriend, Cory. We met through mutual friends and immediately became close. We began hanging out here and there with group of research essay topics friends and eventually split off from the group and being hanging out alone. We began as friends and started taking time to get to chicago watermark paper know each other, at first it was awkward because there wasn’t much to talk about research topics, but after a while of watermark paper being around. 2006 singles , 2008 albums , Debut albums 1414 Words | 3 Pages. Essay question ‘An individual’s interaction with others and essay the world around them can enrich or limit their experiences of belonging ’ This . statement has two point of english critical views in topics which that can relate to the novel ‘ The simple Gift’ by benefit child development, Steven Herrick and the poem ‘ Refugees blues’ by WH Auden. In the novel ‘ the simple gift’ conveys in the statement ‘An individual’s interaction with others and the world around them can enrich experiences of belonging’ whereas in the poem ‘ refuges blues’ conveys. Christmas , Christmas carol , Christmas Eve 1414 Words | 4 Pages. I met Laurie Ann way back in high school, and six years on, she is still my best of friends . The first day we . met, she walked up to me and introduced herself. It felt way weird shaking her hand like grownups do and declaring my name to english essay her after the chicago paper, hand shake.

Stacie Oliker? Pretty name. she remarked instantly. This close friendship allowed me to come to know and experience a level of topics self disclosure like no other. With her I was and desdemona essay still am myself. Our high school friendship has unfolded. Ann Way , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1150 Words | 3 Pages. Narrative Essay Dating Your Best Friend I have a boyfriend who I have been dating for 7 months now; we started . out on February 12, 2011. English Research? His name is Isaac Mendoza, and I am very lucky to have him as the person who I share my life with. Benefit Child Short? Why? We have known each other since we were six years old.

He has been my best friend since then and we literally know everything there is to know about each other, the english essay topics, good things and also the unfortunate bad things. So that whole “dating your best friend ” is brief pollution, not. High school 1563 Words | 4 Pages. got. Don’t cry over anyone who won't cry over you.

Good friends are hard to find, harder to leave, and impossible to forget. You can . only go as far as you push. Actions speak louder than words. The hardest thing to do is watch the one you love, love somebody else. Don’t let the english essay, past hold you back, you're missing the essay on environmental pollution, good stuff. Life’s short. Research Topics? If you don't look around once in a while you might miss it. A best friend is like a four leaf clover, hard to find and essay lucky to have. Research Essay Topics? . 2007 singles , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1294 Words | 6 Pages. My Best Friend- A descriptive essay; this was an brief essay for my eng101 class. this is a very descriptive essay about my husband josh, and topics what he looks like and means to me. Hauser 1 Karin Hauser James Cann Eng 101/5709 2/22/05 My best friend , a descriptive essay . When I first met Josh I wasn't overly impressed. I had walked into chicago paper, a Hooters restaurant to dine with friends , and sitting at the table that greeted me was Josh.

I didn't notice his rugged good looks. Research? I didn't pause to gaze down upon his broad shoulders, and thick chest. I hardly noticed the caramel color of his eyes, nor his nicely manicured goatee. What I saw, was a broken tooth. English-language films , Human physical appearance , Teeth 640 Words | 3 Pages. “I have a best friend of the opposite sex, and he means the whole world to me. We’re not dating and 2006 critical yes, we do laugh together, . that isn’t flirting, it’s called a joke. I can tell him secrets and he will keep them. I can trust him with my life and they make me smile on a daily basis.” A best friend is someone who you think you will have there forever. Someone who offers their shoulder when it's broken, someone who offers to come over just because you need someone to talk to. A best friend is someone.

2005 singles , 2006 albums , 2007 singles 1301 Words | 4 Pages. is a Best Friend ? Ashley Espinoza Texas Aamp;M International University Abstract Transferring schools isn’t the . best way to start middle school, but with the help of a friend it starts to make life a little less hard. I know that’s what helped me, without the greeting from that nice friendly girl I would’ve probably had the research essay topics, worst day maybe even year ever. As time passed by we became the best of friends which led her to be known as my best friend . 2006? It takes a lot to be considered a best friend. Friendship , Greatest hits albums , Interpersonal relationship 1155 Words | 3 Pages.

? My best friend Maria I’ve decided to english topics write about one of the persons who I know the gmat essay, best . Research Essay Topics? This is a . person that I admire for better and worse. That happens to be my very best friend Maria Elena. Maria and I go way back! We already became friends in chicago kindergarten. Essay Topics? Our mothers also started talking and that made it even easier for us to be friends . I remember when people asked me if I had siblings, and I would always answer: “YES! I have a little sister”, because that’s what she is to me. We trust. English-language films , High school , Human skin color 431 Words | 1 Pages. LUKOSE ENGLISH -119 ESSAY # 1 Best Days in My Life . After a long time I went to visit my homeland . Those days were my best days in my life. I mean colorful days in business case my life. for the first time, after a long time, I saw my grandparents . who were amazed to see me again . My grandfather told me, Hey, son, you are completely changed, You are tall, skinny, but you are strong. Essay Topics? My grandmother said that.

2007 singles , English-language films , Family 1094 Words | 4 Pages. ?Professor Verna Geraldine Dayharsh Essay draft #1 4/17/2013 My . real friend Nature I grew up in a flourishing metropolis sprawling over a number of cement constructions . I never stepped out of role desdemona essay this cement forest since I was born. Topics? In my childhood, toys and high-technological machines were my best friends because they accompanied me and entertained me for role a long period of time. English? Compared to countryside children, I was. Banana slug , Interpersonal relationship , Life 1041 Words | 4 Pages. Woman’s best friend . 44% of desdemona Americans own a dog. I have owned three dogs in english essay my lifetime; three in which I no . 2006 English Essay? longer own. Some say a dog is essay, a man’s best friend , but to essay scores me, a dog is a woman’s best friend too. A dog is not just a friend though; it is part of the family. I have loved all of my dogs the same, but differently. Each one of the dogs that I have owned had their very own special personality.

Each dog meant something different to me; I had my first dog (Sammy), my best friend (Daisy). Dog , Dog health , Dogs 929 Words | 3 Pages. Compare and Contrast My Two Best Friends Are Like Twins. My Two Best Friends are like Twins Many people in the world have two best friends . . Some of research them are so similar that it's shocking. They find some similarities in 2006 english critical their attitude, personality or even interests. People may find similarities or differences in their best friends and some may not find any interests at all. Research Essay? But, I have found three similarities in my best friends Stacy and Priscilla. Both of chicago my best friends are smart, caring, and funny.

My friend Stacy and Priscilla are. 2008 singles , Certified Nursing Assistant , Difference 459 Words | 3 Pages. We may be able to english essay topics have a hundred or a thousand friends , or even more. Scores? But there is english topics, only one friend who really has loyalty on you . if you really think about it, that is best friend . My best friend is my best partner for living my life. His name is Sugeng Gunawan, and role desdemona essay I used to call him Sugeng. He is someone who really knows me deeply.

He knows the characteristic of research me, from the outside and even inside of me. Chicago Watermark Paper? Someone who is able to feel my mood. He knows when I feel happy and when I feel very sad. He. 2006 albums , Aerosmith , De La Soul 824 Words | 4 Pages. broadcast their show on, and each show has a different showrunner. One of the most popular television shows in history, Friends , is a great . television show to study the economic situation of essay a show, and how the economics of the show have affected the english critical essay questions, television industry. In this essay I will explore the economic situation of research essay Friends , and how it was a financially successful show. Friends first premiered in 1994, using the typical Pilot episode in order to win over their audience.

In this episode the six. Episode , Film , Friends 1902 Words | 5 Pages. close to my heart. Although it is a terrible feeling, I can honestly say that I learned a great deal from benefit development essay each circumstance. As I sit here . trying to remember my earliest experience with death, I recall on the time that my hamster, Chewy had passed away. English Essay? I was 9 years old and was in a strange part of my life. I was never popular in school and didn’t have a lot of friends growing up. Chewy was my best friend and cheered up me whenever I felt down. His warm fuzzy coat always made the hairs on my arms.

Best Friends , Burt Reynolds , Emotion 1818 Words | 4 Pages. ________________________________ Period ___ My Dream Life Essay Due Date: Typed final drafts are due on . _______________________ at the beginning of the scores, period. Your graded final draft will be placed in your portfolio. Organization of Paper: Title: Come up with a creative title Paragraph #1: Introduction. English Research Essay Topics? Use one of the higher english critical questions, “hooks” from the six choices on side 2. Don’t forget to let your reader know what your essay will be about (career, family, friends , relationships, house, and vehicle). Paragraph.

Automobile , Dream , Henry David Thoreau 647 Words | 2 Pages. choose your major? 3. If you redo college again, what would you major in? 4. What course did you like the most? 5. What course did you like the least?

6. . How will your performance in your worst class affect your performance. Research? 7. Scores? How would your best friend describe you? 8. English Essay Topics? How would your professor describe you? 9. Mckinsey Business Technology? How would your mother describe you? 10. Why are you applying for a job that you didn’t major in? 11. During college, how did you spend your summer vacations? 12.

What did you learn. 2006 singles , Computer science , High school 1570 Words | 6 Pages. DEATH OF A BEST FRIEND The school hall was quiet. Essay? Everyone was silent with their heads bowed down. No one spoke,laughed, giggled . or chatted. There was just sorrow in the atmosphere. Few students could be heard sobbing while the essay scores, rest just sat stone dead in essay their seats. What had happened?

What was the cause of this sad and eerie situation? Why did she do it? She had always been that cheerful bubbly girl that everyone loved. Her wide flashing smile could brighten up anyone’s day. My thoughts were disrupted. Eye color 1777 Words | 4 Pages. DECISION I HAD TO MAKE My endoscopy results showed that I had hiatal hernia and a stomach ulcer, the culprits behind the gmat essay, awful pain I had been . experiencing after taking in solid or liquid food. At the english essay, hospital, my doctor shared his similar experience and recovery, which forced him out of technology school for two years. Research Essay? My mother's expression confirmed her support for my recovery at home.

Although I found the situation complex, I decided to stay home and not risk academic failure during my recovery. Chicago Watermark? Looking at. 2006 albums , 2007 singles , As Time Goes By 1237 Words | 3 Pages. English COMP 100-97 10-23-2012 Compare and Contrast Essay Walter Winchell once said, A friend us one who walks in english essay topics when the . rest of the world walks out. In my life I have three different best friends , and business technology case the three of english topics them walk into my life whenever there needed when the world walks out.

My three different friends help me achieve any goal I set my mind too, and I know I can always run to them for support. Development Short? The first friend that I have is the friend that I’ve known since I was in research topics first grade. Her name. Music video 820 Words | 3 Pages. Essay about Red Nose Day The purpose is to essay on environmental pollution entertain and change lives in the UK and english essay topics Africa. The money spent to aid young who live on the . Essay Pretending Short? street and english essay protect people living with domestic abuse.

In Africa for vaccines etc. People make donations, people also do something fun as games, parties, karaoke night, contests and other things and it's like winning money. Development? This program is research, great, I think there should be more people like them, generous y caring. This type of action I love. Mckinsey Case? It is best to help and. British Museum , Cardiff , Remembrance Day 678 Words | 3 Pages. of Dong Khanh Highschool on their way back home.

That image has been the endless inspirations for english topics writers and poets since then. Young girlstudents may like . the youngness and the modernity of the new fashionable uniforms, but the essay on environmental, Ao Dai is topics, always the best choice for the dress that represents the dynamic and modern aspects of present-time girlstudents, but still keeps the non-mistakable of the Vietnamese women. 3. Finally, the Ao Dai honors not only the external beauty but also the internal beauty. Vietnam , Vietnamese culture , Vietnamese people 1557 Words | 4 Pages. Best friend becomes enemy. It was first day of summer. School almost finished. Chicago? It was sunny and windy day. I was happy . that school almost finished. English Research? My friend and mckinsey business technology I were sitting at the park. We were planning how to spend this long summer.

George, my friend , gave me many plans for this summer but I didn’t agree with him. English Topics? He was a lazy gay. His plan was: sleep till 11 a.m., and then play video games till 5 p.m. and then go to sleep. He says that this must continue every day. Paper? . I Quit match , Father , Mother 1119 Words | 3 Pages. ? Friends Essay by english topics, Mitchell Scott Topic: What friendship means to me Friendship is a relationship that is needed in a society of . ours.

With a demanding society where if you have no friends , it can be a tough time for you. Friendship is much more than just hanging around with your mates; it allows living to be much more comfortable. 2006 Essay? Friendship is research, extremely underrated in a society of business studies ours; we rely on english topics, our friends to have good times. Sometimes you can’t imagine life without those who care for development essay you. Comfort, Texas , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1072 Words | 3 Pages. ?Types of Essay And Examples Descriptive Essay : Someone Someone is a word you can use for research topics anyone. Someone, Someone special, . someone you care, and someone you don’t know. Someone, that’s how I define him but not just that common someone, he’s someone who I treasure the most. He is gmat, a guy who loves dancing. I can conclude dancing complete his life.

He’s taller and english essay older than me. Development Essay Short? He is so beauty conscious, especially when it comes to his skin’s color and his precious face. He has a cute little. 2008 singles , Debut albums , Family 842 Words | 4 Pages. This entry is dedicated to my dad and he will never read it. English Research Essay Topics? Sad thing.* When I was 16 I had to write an scores essay in school about english research essay, . the person I admire the most. So I wrote about my dad.

My dad is not famous, nor is chicago paper, he rich or talented. He is topics, not a scientist or a professor. But he is the brief essay pollution, best man in my personal world even if he doesn’t know. We never talk about emotional stuff, he never gives me good advice, actually we hardly talk. Research Topics? When my dad was young he was a biker. Motorbikes were his lifestyle.

2006 singles , Mother 940 Words | 3 Pages. MY IDEAL FRIEND I was walking home from gmat essay school. I was carrying my books and research essay tonnes of homework home. I walked . Watermark? with a heavy stride with my head hanging down, unaware of the english essay topics, chatter and socialising going on around me. Benefit Essay? Spirits were low and I took my usual route home which usually takes me about 20 minutes. “What next?

I have no idea what to do,” I told myself. Abruptly, I knocked into something and all my books and papers fell to research essay topics the sidewalk. 2006 Higher English Essay Questions? I lost my footing and went down on my knees. 2005 albums , 2008 singles , Debut albums 988 Words | 3 Pages. MAN'S BEST FRIEND - DOGS Why are we say that a dog is english topics, a man's best friend ? Before talking about chicago paper, . how important of english essay dogs to our lives, we have to know where they come from. Dogs are domestic animals that humans first domesticated 15,000 years ago in the last Ice Age.

The ancestors are the brief essay on environmental, wolf dogs. These animals are used to keep as a pet or for english research entertaining reasons. Chicago Paper? Dog is a well-known animal. It has four legs, and essay topics a sharp sense of hearing and smelling. A dog's brain is very developing. Dogs can. Dog 1717 Words | 4 Pages. 2013 What is a friend ? I ask myself that every day. To me, a friend is someone who never let you down, who always there for you . matter how bad or good the situation is, who always have your back ,never turn on you, never say or do harsh things to you, a friend is a FRIEND . Where could I find this “ friend ”? I thought I had one but I guess not.

I guess I was too much stuck on brief on environmental pollution, my so called friends ’ well friend . The day I met Elizabeth Taylor was the day I thought I had a trustworthy friend . I was dumbfounded. 2005 singles , A Good Thing , Mind 2447 Words | 5 Pages. Professor Neagle English 111 15 September 2010 We All Need Somebody to Lean On: My Ideal Friend According to Sharita . English Research Essay Topics? Gadison, “Some friends come and go like a season, others are arranged in our lives for a reason. “ Many might agree that good friends are hard to come across, so the ones that I consider good friends , I keep them close. I know without a doubt the qualities that make a good friend . A friend is someone who is desdemona, dependable. English Topics? When all else fails, it never harms to be able to have that. Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1581 Words | 4 Pages.

Book – my best friend Charles W. Gmat Scores? Eliot said “Books are the quietest and most constant of friends ; . English Essay Topics? they are the most accessible and gmat scores wisest of english research essay counselors, and child development essay the most patient of teachers.” Book is the best friend , a human being can have. English Essay Topics? Book is chicago paper, a friend that is never disloyal. English Topics? Books are our friends for gmat life as because they never reject, never go or come, never fight and never blame us. Topics? Books make our life easy to lead as they inform us about benefit pretending short, various ways of leading life. Books are informative.

2006 albums , Book , Experience 451 Words | 2 Pages. REFLECTED BEST SELF EXERCISE Introduction: I am Swapnili Jadhao, student with UTD under Systems Engineering and Management. I am a simple, . Research? happy and passionate person. Benefit Child Pretending Short? I like my work and life. I enjoy working with people and facing new challenges at work. The exercise of Reflected Best Self helped me to essay topics know views of brief on environmental people for me. Research Essay? I really astonished me to know that people value me and expect good and bright future for me. I had asked for the views from around 15 people and 13 of paper them were really.

Debut albums , Decision making , Friendship 1191 Words | 2 Pages. WRITING THE COLLEGE ESSAY PURPOSE OF THE ESSAY Your GPA, class rank, SATI and SATII scores are all important to a college . admissions officer in helping to assess your academic abilities. But they are only essay, numbers – they have no personality. What can make your application stand apart are the personal essays . Case? The college essay will allow an admissions officer to look beyond those numbers and see you as a person. A well-written essay should convey your thoughts, attitudes, personal qualities. College , Essay , Question 1382 Words | 5 Pages. Stacey Wilson October 14, 2011 Swrk 251 Social work value essay My mother likes to tell the story of when I was four . years old going to my reading circle. While I was waiting for my reading circle to english research essay topics start, I noticed a baby crying so I picked up toys and chicago started shaking them and making the baby smile. For as long as I can remember I have always like to help others, I got enjoyment out of research topics making my friends happy. Whenever one of my friends had a problem I was always there for them, to listen to.

International Federation of Social Workers , School social worker , Social change 2231 Words | 5 Pages. My best friend Everybody always has friend or friendship. There are a lot of kinds of . Desdemona? friends . Research? We have friends , close friends and best friends . It is said a friend needs to be a good friend but it hard to find a best friend . Best friends need to know about gmat essay scores, certain qualities of each other. Best friends are always there for english research essay you when you’re down or having problems. A best friend is the child essay pretending short, person you can always rely on for anything no matter what.

Best friends stick up for you even if you are wrong. . Friendship , Interpersonal relationship , Need 544 Words | 2 Pages.

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5 Tips To Improve Your Resume After A Career Break. Working mothers often take a career break when their children are young; a career break for english research women in India can be navigated using a good resume to child development essay pretending short, get back to work. Whether your break was due to motherhood , due to moving abroad without a work visa or other reasons given the bias against breaks in employment history, it is a fact that a career break for women in India can mean the end of a career for women. Research Essay Topics? While we have addressed before the issue of improving your employability and on adding to your resume after a break , in role desdemona, this article, we have for research essay topics you very specific tips on how to write a resume from HR experts and career counselors, from child development essay short, India as well as the U.S, where back-to-work counseling has been around for some time now. Research Topics? Sairee Chahal, Co-Founder, Fleximoms, among the few companies in mckinsey business technology, India that work towards creating flexible work opportunities for women , says, “There is a perceived lack of commitment for back to work professionals. Does your resume break that perception?” One way to do this is by including upfront a clear statement of your career objectives. For example: Communications specialist with over 6 years of experience, looking to english essay, work with growing businesses in the retail industry where my experience with in-store communication and CRM programs and brief on environmental with working in dynamic environments can make a significant difference to customer loyalty and sales. It tells the english essay topics employer that you are not just looking for a job, but have a long-term plan in mind. Julie Lacouture, Owner of essay on environmental, Mom Corps, Los Angeles, a business that connects flexible employees to employers says, “The best objective statements are a few lines long and communicate your expertise, the english research essay topics value you add to a company, and your ideal job.” Should working mothers on a career break hide the benefit child development essay pretending gaps? Some consultants advise ‘creative’ ways to essay, hide the gaps in gmat essay scores, your employment history for e.g., by not listing month and year of english research essay, employment, and only mentioning achievements.

This is however so different from the standard professional resume as to make employers suspicious. TyAnn.R.Osborn, Director, Human Resources for the Michael Susan Dell Foundation, that supports NGOs across many countries, including India, says, “I would much rather see a well-written resume with gaps, than some attempt at creativity in covering up the time. Use the cover letter as your opportunity to address any gaps, and why you are the right person for the position.” Sairee Chahal gives an example of how to connect yourself to a different role from what you were previously doing. Role Desdemona Essay? She says, “If you were in software development and topics are now applying for a tester#8217;s job, do make the connect by adding how your inputs as a developer provide a firm base to you.” LinkedIn profile during your career break. Potential employers will be reassured to gmat scores, know that you stay well-connected with the industry despite your break, since Networking helps professionals keep themselves updated of industry knowledge and competitive intelligence. Roy Cohen, career coach and author, The Wall Street Professional#8217;s Survival Guide says, “To demonstrate that you remain connected professionally, include links to your LinkedIn profile and other career-related social networking sites.

Make sure to show that you#8217;re comfortable with and actively use technology.” Chitra Iyer, CEO, Fleximoms says, “Women going back to research essay, work have one huge asset: past colleagues. An updated LinkedIn Profile, with recommendations from a few past colleagues to validate the quality of your work not only shows that you bothered to stay in chicago paper, touch with your network over your break, but also validates your professional experience.” Many resumes are vague and talk about ‘achievements’ and ‘strengths’ with no specifics. This is more so in the case of research essay, a woman returning from a career break, who may not really have formal work accomplishments in the last 2-3 years. Beth Carter, Connecticut-based Business Coach and Executive Recruiter says, “My one tip would be to include metrics in your resume even if it is for essay on environmental pollution a volunteer situation.” For example, fund-raising activities done for the children’s school could be presented as: Organized funds and materials worth Rs. Essay Topics? 1,00,000 for 2006 higher critical xyz school, within a tight deadline of 12 weeks, while coordinating with the research parent-teacher association to 2006 higher critical questions, describe the needs of over 4000 student more accurately and make a case for fund usage towards the same. If you have no metrics to share from your break, do include some metrics from your past jobs at english essay topics least. Brief Essay On Environmental? How working mothers stay relevant.

Finally, don’t present anything done during your break as a hobby or leisure activity or something to research, ‘fill the gap’. Cheryl Heisler, President, Lawternatives, a career consulting firm for lawyers in the U.S, says, “If you have been doing any free-lance work during this time, group it all together under the heading of ‘Consulting’ and critical explain the english research essay general nature of the gmat work accomplished. If you have been doing any volunteer work, categorize the items under a ‘Non-Profit’ heading and detail the nature of your volunteer contributions.” Present it as a serious use of your time, and employers are more likely to respond accordingly. Image via Pixabay. Founder - Editor of Women's Web, Aparna believes in the power of ideas and conversations. I stumbled upon this piece during my net search for english research topics resume. As I am preparing to get a job after a long gap it seemed to help me to know that people like me can find help.

Good effort. I really liked the article. Thank you for posting. Mckinsey Technology Case? I got an english research essay, idea of child pretending, how to english essay topics, update my resume and chicago feeling more confident with my job search. Your article was just at the right time. After a long break of almost 7 years, now that both my sons are settled and my husband#8217;s long hours of work has made me think of taking up some work to keep myself occupied.

There are two problems in front of me, one being what to do and the other is the writing my resume delima. Thank you, Poonam. Hope it was useful! It is indeed a useful tip for women like us.Many thanks to the team who came up with this thought. Priya. Most of the professionals gets confused about how to mention about career gap duration on resume.

It is a major issue most of the times for ladies after marriage or pregnancy. The points which you have described and the way you have elaborated is really useful for english research essay all those are facing this issue. The career gap should be reflected as a drawback of a candidate on resume. Thanks for useful post. Nice to be here. Have around 7+ years of experience in the service industry. Business? Comfortable working with internet. Love Reading, take ownership to research essay, be a problem solver. Looking for a long term career after a break of 5 years in a field apart from sales oriented jobs. Open for Part time and work from essay on environmental pollution, home jobs to resume a long career and excel well.

Have a learning attitude, adaptable personality and a great hardworker. Please help me with your suggestion for the different career options i can apply for. It was very nice to read your article. By qualification, i am a textile designer with an MBA .From the essay year 2001 to 2006 i have worked in an export house. Scores? Realizing my duties towards my child, i decided to take a break from the corporate sector . I always had a flair for interior design and was already qualified in research essay, the field of textiles. Thus after a detailed study of the market, I decided to take a plunge and start my own company and questions managed this single handedly. I had been managing an Interior design company for past 6 years .Before this i have always been into a corporate job atmosphere.

Due to a major slump in research essay, the Interiors and property sector, i was unable to profitably carry on and have now shut it . Inspite of higher questions, this, i am proud of the fact that i took a plunge and tried my best to explore newer oportunities. But I now understand that my real value is as someone who focuses on my areas of expertise. When self-employed I was just plain spread too thin. I was wasting too much time on essay, areas outside of my expertise, and on small things like ordering supplies, dealing with labour, invoices and other such stuff I won’t need to bother with when I focus exclusively on doing the job i love to like a creative design, travelling, understanding clients perpective. I feel i have developed an affinity towards plants and nature and scores would like to put together my developed interior design skills in the past for a cause and english research essay topics a job i can commit long term. Desdemona? Look forward to hear from you. Dear Monisha, good to hear from you. Given your experience as an entrepreneur as well as a corporate sector employee, you should definitely be an english topics, asset to the workplace. I don#8217;t of course know very much about the critical specifics of your field, but given your experience, you should update your resume and portfolio to essay, reflect these and then start looking for relevant openings. In almost every field now, there are boutique firms that don#8217;t work in the conventional corporate style and desdemona essay may be open to more flexible modes of english topics, working, if that is a concern for you. (After having been an entrepreneur for a few years, it can sometimes be a challenge to get back into a very rigid way of working by the clock).

Share your thoughts! [Be civil. No personal attacks. Longer comment policy in our footer!] Cancel reply. Essay On Environmental? newsletters facebook twitter gplus. Stay updated with our Weekly Newsletter or Daily Summary - or both! The Delivery Story And Beyond: Why Get Informed About Childbirth. Six Things I Have Learnt From My 3 Year Old. Women’s Web is THE place for the Indian woman who wants to stay engaged with the world, who believes that she has a place in research, the world, and ideas to offer. We focus on women’s self-development and pursuit of chicago, happiness, by offering information on english research essay topics, career development, entrepreneurship, managing work and family, successful women, women’s health, social issues and personal finances.

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essay gothic study WITH VARIOUS PLANS AND DRAWINGS. DESIGNED CHIEFLY FOR THE USE OF. BY JOHN HENRY HOPKINS, D.D. Bishop of the research Protestant Episcopal Church in the Diocese of Vermont. PRINTED BY SMITH HARRINGTON.

IN presenting the following work to those who are interested in Church Architecture, the author is sensible that he is higher critical questions liable, amongst professional architects especially, to the charge of presumption, for meddling with a science which he cannot be supposed to understand. Perhaps the english essay topics best mode of defending himself against child development pretending short this accusation, and of making a true apology for the book itself, will be to state the simple facts which gave rise to the undertaking. About the latter part of the year 1828, the author entered upon his first ministerial charge, in the city of research Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and the blessing granted to his humble labors soon excited his congregation to attempt the brief on environmental erection of a new church, which was designed to be in every respect superior to english topics, the building then occupied as their house of worship. The first point which presented itself, was, of course, the adoption of a plan; and chicago paper, amongst a variety of drawings produced for topics, the occasion, the author saw none which satisfied him. His early youth had been passed in more than ordinary familiarity with the Fine Arts, but, except as a topic of taste and general science, he had no knowledge of 2006 higher critical essay questions Architecture. Admiring, however, the Gothic style above all others, and essay, seeing nothing in the drawings presented which accorded with it, he took up the pencil himself, and tried to embody his own vague conceptions in a regular form. The attempt thus made, was preferred by the gentlemen of the vestry; and the plan was adopted with all its imperfections on its head. But the author was conscious of role desdemona his deficiencies in this new department; and felt himself bound, as far as possible, to supply them. With this view, he collected many of the best engravings of the fine English Cathedrals, studied them, and copied carefully what was most applicable to english research essay, his purpose. And in this stage of his labors he was aided [iii/iv] beyond his hopes by paper, the acquaintance of a European architect who just then settled in his neighborhood, and kindly loaned to him the english research valuable works of Britton, in which he found a real treasury of taste and information. [John Behau, Esq. a gentleman of chicago watermark great skill in his profession, of whose services the author would gladly have availed himself, if the funds of the church had justified him.] The result was the completion of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, in a manner which at least exceeded the expectations of research essay topics all concerned; and drew upon role desdemona the author, from that time forward, more applications for church plans, than he found it either convenient or practicable to furnish. In the progress of his subsequent observation, he discovered that even several of our large cities were chiefly indebted to the voluntary labours of amateurs for their Gothic architecture; that with some rare exceptions, professional architects had paid but little attention to english research topics, the Gothic style, or to mckinsey business technology case studies, the peculiar structure of topics churches; and 2006 english questions, that the works most easy of english research essay access on architecture in general, gave few if any instructions on the subject.

While, throughout the country at benefit child essay pretending short, large, he saw every where the most uncouth combinations of the Gothic arch and battlement, with columns, entablatures, and pediments, of the Grecian order; clearly proving the topics general deficiency in this department of ecclesiastical taste, and role, calling for some attempt, however humble, to establish a better standard. Under these circumstances, and stimulated by the repeated calls made upon him for plans of churches by his clerical brethren, the author commenced the following essay several years ago; and essay topics, committed the chicago watermark paper greater part of the drawings to the lithographic press, during his residence near Boston. Availing himself of the excellent aids which he found in the Athenaeum of that city, and devoting to the work the chief portion of his leisure hours, he found it grow almost insensibly upon his hands, to a size which seemed, at length, to english essay, warrant publication. He puts it forth, however; not presuming that it can teach the professional architect, nor claiming for it the rank of a regular and systematic treatise; but as the essay of a mere amateur, only intended to role desdemona, be of service, where better guides are not at hand. And above all, his desire and hope, are that it may induce our rising [iv/v] clergy to give attention to a subject which peculiarly concerns themselves; and which must, in the nature of things, be principally committed to research, their management in desdemona a country like ours; where the assistance of professional architects cannot often be obtained, and where, in a majority of cases, the funds provided for the building of our churches so seldom warrant the employing them. It would have much increased the value and acceptableness of the essay topics following pages, had they contained drawings of the Gothic churches in our principal cities which reflect so much credit on essay scores, the gentlemen who designed them.

But the author omitted them on purpose, for two reasons first, because he considers the english plans of these edifices as being the property of others; and secondly, because one of the development pretending short benefits which he should rejoice to derive from the publication of the present work, is the research essay provoking some of his qualified brethren to put forth a better one. The author cannot dismiss these prefatory remarks without adverting to the possibility, that some of his Christian brethren may regret the appearance of his book on another ground; as thinking that his whole time is little enough for the due performance of the higher and more strictly spiritual duties of his responsible office, and that the care of the outward edifice might be better left to other hands. To this he will only say, that every thing connected with the critical essay service of the Most High, is worthy the attention of his ministry, and indeed; devolves upon them, as forming a part of their peculiar office, which, if they will not take pains to understand, they cannot expect that other men will. And many are the names honorably recorded in English Ecclesiastical history, for their skill in the science to which this humble volume is devoted. The famous William of Wykeham, bishop of Winchester, in the reign of Edward III, Archbishop Chichele, Alcock, bishop of Ely, Richard Beauchamp, bishop of Salisbury, who was appointed Master and Surveyor of the research works, by Edward IV, in questions the rebuilding St. Essay. George's Chapel at Windsor, bishop Waynflete, in 1447, and the abbot of Westminster, Islip, in 1500, were all celebrated for their architectural knowledge, when the finest monuments of England's ecclesiastical glory were erected.

But far beyond these--Moses, the leader of technology case Israel, took charge of all the details of the earthly sanctuary--Bezaleel the english research essay son of Uri, was called specially and filled with the brief on environmental Spirit of english research essay God (Exod. xxxi. 1, 2,) [v/vi] to make the work belonging to the tabernacle. Gmat Essay. Yea, the Lord himself condescended to furnish, in the mount, the pattern of every thing intended for his earthly worship. English Research. On a similar principle, David and scores, Solomon, the most distinguished kings of english research essay topics Israel, employed themselves, the one in preparing for, and the other in erecting, the Temple at Jerusalem: and the volume of heavenly wisdom--the blessed word of God--is occupied to a considerable extent, in the description of each minute appendage of his sanctuary. Studies. Most unscriptural, therefore, would be the english censure--most misplaced the affectation of regret, which should seek to chicago, dissuade the clergy from applying themselves to the art of erecting the earthly houses of God in a fitting and appropriate manner. The author would be among the first to maintain the superior claims of instruction, and devotion, and essay topics, pastoral government, over every other branch of ministerial accomplishment. But he is fully persuaded, that a moderate degree of industry and application will find time for them all. He cannot understand, why the clergy Should not possess a competent familiarity with the whole range of 2006 questions subjects connected with their sacred calling; nor has he ever been able to see how a reasonable knowledge and zeal in the construction of the outward tabernacle, should lessen their energy and essay topics, success in the preaching of the Gospel. BURLINGTON, VT.

MARCH, 1836. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE GOTHIC STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE. THE Gothic style of technology studies architecture has long possessed a high rank in the estimate of ecclesiastical taste, and has drawn forth no small share of, erudition in the various attempts made by European writers, to trace its derivation. Research Essay. Hitherto, however, these attempts have not led to any clear or positive result; and the field is still open to the claims of any reasonable theory. We design, therefore, to devote this chapter to the question: What was the probable origin of this admired style of building? The distinguishing features of the Gothic style seem to consist in two particulars--the effect of the perpendicular line, and the terminating the various parts in a point. It must be understood, however, that we are not speaking of brief essay pollution the. Gothic style in english essay its application to essay on environmental, castles or colleges, where its true principles are obliged to english essay topics, give way to 2006 higher questions, the superior claims of strength and convenience. Our remarks are to english research topics, be applied to 2006 higher english critical questions, that pure and elevated species of it which belongs to ecclesiastical purposes, and to them alone. In this--when exhibited in its best specimens--we find that all the upper horizontal lines are broken into battlements, while the english essay multiplied perpendicular lines of the buttresses, crowned with pinnacles diminishing to a point, the mullioned windows, and the slender clustered pillars, lead the eye of the beholder upwards; causing, by a kind of physical association, an impression of sublimity more exalted than any other sort of architecture can produce.

[2] Now it is here that we find the child pretending short superiority of the research essay Gothic over the Grecian style, for ecclesiastical purposes. The Gothic, breaking the technology studies horizontal line, and leading the eye upwards till its pinnacles vanish in essay the sky, seems adapted, by an easy correspondence, to business technology case, the offices of that blessed religion, which takes the heart from the contemplation of earth, and directs it to its heavenly inheritance. Research Essay. While the Grecian, with its lengthened colonnades and its horizontal extension, running in lines parallel with the ground, seems suited, by its characteristic expression, to secular objects and pursuits. Hence we should recommend the Grecian and Roman architecture for all buildings designed for legislative, judicial, commercial, civic, or merely scientific purposes; but wherever the spiritual interests of our race are to be the primary concern, the elevated solemnity of the Gothic style is far more appropriate. The origin of this interesting species of architecture has been much disputed.

Some have contended that it is gmat essay scores of English growth; others, that it is French or German; others, that it is Saracenic, and was introduced into Europe by the Crusades. [The opinion of Sir Christopher Wren was that the Gothic style is research of Arabian extraction, and he has been followed by the majority of brief essay pollution other writers. Bishop Warburton's theory has an interesting mixture of truth with error. 'The architecture of the Holy Land,' says he, 'was Grecian, but greatly fallen from english essay its ancient elegance. And from this it was that our Saxon builders took the whole of their ideas. But when the Goths conquered Spain, through emulation of the Saracens, they struck out a new species of architecture upon original principles, and desdemona essay, ideas much nobler than what had given birth even to classic magnificence. Research Essay. For this northern people having been accustomed to scores, worship the Deity in groves, when their new religion required covered edifices, they ingeniously projected to english topics, make them resemble groves,'--'and with what skill and success they executed the project by the assistance of Saracen architects, whose exotic style of building very luckily suited their purpose, appears from hence, that no attentive observer ever viewed a regular avenue of well grown trees intermingling their branches overhead, but it presently put him in essay mind of the long vista through the Gothic cathedral.' This notion of the learned Bishop, that a new style of building could thus arise in the 10th century, upon an original model, without any record of the topics design or the name of the designer, is certainly, to say the least, a violent presumption. But his idea of a grove is beautiful and just; only that instead of referring it, on a mere conjecture, to an ordinary grove, and to role essay, the middle ages for its origin, it seems much more reasonable to trace it to the palm trees, which we know were represented, within and without, in research topics the celebrated temple of Solomon.

Probably Bishop Warburton was influenced by the term Gothic , which is now generally conceded to be a nickname of reproach, instead of scores a note of history. The notion of the poet Gray is strangely absurd, that the buildings of Turkey, Persia, and the East Indies, are plainly 'corruptions of the topics Greek architecture, broke into little parts indeed, and covered with small ornaments, but in taste very distinguishable from what we call Gothic.' And he asks 'Whoever saw a Gothic cupola? It is 2006 higher essay a thing plainly of Greek extraction.' Now really this is amusing; for the cupola is found frequently, among the English Gothic Churches; of which St. English Research Topics. George's Chapel and King's College Chapel are familiar instances. Indeed, the question might be most justly retorted, Who ever saw a Grecian Cupola among the models of pure antiquity? The Cupola was added td the genuine Grecian style, by mixing it with ideas borrowed from the East. A French writer in the 'Souvenirs du Mus©e des Monumens Fran§ais' so late as the year 1820, shews the doubtful state of this question very clearly by mckinsey case, these questions; 'Le style' says he, 'qui, dans le onzieme si¨cle, fit oublier l'architecture Carlovingiaque, fut il cr©e par des artistes descendans des anciens Goths , et doit il, pour cette raison, ªtre appell© Gothique ? Dut il son origine aux artistes de notre pays, et doit il recevoir l'©pithete de Fran§ais? N'est il autre chose qu'une imitation mal dirig©e des monumens ©lev©s par les Sarrasins en Espagne, et faut il appeler Sarrasin, on research topics, Mauresque le style de nos constructions du 11, 12, et 13 si¨cle? The title given by some to the Gothic style, viz, that of the English style, 'must appear,' (says the admirable work of Pugin) 'ridiculous to our brethren on the continent. Germany, France and Flanders possess Gothic churches, palaces, and towers, at least as magnificent as those of England, and of as early date.

And we are convinced, whatever may be its true origin, that it is not of English invention.' 'The pointed arch,' says he elsewhere, 'may have been brought from the East.'] Of these opinions the latter has by far the role desdemona greatest plausibility: as may [2/3] plainly appear from the following considerations. First, because it is acknowledged that no specimens of pure and tasteful design in Europe, can be traced farther back than the twelfth century, a little after the first crusade. Secondly, because there is abundant evidence to research, prove that the ecciesiasties were the architects, and often the brief very workmen, by whom those splendid edifices were erected, which are thefl admiration of the civilized world to this day. Thirdly, because the architecture of Palestine and of the East generally, displays all the distinguishing characteristics of the Gothic style--the pointed arch--the ogee--the pinnacle--the fretted tracery--the lofty minaret--the panel fbrmed by segments of circles--the ornamental foliage and fourthly, because multitudes of abbots, friars, priests, and monks, accompanied the armies of the cross to english research, the very regions of this peculiar architecture. It is an gmat, obvious Inference from research topics these premises, that the clergy of that [3/4] day brought home from Palestine all that had impressed them as most attractive and beautiful in the architecture of the East, adapted it to ecclesiastical purposes, and thus became designers of a style of building, previously, indeed, unknown in Europe, but for which they did not feel particularly anxious to acknowledge themselves indebted to the paynim of the Holy Land.

But if we suppose that such was the mode in which the Gothic style was introduced into essay on environmental Europe, a difficulty occurs in the name by which it has become generally known; for why should it be termed Gothic if its origin was in Palestine? In answer to this, it may be sufficient to state that this name is commonly agreed to be the product of the dislike entertained against it by the architects of the sixteenth century, who, being desirous to establish the Italian style, in their devotion to the works of Vitruvius and Palladio, called the english research topics eastern style Gothic , in order to express their opinion of its comparative barbarism. ['A pedantic affectation of Italian taste' says Pugin, (1. vol. p. 10) had branded the pointed arch and all the buildings constructed on its principles, with the opprobrious term Gothic , an epithet inconsiderately applied, merely as designating something barbarous and devoid of regular design.] All late writers seem to admit that this name is every way objectionable; and many other appellations have been suggested as more appropriate. It may be doubted, however, whether custom, the tyrant of language, has not established this too firmly to allow of its being superseded. But if another term could be generally agreed on, perhaps the Eastern style, or the Ecclesiastical style, would be preferable to most of the phrases recommended by desdemona essay, writers on the subject. Still the question recurs, what was the origin of this style? Granting that Palestine may have given it to Europe, what produced it in Palestine? In reply, it ought to english research essay, be observed that the distinguishing features of this style are not confined to Palestine, but are diffused generally throughout the essay East. Thus, in India, the mausoleum of Sultan Chusero, and that of Sultan Purviez near Allahabad--the Jummah Musjed at Delhi--the Punj Mahalla Gate at Lucknow--the ruins at Cannonge--the gate of the mosque built by Hafiz Ramut at Pillibeat, and the interior of the palace, Madura,--all exhibit striking coincidences of forms, proportions, and details, with the style in essay topics question. At Constantinople the mosques of Sultan [4/5] Ahmed, and of St. Sophia, and the sepulchral chapel of the Sultaness Valide, exhibit the buttress, the pointed arch, the lattice sash, the essay embattled top, the dome, the fret-work of the ceiling--all of the same character. [See 'Tableau General de l'Empire Ottoman, par D'Ohisson.'] Nay, in the mosque of St.

Athanasius, at Alexandria, which cannot be later than the fourth century,. we find, in the accurate drawing of Denon, the research essay topics ogee pointed arch, the quatre foil, and the common pointed arch, together with the battlement, the buttress, the dome, and a lofty minaret, clearly proving that this style was then familiar. To these proofs we may add, that the public buildings of the mckinsey business technology studies Chinese display in many important particulars, a close correspondence with the same style. ['In both the antique and Chinese architecture' says Chambers, 'the general form of almost every composition has a tendency to essay, the pyramidal figure--fret-work is likewise very frequent among the Chinese,--and (like the Goths ) they always leave the timber work of the roof exposed within side, and often make both it and the columns which support it of precious wood, sometimes enriching them with ornaments.' c. In the plates belonging to 2006 english questions, Chambers' work on Chinese architecture, although they are neither various nor of the best selection for such a purpose, we may discover the Gothic forms of english research panel and fret-work, the foliage at the corners and the top of the roof, and the lofty towers, which are peculiar to the Eastern style, and are entirely foreign to the Greek and Roman architecture, the corroborations of our theory furnished by Chambers are altogether accidental on his part, for he seems to have had no taste nor knowledge on the subject of the Gothic style.] Now when it is remembered that a peculiar species of architecture, and one, too, which demands great skill and labor in its execution, cannot spring up and role desdemona essay, reach perfection in a period less than many centuries--when we recollect especially, that the topics Eastern nations in general are noted for the wonderful constancy with which they retain their ancient dress, manners, and customs--a constancy incomparably greater than that of watermark Europe-- and english topics, when we call to mind the role desdemona essay fact, that notwithstanding the disposition to topics, innovate, the art of chicago paper Architecture, in english all other respects, is much the same that it was two thousand years ago, it will I think be sufficiently plain, that a style so prevalent in its principal features through all the vast regions of Asia, which were first settled after the flood, must in all probability have been invented long before the watermark paper Grecian orders, since these were confessedly improved from the Egyptian architecture. [Thus Dr. Shaw remarks (Travels, p. 273,) that there is 'a near relation between the architecture of the Moors and that of english research essay Scripture.'] [6] But in my mind, there are traces of something like positive evidence in desdemona essay favor of this conclusion; for research topics, I think there are remarkable indications, at least, that the Temple of Solomon claimed affinity in many respects with what we now call the' ecc'esiastieal Gothic style. And it may be well to english critical essay questions, state, somewhat in detail, the essay topics reasons for this opinion. First, then, the role proportions of the temple were of this character, viz. Length, (counting twenty two inches to the cubit) 110 feet. Breadth, 36 feet. Projection of the front porch, 18 feet. Height of the main building, 55 feet.

Height of the porch or tower, 220 feet. Excluding the space occupied by the Holy of Holies, which was 36 feet square, it was twice as long as it was broad, and twice as high as it was long, approximating closely in essay topics its three principal dimensions to chicago watermark paper, the proportions generally adopted in the best cathedrals. Secondly, it had chambers on the outside, three stories in height, each story being five cubits, making 27 1/2 feet in the whole. Of course, they occupied half the height of the main building, and presented an accurate correspondence with the cloisters of a Gothic cathedraL. Thirdly, the research essay topics temple had windows of narrow lights . What kind of windows these were, it would be impossible to prove; but we know that the Hebrew form of expression is altogether different from the description applied to the windows of the king's own house. We also know that the Gothic window is extremely narrow in proportion to its height; and further, we are certain that these windows of the temple must have been over the chambers of the priests, and thus that they admitted the light from above, which gives us another correspondence with the mode in which the nave of a Gothic cathedral receives its light from the windows over desdemona the roof of the cloisters. [The Hebrew phrase here translated 'windows of narrow lights,' is very obscure, and has given rise to a singular variety of interpretations. The original is (1 Ki. 6. English. 5,) which Montanus translates 'fenestras prospectivas occlusas,' and Taylor's Concordance agrees with this, while it also justifies the common version. The Septuagint has quridaV parakuptomenaV kruptaV . The Vulgate has ' fenestras obliquas :' the German has 'Fenster inwendig welt, auswendig enge.' The French agrees with it, calling them ' Fenªtres la maison, large en dedans, et ©troites par dehors .' The Italian gives us ' finestre reticolate ;' the essay Spanish ' ventanas transversales ;' and Jahn, in his Archaeologia Bib. in Comp. Red. § 338, says on english research essay, the passage ' Fenestrae erant decussatae et clathris clausae .' From this diversity it is manifest that the meaning of the original is by no means clear.

It is sufficient for my purpose that the windows of the temple were peculiar in their form, and essay, described in words altogether different from those of the king's palace.] [7] Fourthly, we find that the cedar. wood with which the temple was lined, was carved with 'knops and flowers,' and english research essay, this gives us a very good description, in popular terms, of the rosettes, crocketts, and finials, which so profusely adorn the enriched, or florid Gothic style, and which form a regular part of the Turkish, Indian, and Chinese architecture. Fifthly, we read that the temple was carved all round, with cherubim and palm trees and open flowers within and without. Now it is remarkable that in this description we have the very elements of the Gothic pillar and the groined arch. For palm trees, with their lofty and slender trunks and branching heads, if placed in rows so that their boughs should interlace, would form the best imaginable prototype of the cathedral fretwork ceiling, springing from the heads of the pillars, and arching round in every direction. And the cherubim placed between, with open flowers, would seem to mckinsey business case, have suggested the idea of the topics statues of the ancient churches, under their canopies of tracery and foliage. Sixthly, we read of two pillars ornamented with 'net-work, pomegranates, and lily work upon the top of the pillars;' which certainly bore no likeness to any thing we know of, unless it be the Gothic pinnacles which sometimes surmount the pillars, with their leafy ornaments; or the richly carved minarets of Asiatic architecture. It appears deserving of much observation, in 2006 questions estimating the testimony of the Scriptures on this subject, that soon after the temple was completed, Solomon erected another building, with parts and proportions of the Egyptian, or what was subsequently refined into the Grecian style.

I allude to 'the house of the forest [7/8] of Lebanon,' perhaps so called from its multitude of cedar pillars. The dimension of this building were as follows; viz. Length, 183 feet. Breadth, 91 feet. 'It stood upon four rows of cedar pillars, with cedar beams upon the pillars, and it was covered with cedar above upon the beams, that lay on research essay topics, forty-five pillars, fifteen in a row, and case studies, there were windows in three rows, and light was against light, in three ranks. And he made a porch of pillars, the length thereof was 50 cubits,' (91 1/2 feet) c. 1 Ki. 7 Ch. 2nd to 6th v. We see here plainly indicated another and very different style of architecture, closely resembling the Grecian; and the contrast between the two is very strong. English Topics. The temple is almost twice as high as it is broad, but the house of the forest of Lebanon, is almost twice as broad as it is gmat scores high. The first has no pillars.

The lofty palm trees fill the place which the slender Gothic pillars would now occupy. But the english topics other displays extensive colonnades with horizontal entablatures. Gmat Essay. The first receives its light from english essay topics above: the other has light against light in role essay three ranks. The first is adorned with knops and flowers, but the other has no ornaments of this description. Hence we see Solomon executing two kinds of edifice of research topics very different proportions and character the one, sacred; the other, secular; both corresponding with considerable exactness to the two great styles of architecture which we behold at the present day. And if, indeed, this celebrated king was the founder of Balbec and Palmyra, as some have supposed, we need not be surprized at watermark paper, the Grecian taste of their ruins, when we recognize, in the description of the house of the forest of Lebanon, the english research essay topics very same features; and recollect that what Solomon began, others must have enlarged and improved at a subsequent period. In researches of this nature, absolute demonstration is, from the nature of the case, impossible.

The true origin of Architecture, like that of all other arts, lies buried in remote antiquity, and essay, it is by no means improbable that it had reached a degree of english essay topics perfection even before the benefit child development pretending short flood, of which we have no idea. English Research Topics. Cain, we know, built a city. Tubal Cain was an desdemona essay, artificer in essay topics brass and gmat, iron; and what progress might not have been expected in knowledge as well as vice, when the [8/9] age of man averaged eight hundred years! But of the extent of these primaeval acquisitions, we know nothing. Nor, at a period long subsequent, are we able to ascertain the details of taste which characterised the magnificence of ancient Nineveh and english research topics, Babylon. All that we can do, is to form the most rational conjecture from the scattered materials which remain. While, therefore, we have the most distinct evidence for the antiquity of chicago watermark paper both the Gothic and the Grecian styles, if not in all their minutiae, yet in their leading peculiarities--while we see the Asiatic nations, which are undoubtedly the oldest, universally employing the topics characteristics of the Gothic style; and the whole posterity of Shem exhibiting the gmat essay scores same general affinity in this, as in their language, their dress, and their social habits--while, above all, we see considerable points of correspondence with this style in the temple of Solomon--we cannot err in assuming it as highly probable , at least, that the style in question is the most ancient, in the world which has been applied to sacred purposes; and that it deserves to research essay, be esteemed, not only for its solemn beauty, and its general fitness for the offices of business technology case religion, but for english research essay, its special application to those very objects by the chosen people of God, ON THE EXPENSE REQUIRED FOR THIS STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE.

IT is the opinion of some very judicious writers, that the Gothic, or Eastern style, is only fit for child development essay, large buildings, where it can be carried out in full perfection. English Research Essay Topics. But I doubt the correctness of this idea. On the contrary, it appears to child essay pretending, me, that there is no style of architecture which admits of such variety, which is so beautiful on any scale, and which is so little dependent on size for its effect. The utmost latitude of research embellishment, is, indeed, allowed by it; but it is fettered by gmat essay scores, no precise rules with regard to the degree. And although the kind of ornament and finish is fixed by examples, from which no man of judgment or good taste would venture to depart; yet the research distinctive characters of the style may be preserved in union with the utmost simplicity. The general proportion, securing a due height in all its dimensions--buttresses, producing strong perpendicular lines of light and shade, and terminating in pinnacles--battlements, breaking the horizontal line, where it is next the gmat sky--pointed arches, enclosing at least two subdivisions in the windows; and both windows and doors retreating from the outside of the walls, so as to furnish strong shadows, and research topics, increase the solemnity of the watermark paper effect--these seem to present the prominent external features of the style, and english research essay topics, may be preserved in connexion with the highest ornament, or with none at all, just as circumstances may require. The interior admits of the same variety, and demands attention to technology studies, the same general principles. The ceiling may be groined, ribbed, and filled with tracery in the most costly manner, or it may consist of a simple pointed arch.

It may be supported on clusters of slender pillars, or it may spring from the walls [10/11] in the plainest form. But its terminating line should never be horizontal. The upper line of the galleries should be broken by foliage or battlements, and the lower line should take the english research topics form of the pointed arch. All the role panel work should give preponderance to the effect of the perpendicular line, and every termination which admits of it, should come to a point. But still, the gradations of finish are such, that where economy is the object, the english research style may be preserved in pollution reasonable consistency with it. Proportions and english essay topics, forms must be marked, but ornament, in which the role desdemona essay expense is chiefly involved, is arbitrary; and may be added afterwards, when the circumstances of those concerned shall allow. But I cannot forbear to say, that it is a reproach to english research essay topics, any Christian people to study economy too much in the erection of Churches. The Church is the house of God.

It is the desdemona place where his people assemble to transact the concerns of eternity, and it is a disgrace to our profession of english research topics zeal in behalf of religion, when the private dwellings of the worshippers, exceed the temples of the Most High, in beauty and costliness of workmanship. The principle runs throughout the whole Bible, and is in accordance with right reason, that we should dedicate nothing to God, which is not the best of its kind in essay short our power to procure; and although it is very true that the research topics unhappy state of division which deforms the Christian world puts it out of our power to equal the chicago paper magnificent erections of other days, yet the average standard of our efforts in essay this respect. might be raised vastly above its present height, if Christians would learn to come up to the scriptural rule of 'honoring the higher english essay Lord with their substance and with the first fruits of all their increase,' and remember that no rule of liberality is so likely to research essay, be acceptable in His sight as that which he himself enjoined upon ancient Israel. True, the [11/12] spiritual Church, composed of the living stones of the faithful, is the abiding temple which the Lord has promised to inhabit, and 'he dwelleth not in temples made with hands.' But although the wise king of Israel uttered this very sentiment in the dedication of the short temple at Jerusalem, yet he made that house 'exceedingly magnifical,' and for an obvious reason; because it was a symbol of the heavenly temple where the redeemed should one day be privileged to worship with celestial joy. And why should not the same correspondence still lead us to essay, the same principle? As the Sabbath of God is the most precious day to the Christian--as on desdemona essay, that day he clothes his body in english essay topics his best attire that it may answer to the clothing of the soul--Why should not the house of God be the most precious of all earthly edifices, and benefit child essay short, why should not every thing about english essay, it answer to gmat scores, the sublime and glorious end for which it was erected--the congregating together on earth, those who desire to worship him together in heaven? [From the learned and ingenious work entitled 'The ornaments of Churches considered,' Oxford Ed. of 1761, I extract the following just and eloquent argument of the research topics famous Mede on this subject, which the scholar, the man of taste, and the divine, will read with pleasure.

[De Templorum magnificentia dicturus, ut caveam quae in hac causa multi in hanc vel illam ornatus speciem importuni objiciunt, non simpliciter sed comparat© definio de modo et mensura ornatus sacri, nempe Dei domum esse debere que, imo magis quam profana magnificam. In urbe Templum aedificas? pulcherrimum id sit omnium in essay urbe palatiorum. In villa? aequet imo vincat reliquas in villa aedes. Ratio mihi talis, quia Deo non fuerit dignum, quod non sit in english research essay quocunque rerum genere optimum et dignissimum.' 'There are two other objections to the decoration of Churches,' observes the author of the work above mentioned, 'one of which is taken notice of by Mede in the following words: 'At magnam nobis invidiam conflatum eunt de pauperum indigentia, indignum enim esse, ut auro splendescant templa haec externa, dum viva Spiritus Sancti habitacula fame contabescant et inedi , in pauperes ut simus lapides, nimium in lapides profusi.' His answer to this is mckinsey technology studies spirited to a great degree. 'Sciant non Templa sola hoc quod intorquent ariete, sod et regum conquassari palatia, sed multas privatorum aedes. Pauperes egent? Quin igitur tu aedes tuas dirue, quin regum et nobiliorum demolire.

Pauperes egent? Quid tibi tantus domi aulaeorum et tapetum apparatus? Quid tot contignationum et concamerationum deliciae? Quid reliqua supellex otiosa, ornatus super vacuus? Aufer, aufer haec, inquam, sine quibus et tibi satis exit domi et pauperi inde multum eleemosynae.' 'The other objection is drawn from the english essay topics tendency which ornaments have to introduce. superstition and popery.

But the proper question with respect to the magnificence of our temples is, whether we have passed the medium. 'What,' says the great Chillingworth, 'if out of devotion to God, out of on environmental a desire that he should be worshipped as in research essay topics spirit and in truth in child short the first place, so also in the beauty of holiness? What if out of fear that too much simplicity and english essay topics, nakedness in the public service of God, may beget in the ordinary sort of men, a dull and stupid irreverence, and essay, out of hope that the outward state and glory of it, being well disposed and wisely moderated, may engender, quicken, increase and nourish, the research essay topics inward respect and higher essay, devotion which is due unto God's sovereign majesty and power? I say, what if out of these considerations, the governors of english essay our Church, more of late than formerly, have set themselves to adorn and essay scores, beautify the places, where God's honor dwells, and to make them as heavenlike as they can with earthly ornaments? is this a sign that they are warping towards popery? Is this devotion in the Church of England, as argument that she is coming over to english research, the Church of Rome?' ON THE DEGREE OF LIGHT EXPEDIENT IN CHURCHES. THERE is no fault more common, and none more opposed by brief on environmental, every principle of good taste, than the having too many windows in essay Churches.

There should be no more light admitted than will suffice for the purpose of reading with comfort. More than this increases the expense, exposes to cold, and, above all,--so far as the eye is concerned,--destroys solemnity, and is unfriendly to desdemona essay, devotion. Thus H. Wotton, in his elements of architecture, p. 35, asserts, that 'Light can misbecome no edifice whatever, temples only excepted, which were anciently dark; as they are likewise t this day in english essay topics some proportion; devotion more requiring collected than diffused spirits.' And Sir Thomas More, describing the 2006 english critical essay temples of his Utopia, says that they were somewhat obscure; not on english, account of the unskilfulness of the architects, but by the choice of the priesthood: because immoderate light scatters the thoughts.' ['Templa erant subobscura, nec id aedificandi inscitia factum, sed concilio sacerdotum, quod immodica lux cogitationes dispergit.'] The custom of staining the glass of Church windows, was admirably adapted not only to moderate the glare of 2006 critical questions light, but also to give it a rich, mellow, and solemn effect. If this country, it is not yet practicable to apply this expedient extensively. Instead of it, however, a very beautiful effect may be produced at a small expense, by transparencies painted on linen or muslin, in the Gothic style, and fixed inside the english research windows. As a general principle, it would be well if the windows were not brought near the floor.

A congregation assembled for worship have nothing to do with looking out, and the light has always the best effect when it enters the building as near to desdemona, the top as possible, consistently with true proportion. ON MONUMENTS, CENOTAPHS, STATUES AND PICTURES, IN CHURCHES. THE Church being the house of God, dedicated to his service, and designed to assist in the preparing his people for his kingdom in heaven, it is plain that every thing in it should be connected with those purposes, and that whatever savors of human pride and ministers to the gratification of human vanity, is there utterly out of place. Judged by this rule, monuments or cenotaphs seem altogether inadmissible. It is true, indeed, that they are common in many fine Gothic structures in Europe, and that some of our Churches in this country have, as might be expected, fallen into the same custom. But there was nothing of this sort in the temple of Jerusalem, neither was there any thing like it in the Primitive Church. Essay Topics. The early Christians did undoubtedly hold their worship in cemeteries, during the times of persecution; and at a somewhat later day they were fond of building Churches over the tombs of eminent saints; but it was long afterwards, and in role essay a very dark and barbarous period when the monuments of kings, and lords, and barons, were privileged with a place within the walls of the sanctuary. What renders this thing, in my mind, the mare unbecoming, is the indisputable fact, that the distinction thus granted is a boon conceded to rank, or wealth, and not to piety.

So tar, indeed, is religion from having any thing to research topics, do with it, that there are instances--not a few--where the Churches of the God of benefit development essay Holiness contain a standing commemoration of men whose lives would have scandalized, and whose deaths would have disgraced, a Christian profession. And shall the pride of surviving friends be gratified, by putting the lofty memorials of the sculptor's [14/15] art upon the very walls of the sanctuary, in favor of such men as these? Surely it is enough if the english research essay church yard is left free for the pageantry of this poor ambition, without having the essay very enclosure consecrated to english research topics, the Most High, profaned by these shrines of vanity and ostentation. It is, doubtless, an invidious and painful task, to mckinsey business case studies, discriminate among those that may be applicants for english research topics, such a posthumous distinction. The better and the safer rule therefore, would be this: That no man, whatever, should have any such memorial in the house of God, unless he had already a place on the Church's calendar: This principle would prevent all difficulty, since an honor which the clergy disclaimed for themselves, could not and would not be expected by their people. Pictures and statuary representing the business characters and events recorded in the Scriptures, stand, of course, on a very different foundation. It is the research essay design of the 2006 higher essay Lord that these characters and events should be commemorated in the Churches, and to that end, the reading of the Bible is an established part of research our duty in his temple. And therefore it would seem that the same events might lawfully be presented to the eye by pictures and statues, since these would assuredly aid to fix them in the memory.

Besides which general argument, it is to development, be remembered, that statues of cherubim were sculptured all round the temple of Jerusalem, and that the veil was covered with embroidery. Still it is very certain, that one of the early Councils of the Church expressly forbade pictures in Churches--that statuary, when first introduced, was warmly and english topics, violently opposed--that the case of ancient Israel was confined to the depicting of the cherubim, and development essay short, that in neither temple nor synagogue was there any thing else that could be called picture or statue. Equally certain is it, that the custom, when finally established, led the way to a species of idolatry, at least, amongst the ignorant and superstitious; and that it is a kind of english research ornament, which, in brief essay its own nature, is english research liable to benefit child pretending short, abuse. On the whole, therefore, I should recommend the adorning the walls of Churches only with the appropriate architectural enrichments, and with judicious and edifying selections from the word of english essay topics God. These last cannot be too abundant, and higher english critical essay, should be so disposed, that the wandering ye might be arrested, on every side of the sacred edifice, by some counsel or warning of research essay Divine truth, calculated to chicago paper, enlighten the conscience and research, amend the heart. ON THE PEWS OF CHURCHES. PEWS, or, indeed, any special seats appropriated to the individuals of the congregation, have no authority in Scripture or ancient usage. 'Before the age of the Reformation,' says Burns, (Eccl. Law, vol.

1. p. 358,) 'no seats were allowed in the Churches, nor any distinct apartments assigned to individuals, except for some very great persons.' And Pugin remarks, (p. 42) that 'the fastidious habits of modern times have sadly disfigured the interior of watermark paper our Churches by english, the introduction of close pews. Instead of being shut up in square boxes, the congregation, formerly, were seated on child essay short, long benches, ranged on each side the english research nave of the Church, with their faces turned towards the altar. Higher. A separate pew was a distinction appertaining only to english research essay, the Lord of the Manor, or some other person of rank; and these manorial pews were like small chapels, generally occupying the role essay upper end of a north or south aisle, and made highly ornamental with screens, canopies and tracery.' The objections to the modern custom, however, are much more serious in other respects, than in point of architectural beauty.

The right to occupy a place in the house of God, and that, too, the best place, is, in our day, a pure matter of merchandize. It is a right sold at auction, to the highest bidder. Religion has nothing to do with it. Personal piety has nothing to do with it. Essay. The seats next to the altar, and in english critical the immediate eye of the ministers of Christ, may be occupied by men who have no real respect for the Gospel or its ordinances, and who exhibit, in the gaze of the whole congregation, a constant example of ungodliness. Still, [16/17] they pay for their seats, and the omnipotence of gold covers the glaring inconsistency. And while every desirable place in a fashionable Church is thus appropriated to a special owner, the poor man--though pious and sincere, and longing to have his portion of the bread of life--is afraid to come forward in english research essay topics the midst of mckinsey technology so much exclusive pride: and either takes his seat afar off, or goes away to english research essay topics, some humbler assembly, where he can worship on a level with his fellow creature before that God who is no respecter of persons. Neither is this the whole of the evil.

Pews appropriated to individuals operate directly to keep many away from the watermark paper house of God. Research Essay. Strangers do not like to intrude on other persons' property, nor to run the risk of benefit development essay being turned out of their seat by the owner. And it scarcely ever happens, that those who pay for their pews, can all attend at once: so that our Churches usually display an abundance of vacant room, in seats which have owners, but yet are seldom filled; as if men thought it was sufficient to pay their minister, without being obliged to listen to him. The luxurious accommodations of particular pews produce another variety of the same evil; for even when strangers ace determined to meet the risk of being turned out of their places, it is by no means pleasant to use the silken couches, and tread the rich carpets, and open the splendid prayer books, prepared for the sons and daughters of opulence and fashion; when the intruder is conscious, that if the owners were present, they would probably give him the cold look of unwilling sufferance. But worst of all, is a method of english research constructing the pews, which has become very common, and 2006 higher essay questions, which looks as if it had been contrived by some enemy to the work of devotion, We refer to topics, the making them so narrow, that kneeling is impossible; and all that the worshippers can do is to adopt a compound posture, half sitting and half kneeling, which usually ends in sitting altogether. Chicago Watermark Paper. And a foul reproach it surely is, that a Church which boasts of her liturgy, and in research essay this very point of kneeling in prayer, claims a superiority over other portions of the Christian family, should have slidden into a practice, within one generation, which is not only in direct contradiction to her own formularies, and to business case studies, the authority of Scripture, but [17/18] which must inevitably tend to prevent the Divine blessing on the worship of her peop1e. On the other hand, there are two arguments in favor of pews, which justice requires we should mention. Topics. The first is, that they afford families a better opportunity to worship together; and the second is, that they facilitate the collection of the technology case Church revenue. We grant both these positions, although we think them by no means of sufficient force to justify the essay custom. Pretending Short. On the whole, however, we should recommend the following rules on the subject.

The old mode of benches, would be best. English Essay Topics. They should be substantial, made in Gothic style, to mckinsey technology studies, correspond with the building, and english, should have backs, for the comfort of the aged or infirm. But they should be open to the occupancy of all the congregation, and the only right of precedency should be that which would naturally follow the claims of years, or the character of experienced and consistent discipleship. Those who had children to essay pretending short, watch over, might take their place a little earlier; but no children should be carried to the house of public worship so young, as to trouble and interrupt the devotions of others. It is research essay obvious that on this plan the revenues of the Church could not be charged upon the seats, but they could be collected, as they now are for all other purposes, by gmat scores, voluntary subscription. But if pews must be retained, in compliance with the present custom, they should be made at english, least three feet wide, to development, allow abundant room for kneeling; and they should never be furnished in a style beyond what reasonable comfort and moderation would justify.

The house of God is topics no place for the display of vanity or ostentation; and there, at least, if no where else, men should learn to feel, that however they may differ in their worldly circumstances, they are nevertheless equal, by the rights of nature and of grace; and that the superiority of their earthly tank can avail them nothing before the final tribunal. Pollution. The principle that should govern as far as possible in this matter, is, that there should be nothing adopted in the architecture of Churches, which should have a tendency to flatter the pride of the rich, or to discourage the just claims of the poor to the privileges of the Gospel. ON THE COLORS APPROPRIATE TO THE GOTHIC STYLE. SOLEMNITY and repose, being the characteristics of research essay topics this mode of architecture, every thing light and gaudy should be excluded. The only contradiction which might seem to oppose this rule is found in the windows, which we have recommended to gmat essay scores, be either of stained glass, or covered with transparencies in imitation of it. But this is an english topics, exception strictly proper, not only because the light admitted through such a medium is in reality much softened and subdued, but also because the crimson and gold and blue, in the midst of which the light of nature--the sun in the firmament--is presented to the eye by the munificent hand of the Creator, seem to afford an analogy which justifies us in connecting the role desdemona essay same hues with the research light transmitted into the house of God.

But in all other particulars, the colors selected should be of a sober character. Brief Essay Pollution. For the stone work, the light brown or yellowish drab varieties have a better effect than the grey. And for the wood work, either an imitation of the English oak, or the light olive brown produced by the mixture of white lead with raw umber, is to be used in preference to any other. In our judgment, this last is the best of all, besides being less expensive than an imitation of the oak. Research Essay. Blue, grey, and lead color, have a cold and chilling appearance which forbids their use, excepting in the sashes of the windows; but the role desdemona essay raw umber mixed with white (when the umber is of a good quality) gives a great variety of shades, from light drab color to a dark brown, by a judicious employment of which, great richness and harmony of effect can be secured in union with solemnity. For inscriptions on the walls, [19/20] it is best to make the body of the letters considerably lighter than the ground, and shade them with a tint nearly as dark as the pure umber, which gives them the appearance of being raised, and looks, to topics, our taste, better than gilding. For cushions, chancel chairs, and the drapery of the pulpit and desk, the old fashioned crimson is decidedly the best color. Higher English Critical Essay Questions. The purple which has been employed of late instead of it, looks very well in a strong light; but when the research topics day is cloudy, or by lamp light, it cannot be distinguished from black, and reminds the business technology case spectator of clothing the Church in mourning.

Besides which, crimson harmonizes with the wood work, which purple does not; and for this reason, too, the english research essay crimson seems preferable. It is to scores, be observed, however, by those who are not much skilled in colors, that while crimson is english research topics appropriate, bright red or scarlet is altogether inadmissible. The ancient mode of making the benefit child essay short sash which contained the research topics glass of Church windows, was in lattice work of lead or pewter. Hence the sash in Gothic windows should be painted to resemble this material. And as a general rule, there should be nothing painted white in a Gothic building. The lightest tint should be a shade of drab color.

This does not seem a very desirable hue for 2006 higher essay, any thing, according to the common judgment; but being in fact a stone color, it forms the most sober and pleasing finish, for english, the inside walls and wood work of a Church. On Environmental Pollution. It is solemn without being gloomy, and essay, skews the workmanship of every part to the best advantage. These are little things , and we should not mention them if it were not for benefit development essay short, the instances we have seen, where mistakes in them had spoiled the whole effect of an otherwise fine building. ON THE CEILINGS OF CHURCHES. THE most beautiful mode of constructing the ceilings of large Churches, is in groined arches, the english essay topics rules for which are the same in this, that they are in watermark paper the Roman style; the only difference being, that the research essay topics arch in Gothic architecture must always be pointed in the centre, instead of being a regular segment of a circle. On this, or any common point of mechanism, it is not the design of the present book to enlarge, because every regularly bred workman can find such matters laid down in the ordinary treatises on carpentry, and would doubtless understand them much better than ourselves. We would only remark, that for small Churches, a flat ceiling would probably be preferable to child development pretending, any arch whatever, on account of the echo produced by the arch whenever the ceiling is not very high, and research topics, which is a serious obstacle to the distinctness of the 2006 higher critical essay preacher's voice.

In this case, however, the Gothic effect must be provided for by spandrils across the ceiling, of which there are several examples in the plates. For the rest, the reader will probably need no other observations of topics a general character. The plates, together with the explanations and dimensions attached to them, will be his best directory; and to essay scores, these we will now refer him, only premising a brief history of the english essay topics Gothic style in brief essay on environmental pollution England, and a Glossary of the technical terms used in essay topics this kind of architecture. A CHRONOLOGICAL SKETCH OF ENGLISH ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM THE WORK OF PUGIN. 1. Higher Critical Essay Questions. The Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon style, from A. D. 597, to english essay, A. D. 1066. THE buildings erected in role desdemona essay England during the four centuries preceding the Norman conquest, have usually been designated Anglo-Saxon, or Saxon; but as there is no positive proof that we have any examples extant of this style, it can only english essay, be conjectured to have been a modification of Roman architecture.

2 Anglo-Norman or Norman style, from A. Watermark Paper. D. 1606, to A. D. English. 1189. The Normans rebuilt almost every eminent Church during this period, and a prodigious number of castles The style of these buildings is distinguished by strong and ponderous dimensions, round arches, and various mouldings peculiar to itself. This style resulted from sundry modifications of the Roman, and it has been very properly contended that it ought to be called the Romanesque . 3. From A. D. 1189, to A. D. 1272. The general adoption of the pointed arch, and a change from broad and massy forms to tall and slender proportions, were fully established in the reign of King John, but had appeared a few years earlier in two or three instances. Child Development Pretending Short. The several appellations of Early Gothic , Simple Gothic , Lancet-Arch Gothic , English and Early English , have been given to the first period of this change. The most complete specimen of it is Salisbury Cathedral, and it may be considered as extending through the reigns of Richard I, John, and Henry 3. 4. From A. D. 1272, to 1377. The 13th century was not closed before the simple style of Salisbury Cathedral [22/23] became superseded by research, one of a richer character.

Westminster Abbey is perhaps the earliest example on a large scale. Lincoln Cathedral in its eastern part, is a richer specimen. About the middle of the 14th century a new fashion of essay tracery in the heads of windows became apparent, wherein the curves were blended like the fibres of a leaf. English Topics. Beautiful specimens of this ramified or foliated tracery, are to be seen in the western window of York Cathedral, that of Durham, Carlisle, c. This has been termed pure Gothic, absolute Gothic, decorated English , c. 5. From A. Case. D. 1377 to A. D. 1460. The lofty and simple form of the pointed arch, when struck from two centres on the line of english essay its base, began to be given up for role desdemona essay, a lower and more complicated form, in the reign of Richard, 2. But besides the introduction of the compound flat arch, this period is farther marked by research essay topics, the laying aside the carved interweaving of higher english critical essay questions the, mullions, and carrying them up in perpendicular lines. This style has been called ornamented Gothic , perpendicular English , c. 6. From A. D. 1460, to A. D. 1547.

The last period of the Gothic style is marked by the general use of the flat or compound pointed arch. The mullions of the windows continued to research essay, be carried up in perpendicular lines, but every part was wrought with increased complexity and delicacy. King's College Chapel, Cambridge, St. George's, Windsor, and Henry the role essay Seventh's Chapel at Westminster, are the grandest examples of this style, which has been designated Florid Gothic, Florid English , c. For my own part, I regard the foregoing distinctions as important, chiefly because they mark the introduction of the style, and its progress to its latest point of excellence. They evidently prove the commencement of Gothic architecture to have been subsequent to research essay topics, the first Crusade; but as to the terms affixed to them, I regard them all as based upon the supposition that the Gothic style had an English origin. I have already shewn my reasons for considering this idea to be totally without foundation. A GLOSSARY OF TECHNICAL TERMS IN GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE, EXTRACTED FROM PUGIN'S SPECIMENS.

Vol. I. [It may be proper to observe that the literary part of Pugin's excellent work is by EDWARD JAMES WILSON I have inserted in this Glossary, many terms which do not come within the strict design of my humble performance, but which it will be interesting and useful to the general reader, to have explained.] AILE, ( ala ecclesiae , Lat. L'aile de l'eglise , Fr.) the wing, as it were, the inward portico on each side of a Church, supported by pillars within. Hence, middle aile seems improper, and side aile is tautology; yet custom has fixed both too firmly to be shaken. ALLEY, ( all©e , Fr.) an aile, any part of a Church left open for walking through. Hence in some old surveys of Cathedrals these terms occur, 'the Dean's alley, the chanter's alley, the cross alley.' ARCH-BUTTRESS, ( arc boutant , Fr) an arch springing over the roof of an aile or cloister, and abutting against the wall of a clere-story.

It is also called a Flying buttress, and it is applied to the sides of benefit child essay pretending short spires, lanterns, c. BARBICAN, in antient fortifications, an outwork, sometimes placed in front of a gate to protect the draw-bridge, sometimes at a short distance from the main works to watch the approach of an enemy. BARTIZAN, a balcony, or platform, within a parapet, or the roof of any building. BASE-COURT, ( Basse-cour , Fr.) a yard attached to a castle or large mansion, around which the culinary and research essay, other offices were built. BASTILE, a tower, or bulwark in gmat scores the fortification of a town. [25] BATTLEMENT, a parapet on the roof of a building, cut into loops or embrasures to shoot through.

BAY, 1. an opening: 2. an arbitrary measure of size in a building: 3. and principally, the several lights in a window between, the mullions, frequently called (though erroneously) days . BAY-WINDOWS, an topics, oriel, or projecting window. Sometimes improperly called a bow window. BELFRY, a tower for bells. BOTTEL, 1. the perpendicular shafts of a clustered column. 2. Such shafts attached to the jambs of windows or, doors. 3. Any round moulding. It is the old English term for the torus of the Italian architects.

BOSS, a round protuberance, usually placed at the junction of the ribs in a vaulted roof, or to finish the end of any projecting moulding. These were variously carved. BRACKETT, ( brachium , Lat.) a projection intended to support a statue or other ornament, or to sustain the ribs of the roof; frequently synonymous with corbel. BUTTRESS, a pillar built against the wall to strengthen it. CANTED, (adj.) of essay scores a polygonal plan, as, a canted window or oriel. CAROL or CARREL, a little pew or closet in research a cloister to sit and read in; so called from the carols, or sentences inscribed on the walls.--(Qu. Brief Essay On Environmental. Is it not more probably derived from Quarr¨ , the english topics French for square.) CASEMENT, 1. a light or compartment, within the mullions of a window; or 2. and chiefly, a frame enclosing part of the glazing of a window, 'witja hiuges to chicago, open and shut. CHAMFER, the angle of the jamb of a door or of an arch, c. canted, or cut off diagonally.

CHEVERON, see Zigzag . CHEVET, a French term for the end of a Church terminating on a semi-circular plan. The great Churches of France terminate generally at the East end, in a semi-circle or half polygon. This end is called the chevet . CINQUE-FOIL, an ornamental figure resembling the herb clover, from whence its name. [26] CLERE-STORY, the upper story of a tower, Church, or other building. COIN, or QUOIN, the outward corner of a building.

COMPASS-ROOFED, this term applies to english research topics, roofs, the timbers of which form a sort of pointed arch, by the inclination of the braces. COMPASS WINDOW, a bay window, or oriel. COPE, COPING, the covering-stones of a wall, or battlement, or of the projections of a buttress, c. CORBEL, CORBET, or CORBETEL, a bracket; a projection from a wall or buttress, to support an image; or the brief on environmental pollution springing of an arch, c. CORBIE-STEPS, battlements rising like steps on the sides of gables, so called because the crows ( corbeau ) were observed to research essay topics, perch upon them. CORBEL-TABLE, a projecting battlement, parapet, or cornice, resting on corbels. CORNICE or CORNISH, the, highest projection of mouldings, serving as a crown to cover and finish any design. COVER, a turret or cupola on a roof of a hall or kitchen, pierced at the sides to let out smoke and steam. See Louvre . CRENELLE, the opening of brief on environmental pollution a battlement, an embrasure. CRENELLATED, embattled, having the parapet or top of the wall, cut into crenelles.

CREST, an imagery or carved work, to adorn the head or top of any thing. CREST-TILE, ridge tiles to cover the top of a roof, which anciently were often curiously moulded into the form of little battlements or leaves. CROCKET, CROCHET, CROTCHET, ( crochet , Fr.) the projecting parts of the foliage running up arches, pinnacles, c. The earliest consisted of a simple curve turning downwards; the second variety had the point of the leaf returned upward. r he diversity of foliage carved on crockets is very great: and in a few of the latest buildings of the 15th century, animals were sculptured creeping on the angles, in place of essay topics crockets. CUSP, a modern term for english essay, those segments Of circles placed in compartments to form trefoils, quatrefoils, or other tracery. DAIS, the plat form or raised floor at the upper end of antient dining halls, where the english topics high table stood. Child Development. Also, a seat with a high back and a canopy, for guests of rank. [27] DANCETTE, a term applied to the ancient Norman zigzag moulding. DAY, the same as Bay ; the light of a mullioned window. DIAPER, any panel, or flat surface, flowered either with carving in relief; or with colours and gilding, was said to be diapered . DORMANT or DORMER WINDOW, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof. DRIP, the research essay topics projecting edge of a moulding, channelled beneath, for the rain to drip from it. DONGEON, the chief tower of role desdemona essay a castle: the Keep . EMBRASURE, see Crenelle . ENTAIL, a term much used in ancient times, to signify any fine and delicate carving.

ENTERCLOSE, a passage connecting two rooms. ENTER-SOLE, a story of small rooms betwixt two floors of larger ones. FALSE-ROOF, the open space between the ceiling and the rafters. FANE or VANE, a plate of research essay topics metal turning on a spindle at watermark, the top of a tower or pinnacle, to show the course of the wind. FERETORY, a shrine, properly a bier or coffin, but applied to standing monuments. FESSE, FACE, or FASCIA, a flat member of english essay topics architecture, with but little projection.

FILLET, a narrow, flat moulding; also called list or annulet. FINIAL, the top or finishing of a pinnacle or gable, as it is child development essay now generally understood; but antiently an entire pinnacle was sometimes described by this term. FOOT-PACE, see Dais . FOOT-STALL, the plinth, or base of a pillar. FRET-WORK, FRETTED, any thing made rough with carving or entail, as small leaves, flowers, c. applied to ceilings, doors, c. GABLE, or GAVEL, the pyramidal wall which cavers the end of english essay topics a roof: It is child essay also extended in signification to the whole end wall of research topics a building. GABLE-WINDOW, the end window of technology case studies a Church or other building, however large and magnificent. GABLET, a little gable, a common ornament for tabernacles, screens, c. Previous to the 14th century these resembled the english research essay real gable of a roof. Afterwards, however, they were gracefully curved and critical essay questions, terminated in english research topics a finial. [28] GARGLE or GARGYLE, the figure of a serpent or monster, with the mouth pierced, for the water spout of a roof, or a fountain to essay questions, run through. GARLAND; a band of ornamental work, surrounding the topics top of a spire, tower, c. GENTESE, see Cusp . GREES, steps, or stairs.

GROIN, the benefit child essay short intersection of two vaulted roofs, crossing each other. English Research Essay. The diagonal lines formed by such compound vaulting, constitute the groin. HERSE, or HEARSE, a frame set over a coffin, and covered with a pall. A hearse of brass is over the statue in the monument of Earl Warwick in Beauchamp chapel, on which a drapery was formerly suspended. HOOD-MOULD, the gmat essay scores outer moulding over the head of a door, window, or other opening, so called because it covers the other mouldings within. English Research Topics. The ends of the gmat essay hood-mould are sometimes finished by a return, sometimes by a head, or a corbel. HOUSES, or HOUSINGS, niches for statues. HOVEL, the english essay topics canopy over the head of a statue. JUBE, A gallery with a sort of pulpit attached to the front, carried over the entrance into the choir of a Cathedral, for the reader of the lessons.

KEEP, see Dongeon . KERNEL, the same as Crenelle . It required royal license formerly, for case, any man to have his house or castle kernellated or embattled. KNOB, KNOPPE, see Boss . A small compartment of a painted window, if of a round form, quatrefoil, or such shape, was also called a knot. LABEL, the same as Hood-mould , which see. LANTERN, a turret or cupola: see Cover. Research Topics. Also a smaller tower or turret, full of windows, and on the top of higher english critical questions a steeple, or tower. LATTEN, LATTIN, or LATEN, brass. LECTERN, or LETTERN, a desk for a large book to lie on. LIGHT, each distinct opening of english topics a mullioned window. LOOP or LOOP-HOLE, a narrow window to light a stair case or closet. Also the crenelle or embrasure of a battlement. LOUVRE, the same as Cover . [29] LUCAINE, a window set upon the sloping side of a roof: a garret window.

See Dormant. MACHECOULIS, or MASCHECOULIS, commonly called macchicolations . Grooves or openings within the parapet of a fortified tower, for the purpose of throwing down stones, molten lead, hot sand, or boiling water, upon the heads of assailants, or to shoot down upon them unseen. MANTLE TREE, a beam laid across the chicago opening of a large fire-place. MULLION, or MUNNION, the frame-work of a window, divided into two or more lights or compartments. NECK-MOULD, a small projecting moulding, which surrounds the neck of a column or pinnacle, beneath the capital or finial. NOSING, the projecting edge of a moulding. See Drip . NUNNERY, a term employed by some writers, for the triforium or gallery, between the roof of the ailes and the clere-story. OEILLET, EYLET, or OYLET, a loop-hole; a small window. OGEE, or OGYVE, a form of moulding with a double curve, the cima or cimatium of essay topics Vitruvius.

ORIEL, or ORVEL, a bay window or compass window: sometimes applied to signify recesses, or closets, or a boudoir . PANE, the light of essay pollution a mullioned window: the pieces of english research glass in it: the side of a spire or tower, or of a cloister. PANEL, a compartment enclosed with mouldings. The same, sometimes, as Pane . PARAPET, a low wall in any situation, but generally applied to that which guards the on environmental pollution gutters of a roof. If a parapet is cut into embrasures, it is called a battlement . PARVIS, a porch, or court of entrance to a great Church, or palace. PENDANT, a term usually restricted by modern writers to ornaments hanging down on english research essay, the inside of roofs.

PERCH, PERK, PEARCH, see Brackett and Corbel . PINNACLE, a turret: a spire: any tall perpendicular ornament. POMEL, a knob, any round protuberance finishing the top of a pinnacle, or similar ornament. [30] POOP, the high ends of the seats in the antient Churches, with finials or crests carved on their tops. PRESEYTERY, the eastern parts of large Churches, kept exclusively for the use of the clergy. PURFLED, trimmed with knots, crockets, or flourishings at the edges. QUARREL, a pane of glass, oblong or square, but usually of the diamond or lozenge shape.

QUARTER, a square panel. QUATREFOIL, an ornament of role tracery composed of four intersecting circles, and essay, resembling a flower with four leaves. REREDOS, a screen or partition wall: the gmat scores back of a fire place, an altar piece. RESPOND, or RESPONDER, a half column or pilaster attached to a wall, and responding to research, another, or to a pillar opposite to it. ROOD-LOFT, a gallery over the entrance into the choir of the greater Churches, so called from the Rood or cross, which stood in front.

Since the Reformation the Rood lofts have become Organ lofts. ROOD-TOWER, the tower or steeple built over gmat the intersection of the body and cross ailes of a Church. ROUND, a turret of a circular form: also a room or closet within such turret. ROSE-WINDOW, a circular window, sometimes called a Catharine wheel window, from the resemblance of such windows to a wheel in the farm of their mullions. SCONCE, a branch to set a light upon: a screen or partition to cover or protect any thing a head or top. SCUTCHEON, a shield of arms: also a quoin or angle buttress. SHAFT, a bottel , or slender perpendicular part of a clustered column. SHRINE, a case wherein the remains of saints were preserved. SPANDRIL, applied to the arches formed within a square of a ceiling, door, or other opening: the research topics open (or ornamented) space between the outward moulding of an benefit child development essay pretending, arch, from its impost to the horizontal line which surmounts it above. STALL, a seat for an ecclesiastic in english topics the choir or chancel of benefit child development essay pretending a Church.

Every stall was enclosed for a single person only to sit in. STANCHEON, the upright iron bars of english research a window. STOUP, a post, or small pedestal for a statue. TABERNACLE, a stall or niche with a canopy above, for an image to be placed in an arched canopy over a tomb: a shrine. TRACERY, a term much used by modern writers for the ornamental pattern formed by the tracing or interweaving of the mullions in a window, or the fret-work in a roof. TRANSEPT, a cross aisle.

TREFOIL, an ornament resembling the three-leaved clover. TRELLICE, a gate or screen of open work, whether wood or metal. TURN-PIKE, a flight of gmat scores stairs winding round a centre. VICE, a spiral stair case; the same as the foregoing. VIGNETTE, an ornamental carving in imitation of the tendrils and foliage of a vine. WEEPERS, small statues of children or friends placed on the sides of a tomb, around the principal figure. ZIGZAG, one of the varieties of fretwork used in buildings of the 12th century, erected by english research essay topics, the Normans. EXPLANATION OF THE PLATES.

THE upper half of this plate presents various modes of forming Gothic arches, copied from 'Pugin's Specimens,' and selected from several edifices in England. a , the common semicircular arch, usually called the Roman arch, and never to be admitted in buildings of the Gothic style. b , the four-centred pointed arch. The dots shew the gmat scores place of the compasses in describing this arch. c , the equilateral, where the points of the base and crown are equi-distant. This may be called the essay standard form of the pointed arch, and is reckoned, by many, the most beautiful. d , the lancet arch, described from two centres outside the arch. e , the three-centred pointed arch. f , the four-centred pointed arch in another form.

g , the ogee arch, an ornamental variety, sometimes used over doors and windows on a small scale. h , the four-centred ogee arch. i j , other varieties of the same, employed chiefly in florid tracery. k , a pointed arch, formed by the crossing of straight lines, the curves being drawn through the intersections, by benefit child essay pretending, the hand. 1, m, n , are four-centred obtuse arches, the centres of which are upon the diagonal lines, which are formed by dividing the base line into more or less parts, according to the height intended. The lower half of the plate presents several figures of Gothic door-ways and doors, from the same author.

o , south door-way of Tattershall Church. English Research Essay. The waving line across the bottom, shews the plan of the mouldings. One half only is laid down in the plate, [32/33] the other half being precisely in benefit development short the same form. The date of this building is A. D. 1455. p , door-way from Oultin, Norfolk.

q , door-way from english essay topics Horn Church, Essex, A. IX 1440. Fig. s . shews the ground plan of the higher essay same. r , door of the refectory of St. George's Chapel, Windsor. aa , specimen of english panel from St. Paul's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. pp , specimen of panel from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. oo , specimen of panel from the monument of Henry IV, in brief Westminster Abbey. rr, specimen of panel from Bishop Longland's Chapel, Lincoln Cathedral, ss , specimen of panel from the same. qq , specimen of panel from the same. ff , specimen of panel from the same.

kk , specimen of panel from Magdalen College. mm , specimen of panel from the palace of Hampton Court, bb , a Gothic cross, in the florid style. dd , buttress and pinnacle, at Oxford. gg , finish of one of the english essay topics small turrets of the palace at Hampton Court. ee , niche, or tabernacle and essay, canopy of a buttress, from the South side of english research essay topics Magdalen Church, Oxford. The usual plan for these recesses was a hexagon, half recessed and half projecting. ll , finial over the door-way of St. Stephen's Chapel, Westminster Abbey. nu, niche of desdemona essay Bishop Beauchamp, from St. George's Chapel, Windsor, shewing the crocketted canopy, with its finial.

xx , part of the foliated crest which finishes the top of the above niche, enlarged. tt , finial, from Corpus Christi College. uu , finial, from Brazen Nose College, Oxford. [34] vv , plan of the tracery of the ceiling in the aile of Henry the Seventh's Chapel, shewing one fourth of a compartment. ww , one half of the arch of the english great window over the entrance to Westminster hall.

The tracery is confined by perpendicular lines, continued upwards from the role essay mullions of the chief lights. Essay. The hood-mould of the arch is terminated by the figure of a hart, collared and chained, the badge of Richard II. aaa , elevation of Chancel, drawn for St. Paul's Church, Burlington, Vt. Shewing the essay on environmental pulpit with its canopy, the desk, the communion table, the chairs, and the doors immediately behind them, leading into the vestry room.

bbb , section of the above, shewing the canopy over the pulpit, the desk, the altar, the Chancel railing, and the steps, according to their several projections. ccc , ground plan of the same. These three figures are drawn according to the scale of english research feet, which is at the top of the plate, to the right. ddd , pedestal which gives an appropriate form either for a baptismal font or a pulpit, taken from Westminster hall. ccc , canopy for essay pollution, a pulpit or a niche, from All Soul's College, Oxford. fff , ggg , hhh shew an enlarged view of the parts which belong to a confessional in St. Mary's Church, Oxford. iii , one half of a window from King's College Chapel, Cambridge. kkk , turret from the entrance tower of Brazen nose College, Oxford. lll , turret, with a niche below, from the same. mmm , enlarged tracery shewing how to lay out all similar figures, from the oriel window of Balliol College, Oxford.

THIS plate represents the interior of a plain village Church, with several of the external parts, viz. A, section of the end which contains the tower, shewing the frame-work o the roof, the belfry, the english research essay stairs leading to the same; the benefit essay short organ gallery with an appropriate organ case, the doors below, opening into the vestibule, the two front windows, and the Gothic pilasters, with the Gothic arches, connecting them, and english research topics, terminating in the main arch of the ceiling. In this plan, the tower contains the vestibule and the stairs ascending to the organ gallery and belfry, in the first story: in the second story it is divided by a partition into two portions, of which the front portion contains the 2006 higher english critical stairs ascending to the belfry, and the other portion contains the organ gallery as shewn in the plate. Its third story, also shewn in the plate, contains another flight of stairs, above which is the platform where the frame-work for essay topics, the bell should be placed. Benefit Child Pretending. The windows opposite the bell may be left open, as represented in essay topics the plate, but they look much better closed with boards, planed very thin, not less than five or six inches wide, and about the brief essay on environmental same distance apart, set in the manner of a Venetian blind, sloping downwards at an angle of about forty-five degrees, and painted a dark stone color.

The sound of the bell will not be obstructed by such blinds as these, and the beauty of the tower will be much improved. But in painting the tower, the common colors of white and green should never be employed. Stone colors of different shades are the only proper colors for a Gothic building. See on this subject, Chapter VI. B. This figure shews a section of the chancel and of the interior, with the frame work of the roof, the research topics end windows, the Gothic pilasters connected with their arches, as before; the pulpit, from the 2006 centre of which, at each side, a Gothic screen extends to the end of the chancel railing, and is then turned at right angles to the wall, forming an enclosure for the steps which descend to topics, the vestry room in the basement story, and also for those which ascend to the pulpit. Where there is no basement, this space may be easily managed so as to afford accommodation for a robing room; without which, an Episcopal Church should never be erected. Below [35/36] the pulpit, is seen the desk; on each side of which, are the doors of the screen.

Below the desk appears the communion table, and at each end of the chancel, is watermark a gothic chair. In front, is the english topics chancel railing, in the centre of which is placed the font for baptism. The wall behind and critical, above the screen shews an appropriate finish, which may be given by english topics, painting; the two oblong squares representing tablets containing the Lord's prayer, the Creed, the ten commandments, or any other parts of Scripture, according to the choice of the minister; and the centre of the wall exhibiting the sentence, HOLINESS TO THE LORD, or any other short and english critical essay, impressive text, in research topics larger characters. In the plate, I have surmounted this sentence with the well known and ancient symbol, I. H. S., signifying, Jesus Hominum Salvator , with the child short cross rising out of the middle letter a symbol to which I confess myself strongly attached on account of its solemn and english essay, affecting signification. Essay Scores. Many pious people are afraid of this figure of the cross, because it is used so extensively by the Church of Rome; but this is a weak and unworthy argument for laying aside any thing, which, in itself, possesses an edifying and wholesome character. There would be a great improvement in the Christian philosophy of our day, if some of our brethren could discover, that there may be as much superstition in english research essay topics quarreling with the Church of Rome, as in agreeing with her.

C. This figure represents on a distinct scale, the ornamental heading of the windows of the tower outside, with the Gablet, Crockets and Finial, belonging to the enriched and florid variety of the Gothic style. They may be carved at an expense which would not exceed forty or fifty dollars for the whole four windows; and they may also be cast in role essay lead or pewter, and nailed on. I have used them in both ways, and essay, consider them the most beautiful finish, in this or any other kind of architecture. It is not necessary, however, that they should be put up when a Church is brief first erected, but it should be planned with regard to their being added at a future day. D. This figure represents the ornamental heading of the topics other windows of the Church, with the lattice sash which properly belongs to the best specimens of the Gothic style. When these can be cast in lead, they should be much smaller than is here represented; but when they are of wood, they cannot be conveniently [36/37] made, in most cases, of a size much less than the ordinary window sash. It is always important, however, that they should be considerably longer in their perpendicular, than in their transverse dimension s: and I should recommend a much greater difference than the plate exhibits.

The reader will find in some of the figures of the role three first plates, much better models for the construction of the details of window heads and mouldings, than this. E. This figure shews an elevation of a baptismal font, which may be made square, the research top containing a basin of marble, silver, or china, according to mckinsey case, circumstances. But stone should be preferred, and the cost of marble for such a purpose, is inconsiderable. Essay. It should be observed, however, that the square form is by no means so good as the business case studies hexagon or octagon. F. This figure exhibits a side elevation of the buttress, with its pinnacle and its coping. English Research Essay Topics. These buttresses are built into the wall, thereby strengthening and gmat essay scores, securing it. If the Church be of brick, they may be one brick and a half oil the face, which face continues the same breadth from the bottom to the top. Their projection must be not less than a brick and a half beyond the wall at the bottom, where they should be built of stone with the rest of the foundation. At the water table where the research topics stone work of a brick edifice usually terminates, the on environmental pollution buttresses fall back half a brick in the form of a coping as represented in the plate: see the sections marked A and B. Research Topics. And opposite to the middle part of the wall, or a little below it, they fall back another half brick, leaving a projection of the brief on environmental remaining half brick to continue up to the top of the wall, and then extending inwards upon the wall, they are carried up to a height sufficient for the battlements, and a little above the top of the battlements, as in the plate, they finish square, a brick and a half each way, ending with a pinnacle. In a large Church, these dimensions should be proportionably increased, and in a building altogether of stone, it will be advisable to allow something more for the buttresses in each direction.

I have been thus particular, because the buttresses are an indispensable feature in the Gothic style, and workmen are in need of minute instruction in regard to them, because they are not of frequent occurrence in our country. The copings where the buttresses fall back, should be of stone below; but above, where they have nothing to bear but the weather, they may be of wood, built in, [37/38] and topics, painted to scores, agree with the rest of the wall. Their form in such case is marked in fig. F, by research essay, dotted lines; but the projection of the outward slope which casts off the water, ought to pollution, have a groove or channel below , which the plate should have represented. The pinnacles are best made of stone, but where economy must be studied, they may be made of plank or thick boards, filled with brick and research topics, mortar, and set down in mortar upon the buttresses.

In this mode they will not cost more than one or two dollars apiece, and will last, if well put together and painted, for many years. G. This figure represents the organ gallery of fig. A on a larger scale, so as to shew distinctly the top of a plain single Gothic pillar, with the corner and pinnacle above, and the panel work, the battlement, and the connexion of the arch beneath. The most simple method of producing the effect of the Gothic panel is here designed. The front of the gallery is first wainscotted, leaving a sufficient projection to the corner posts for the subsequent finish, then the higher english critical essay panels are cut out separately, each being a distinct piece: the inner edge is chamfered three quarters of an inch each way, and the panels thus prepared, are nailed side by side upon the wainscotting. A fillet of about an inch square is then nailed over the joints, intersecting with the same above and english, below, as in chicago paper the plate. The same plan is applicable to the panel of the english research essay topics arch, the corner post, c. the gmat scores screen behind the pulpit, and every other part where the effect to be produced is similar. The thicker the plank out of which the panel is cut, the richer will be the effect, but a full inch board will look well, and the appearance of topics it when finished, will be greatly improved, by essay pretending, painting the inside or bottom of the essay topics wainscotting, two or three shades darker than the rest; as in the plate. This minute detail may appear trifling, but it must be remembered that I am not writing for architects, nor for men of taste and on environmental pollution, science in this branch of the arts, but for the clergy who may never have paid the attention of a moment to the subject, until, in english research topics some distant region of our extensive country, they are called upon to preside over the erection of a Church, with none but ordinary house carpenters around them.

To men thus circumstanced, my own experience of such little difficulties is a sufficient proof that these practical hints will he valuable. I furnish them for this reason, without any [38/39] regard to the criticisms of those for whom they were not intended. Utility, not fame, is my object. Happily for development essay pretending, me,--let me take the liberty of adding,--if fame were within my reach, I should value it only in proportion as it was founded upon utility. This plate represents a perspective view of Trinity Church, Pittsburgh, the building mentioned in the preface, as being the english essay lint fruits of the necessity which turned my attention to the study of Church architecture. The best part of the exterior of this building is the mckinsey business tower, which exhibits an example of the english flying buttress, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. The pinnacles of the child development pretending tower are finished with crockets and finials, or purfled , according to the phraseology of the Gothic style. Fig. Research Essay. 4, shews a method of striking a Gothic arch from four centres, which may be recommended as in good proportion.

Fig. English Critical Essay Questions. 5, shews the method of laying out a compound Gothic window with its tracery, the english research essay topics part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and the other half shewing the filling up of the detail. Fig. 6, shews the base and the capital of a single Gothic pillar, taken from gmat scores St. George's Chapel, Windsor. Fig. 7, shews the flying buttress on a larger scale. Fig. 8, shews a pendant of the ceiling, taken from Crosby hall, London.

Fig. 9. This figure represents, according to the scale below, an arrangement of the chancel, in which the pulpit and the desk are at each side, and the altar in research essay topics the middle, with a richly ornamented Gothic window over child essay pretending it. Between the window and the buttresses at research essay, the side are tablets, containing sentences from Scripture; [39/40] under which are the chairs. The entrances to the desk and pulpit are in the rear, through two low Gothic doors. The light transmitted over the altar is from the essay vestry room, which stands immediately behind the whole chancel. Essay. There are canopies over the pulpit and desk, on each side of which rises a buttress enriched in the florid style, taken from Henry the Seventh's Chapel. In the front is the gmat essay scores Gothic railing of the chancel, with a baptismal font in the centre. Upon this plan the pulpit and english research, desk are in the same form, the pulpit being only watermark, a little higher. Fig. 10. This figure represents the construction of a triple Gothic pillar, which should always be preferred when the expense can be afforded, as it is both richer and research topics, more delicate in its effect.

There is a fault in the plate, however, which must be carefully avoided. The circles are too large. Instead of cutting into each other, they should have just met, which would have given the scores best proportion. Fig. English Essay Topics. 11, shews a good form for a Gothic pulpit. Fig. 2006 Higher Critical Essay Questions. 14, another for the same.

Fig. 15, shews the enriched buttress used in No. 9, on a larger scale. Fig. English Topics. 17, shews the railing of the chancel in desdemona No. 9. on a larger scale. Fig. 13. This figure exhibits a perspective view of the ceiling, the essay front of the galleries, and the chancel, in Trinity Church, Pittsburg. The ceiling is perfectly flat, but in order to give somewhat of the effect of the enriched Gothic style, it is crossed by spandrils from the essay scores heads of the pillars.

Where these meet along the centre, there are pendants, made in the form of that, represented in Plate 5, and the whole is filled up with a representation in painting of Gothic tracery, done in various shades of stone color. When fresh, and for english topics, several years afterwards, this kind of finish looks extremely well, if skilfully executed; because it gives an accurate picture of the exquisite fretwork of the English Gothic Churches. But it requires to be renewed in time, and workmen are not often to be found who can do it justice. Fig. 12, represents the head of one of the pillars with its spandrils, as in No. 13, but on a larger scale. Fig. 16, shews the plan of the ceiling in child No.

13, the part at the left exhibiting the skeleton, and that, at the right, shewing the filling up, in imitation of fretwork. Fig. 19, shews the border of foliage which surrounds the oval and the segments [40/41] of circles in No. 16, on a larger scale. The idea of the whole of this is research essay topics derived from the Chapel of Henry the Seventh. Fig. Development Essay. 18, a perspective view of the battlements which finish the top of the galleries in Trinity Church, Pittsburgh,

THE principal figure in research this plate represents a perspective view of a design for a Gothic Church, with an 2006 critical, octagonal steeple, instead of a tower. The top of the steeple is not shewn, but a ball and research, vane is the usual and appropriate finish. In this design the windows are in a single row, and brief essay, not doubled, as in Plate 6. And therefore this design is better, because it accords with the principle set forth in english research essay topics the first chapter; viz, the giving force to the perpendicular line, as far as practicable. The building at the end, is a vestry room, which agrees with the essay style of the main building, and the window above is to throw light into the chancel, over the altar, where the plan laid down in Plate 6, No. 9, is preferred. In such case, however, the window over the altar should be either filled with stained glass, or covered with a transparency, to subdue the light; for otherwise it would pain all but the strongest eyes in the congregation. Fig. 21, shews a ground plan with two ailes; but three ailes are better. A, is the vestibule, containing the stairs to the organ gallery.

B, is the space between the altar and research essay, the chancel railing which should be not less than from four to six feet. The centre of the railing shews the place for the baptismal font. C, is the altar, or communion table, at each end of which stands a Gothic chair. D E, the desk and pulpit, both entered from the vestry room behind. F, the vestry room, shewing the stairs leading to the desk, from which a plat form passing along to the other end leads to the pulpit. Fig. 22. This figure shews a section, explanatory of a simple plan to save the roof in a Gothic building. In order to understand it, the watermark paper reader will bear in mind that the finishing the wall with a battlement is english constant characteristic of the [41/42] Gothic style This, however, produces what is called by workmen a valley gutter that is, the sloping roof meeting with the wall which forms the battlement, makes a valley, or hollow, from which the water must be carried through pipes to scores, the ground Now the practical difficulty in english research topics this case is, that no degree of care in development essay the construction of these valley gutters, is usually able to keep them from research topics leaking In the essay summer half of the year, they do well enough, but in winter, the freezing and thawing of the snow upon the roof, almost invariably produces leakage, which ruins, in time, the ceiling below, occasions the plaster to crack and fall down, and makes the building both unsafe and unsightly. The mode in which I think the whole of this difficulty can be avoided, is shewn in the fig marked 22, which is a section exhibiting the wall, the roof, the eavetrough, and the battlement, as follows, viz. c , the buttress, through which the eave-trough passes the whole length of the building.

d , the plank which forms the battlement, which is spiked or screwed to research essay, the eavetrough in such a manner, that the openings or embrasures of the battlement are a little below the edge of the higher english critical eave-trough The triangular piece which projects backward from this plank, is english research essay topics merely to give the appearance of benefit short thickness from below, without which, the battlement would seem to want substance. e , the eave-trough, hollowed, as usual, out of solid timber, and having the topics outer edge an inch lower than the inner The piece of plank below the desdemona trough, is for ornament, as is also the fillet outside, and the appearance of the whole is topics shewn accurately in the perspective view above it, in the same plate. The operation of this is, that the business case studies battlement does not form a valley at all It is not, as in the ordinary cases, a continuation of the wall, but it is attached to english research topics, the eave-trough and mckinsey case, whenever the eave-trough fills in english essay frosty weather, and a thaw succeeds, the openings of the battlement, being as low, or a little lower than the outer edge of the eave-trough, ard an escape for desdemona essay, the water, which effectually prevents its using above the english essay topics edge of the roof; and flowing inwards upon the wall It is cheaper than the higher other method, because the research topics application of brief essay on environmental pollution tin or lead to the valley [42/43] gutter is rendered unnecessary; and the beauty of the effect is english essay so far from being diminished by the projecting of the battlement outwards, that I think it is rather increased. Care, however, must be taken to have the buttresses project sufficiently to allow of studies this finish, without having any part of the work to english research essay, come within an inch of their face. The inspection of the gmat perspective view marked No. Research Essay. 20, will make this plain.

THE figure in the plate, marked No. 23, exhibits the front view of the same building of which the mckinsey case rear was presented in Plate 7. The upper part of the steeple is quite too short for a proper proportion, and english research topics, should be about twice as high from the paper base of the pyramid to the top. The size of the plate did not admit of its being so represented; but any one who likes the english essay draught in other respects, can easily make the chicago paper alteration. The rest of the tower is in reasonably good style, and if well executed, would look sufficiently imposing. Topics. The windows in the body of the building are, much more numerous and nearer together than necessity requires, though not more so, perhaps, than the beauty of the building would justify, provided they were filled with stained glass, or well covered with transparencies. Their number, however, can be diminished, at pleasure. But there is one defect in this plan that would produce considerable inconvenience. It is the want of more passages of ingress and egress; the single door through the tower being by no means sufficient for the convenience of brief pollution a congregation.

The best method of supplying the deficiency would be that which is english essay shewn in watermark paper Plate 10, fig. 25. This plate presents a perspective drawing of a design for a small cathedral, in which the roof is concealed by a rich screen of tracery, the water, however, having the same means of escape provided as formerly described, through the lower [43/44] row of english essay topics small Gothic arches. Child Short. The large tower, containing the chancel and vestry room, should be placed towards the East, according to ancient custom, derived from the Temple at Jerusalem. And two doors, one at each side of the tower would be necessary, in addition to the western door, shewn in the plate, for the ingress and egress of the congregation. Research. The octagonal towers would afford room for winding stairs to ascend into the organ loft and the galleries. Desdemona. These octagonal towers are taken from english essay King's College Chapel, and pollution, the great octagonal tower from the english celebrated Fonthill Abbey. THE principal figure in this plate, numbered 25, represents Skirlaw Chapel in Yorkshire, and is copied from Britton's Architectural Antiquities of gmat Great Britain. It is a much admired specimen of Gothic architecture for the purposes of a parish Church.

Fig. 26, represents a quatre foil opening, from english Red Mount Chapel, Lynn, Norfolk. Fig. 27, exhibits a font from Binham Priory Church, Norfolk. Fig. 28, shews the capital and base of a Gothic pillar from Red Mount Chapel. THIS figure, numbered 29, presents a drawing of a Church, in simple elevation, according to business technology case, the manner used for workmen. The scale is one tenth of an inch to the foot.

THE principal figure in english essay topics this plate, No. 30, shews the front elevation, and fig. Chicago Paper. 31 shews the rear elevation of the same building, the side of which is exhibited in the last plate. Fig. 32, is a perspective drawing, taken from Britton, of St.

Botolph's tower, which is surmounted by a lantern, supported by flying buttresses. It is english research essay a remarkable example of the kind. THESE figures are two of the Crosses, so common formerly in England, at which the people were in the habit of stopping to pray, and where the preaching friars delivered sermons to the surrounding multitudes on the Lord's day. I have added them to this little work, partly as an interesting relic of former days, but more because I think they might furnish beautiful models for Gothic monuments, in chicago commemoration of 'the dead, who die in essay topics the Lord.' The figure on the left is the Cross at role desdemona, Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire; and research essay topics, that, on the right, represents the Cross at Winchester, Hampshire. This last is 43 1/2 feet high. There is, on the frontispiece, a representation of another,--the Black-Friars' Cross, at Hereford--which, though in ruin, retains enough of its original character o afford a useful example of the Gothic style. THE reader must have remarked, that nothing has been said of any arrangement for warming Churches, nor any place marked out for role, flues or chimneys.

The reason is, because these are matters which have no particular connexion with the style of architecture. Chimneys are deformities in every public edifice, and all that can he done, so long as they are necessary, is to dispose of them where they shall attract the smallest possible observation. In the english Gothic style, however, the buttresses afford an opportunity for carrying up flues with great convenience, and by making the pinnacles of those buttresses of cast iron, with the opening at the side which is farthest fom the essay spectator, the whole purposes of chimneys may be provided for, without any violation of english research essay topics good taste. And where this plan may not be thought advisable, the chimney may be so designed as to resemble a turret, with battlements above, and thus be kept in consistency with the essay scores style of building. As to the modes of applying heat for the purpose of warming Churches, it is [45/46] beside the object of this little work to enlarge upon them. I would only observe, that where a supply of heated air can be introduced below, it is, on many accounts, to be preferred before the common plan of erecting stoves in the Church itself. Best of all, perhaps, would be a recurrence to the practice of our ancestors, who used no artificial heat whatever in the house of english research topics God. But if this be too much to expect from the desdemona effeminacy of our day, it might be well to consider whether the end could not be sufficiently accomplished by conducting, at the side of each aile, a stove pipe, made square, instead of round, and secured by english, brick or stone work so as to brief essay on environmental pollution, form a part of the floor of the building. In conclusion, I have only to remind the reader of the humble rank to which this volume lays claim.

It is but the essay of an english research, amateur, designed chiefly for those who have not made architecture their study. No man can be more sensible than myself, of its defects; yet, well knowing the want of some plain and simple directory of the kind, I lay it upon gmat scores the altar of english topics utility with the hope that it may be found acceptable to some of my brethren, and gmat, save them from many of those perplexities which commonly attend an english essay, attempt to erect the earthly sanctuary of God. With regard to credit, emolument, or reputation, I may well apply the adage, 'Happy is he that expecteth nothing, for he shall not be disappointed.' To supply the wants of the Church, in chicago paper any and every department within my power, is the main business of my life; and if I have succeeded in this design to english research topics, any reasonable degree, my labor will not have been in vain.

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Essay contest: What parents don’t understand. Essay contest winners wrote about parents who aren’t home, want them to be religious, and don’t get their music. By Brian Kan , San Gabriel HS. Illustration by Keanu Lueong, 13, Toll MS (Glendale) My sweaty hand slipped off of the ice-cold doorknob as I plopped my backpack on the floor and removed my sneakers. With a sigh, I began my walk up the staircase of the two-story house so devoid of life.

After seating myself in my room and turning on my computer, I came across a Post-it note stuck to my monitor. In bold, blue, inky letters, it read: “Don’t turn on your PC. You stayed up until 12 o’clock doing your homework last night. Research Essay Topics? Maybe you would have the time if you stopped coming home so late. Mom.” I tore the note up and threw it into the wastebasket. “Why do they care?” I thought. “They’re never here anyways.” Right after high school started, contact between me and my parents nearly came to a standstill.

With all their business trips, they employed the neighbors to chicago watermark paper watch over me and monitor my activity. Of course, the english research neighbors didn’t do such a great job, as they had kids of their own to worry about. They usually kept track of when I came home just by looking out of their windows. The only chicago watermark paper, means of communication between me and research topics, my parents was through Post-it notes. Critical Questions? The notes would be stuck around the house all the time, for english, all occasions, and essay pretending, under any circumstances, from “Take out the garbage when it’s full” even when I didn’t fill it, to “Stop spending so much time after school,” even when they were not there.

Somewhere between spending about eight hours away from home and coming home to find the house completely empty, something didn’t fit. I would come home from school to be welcomed by research topics no one, to talk to no one and be supervised by my neighbors. That’s when I started joining more clubs and staying after school more often, so I didn’t have to feel so lonely. At school, my great friends, the staff members and coaches are there for me. They were all there to give me a hand or talk with me when I wanted to talk. I felt great when I was at school. Yet, despite my attempts to escape the dark and gloomy house, something was still missingmy parents. I realize that nobody could replace my parents. I wish that they would be there, at home, waiting for mckinsey, me to come back from essay school.

There are too many things my parents don’t understand about me. 2006 Critical Essay Questions? I want them to understand everything about me. Essay? I want them to understand that they’re my parents and I’m their kid and I need them. Ultimately, I wish that my parents actually had a chance to understand me. By B.A. , Central L.A. HS for role desdemona essay, the Visual and Performing Arts. I come from english a very strict and religious Christian family. Mckinsey Business Technology? You know, the kind of family that always says grace before a meal, attends church every Sunday, has daily Bible readings, hangs a copy of the english research Ten Commandments on the living room wall, and so on. Coming from 2006 higher critical essay questions that sort of background I’m usually expected to research be very religious.

Well, I’m not. During my pre-teen years I would go to church regularly with my family. Sadly, all those years of church didn’t do much for me. I never felt that “sensation” that the church would always speak about. I just sat there blank and lifeless. I knew I didn’t belong. Higher Critical? I tried and tried to force myself to just believe.

Oh, how I tried. It didn’t work. I quit going to church and haven’t gone since. My mother was appalled when I announced my decision. It made her absolutely furious. My mother began to act strange toward me. Research Essay? She knows that I am not a Christian, yet she struggles to accept this fact. “You’re just going through a phase,” she says every now and then.

She’s wrong. It’s not just a phase. It’s my choice and lifestyle. Sometimes she goes on about how Christ is going to make me pay for 2006 higher english, what I did. I’m treated as a criminal when I have not done anything wrong at all! About a month ago, I had a fever and was so ill that I could barely walk. Topics? She called it “God’s wrath.” When I heard those words come out of her mouth, time stopped and a black cloud sat above me; I was completely shocked.

I could not believe my own mother would say such a thing. I am constantly demonized by my mother as well. According to her, I am an “anti-Christ.” I listen to hard rock, like piercings, wear bead and english critical essay questions, string bracelets, enjoy horror movies, and watch MTV. That’s a Satan worshiper in her eyes. English Research Essay Topics? To her, I am an embarrassment. Child Development Pretending Short? To her, I’m a child gone wrong. To her, I have fallen into Satan’s hands.

To her, I’m a failure. How I wish my mother could just open her eyes and accept who I am. I accept her views and beliefs so why can’t she do the same for her own son. Her religion is getting in the way of our relationship. Why can’t she just put her beliefs aside a bit and essay, try to 2006 higher english essay questions have a relationship with her own son? By Sophia Popovskaia , New Roads HS (Santa Monica) I have always loved music. English Research Essay Topics? More accurately, hip-hop has been the gmat essay scores love of my life since I learned that music is not found solely on english essay topics the radio. I cannot say where this love came from. Maybe from my older sister’s mild interest in benefit pretending, it, or the hours we spent watching music videos on BET as we grew up; two little white girls struggling to keep up with the new language. All I know is, by the time I was 10, I went out and bought my first Outkast CD with the english research words EXPLICT and benefit child development essay, PARENTAL ADVISORY printed on the cover.

I also know that by english essay that time, I had learned not to 2006 higher english critical essay ask my dad to help me download a song by Snoop Dogg for my new MP3 player. I was only able to english research essay topics hide the CD until I was 11, at which point my dad found it cleverly hidden in my boom box. “What the business technology case heck is this?” he said as if he had just found an AK-47 sitting next to my collection of stuffed animals. “You’ll get it back when you know what good music is.” My dad has never really understood my taste in music. Essay? I wasn’t discouraged by that incident and chicago, as I got older my interest in english topics, hip-hop continued to grow while my dad’s distaste did too. He believes that I, like some sort of empty-headed parakeet, will start using the words I hear in the songs, and that the people I consider artists are just uneducated losers whose only mckinsey business technology case, goal is to degrade women. He recently gave me back my Outkast CD, but I can never imagine openly listening to my music when he is in hearing range.

No matter how old I get, he will always think of topics, me as his little girl and never understand how I can listen to grown men rapping about the streets, throwing cuss words at the authorities and, yes I admit it, sometimes degrading women. I wish I could explain to him that sometimes to really give feeling to role desdemona essay a song, strong words have to be used. No, not all music I listen to has a meaningful message. English Research Essay? While there are songs I listen to for the lyrics, I also listen to child development certain songs simply because they make me want to english topics dance my rear off. I admit, hip-hop is a broad genre, and with all the different rappers, singers and DJs, it can be hard to differentiate “true” hip-hop from rappers like Lil’ Wayne who are famous because they found 28 different ways to 2006 critical questions name the male groin.

But sometimes I’m moved to essay tears by artists like Immortal Technique who rap about “A generation of 2006 higher english critical, babies born without health care/ Families homeless, thrown the f*** off of the welfare.” I felt like I was let into research essay, an exclusive world filled with deep interpretations of reality and stark truths. Even when the subject of a song is brief essay on environmental pollution not so intense, the poetic lyrics combined with exquisite beats can become works of art. My heart melts each time I hear Andre 3000, one of the members of Outkast, rap, “I hope that you’re the one/ If not you are the prototype,” in his smooth airy voice while whimsical beats play in the background. Most of my music is at least a couple years old because, as the topics rapper Nas said in one of his songs, “Hip-hop is dead.” Maybe if my dad ever turned on 2006 english MTV he wouldn’t question my collection of mostly old-school rappers. I’m not saying all of today’s music is bad, but how can pop stars with voices as fake as their awards performances and whiney, wannabe rappers even be considered music? I respect my dad greatly, and value his opinion very much, but I wish he could understand my taste in music because as I listen to it day after day, it becomes more and more integrated into my thoughts, my actions and my view of the world. English Research? In fact, I am turning on my recently returned CD as I type these last words: Long live Outkast. Author’s name withheld. It feels like every time my mother and I start to have a casual conversation, it turns into a full-blown argument.

We could be talking about role essay, something as simple as dinner plans and suddenly, my mother will make a snide remark pushing the harmless conversation into World War III. She’ll talk about my lack of research essay, a bright future because I don’t plan to benefit child development short be a doctor, nurse or any profession involving the healthcare field. And much to her disappointment, I don’t want to research essay be an engineer, architect or any job involving the gmat scores science field either. In fact, when I was pushed to reveal that I planned to major in English and communications, she nearly had a heart attack. “Why can’t you be like my co-worker’s son?” She’ll bemoan all the time. English Research Essay? Her co-worker’s son received a four-year scholarship to USC and is now earning 70 grand a year as an environmental engineer. 2006 English Critical? I don’t know what to answer except that I simply can’t be like Mr. Perfect as I’ve dubbed the unnamed co-worker’s son. “I can’t be like him,” I’ve told her countless times.

“Then be more like him because the research person you are now isn’t good enough,” is mckinsey studies her answer. It hurts that she can’t accept the person I am. Research Topics? I’ll never be the scores type of person who is valedictorian, student council president or even a National Merit Scholar. English? I’m the type of person who loves to 2006 higher english critical essay help out in the community, write until the sun goes down, and research, most of all, wants to pursue a career because I love it, not because of prestige or salary. I understand why my mother is freaking out role desdemona so much about english research essay, my future majors.

I’ve seen my mother struggle to raise me on business studies her miniscule salary and long hours. She leaves the house around 6:30 a.m. and usually comes home around 5 or sometimes even 6 p.m. However, I want her to know that by becoming a doctor, it doesn’t necessarily ensure I’ll be successful. Essay Topics? It doesn’t mean that I’ll have a fairytale life without suffering all the technology case studies hardships that life throws at research topics us. On Environmental Pollution? My mother can call me foolish, but the fact is, I’d rather follow my dreams and create my own future. I know there are difficulties involved, but with every goal there are challenges. English Research? It’s hard for her to essay scores understand but she has taken risks too. One of the english topics biggest risks she took was immigrating to America with me. She didn’t know what could happen or even if she could succeed, but she did succeed and paper, that is the most important part. Now I hope my mother will take another risk by accepting that I won’t be a science or healthcare professional in the future. I’ll simply be me.

By Claudia Kelly , Birmingham HS. If I hear the words “You have to leave him” one more time, I’m going to scream. Research? My parents and I don’t get along. My parents don’t understand me at all. They don’t understand why I like to go to parties and sleep in on weekends. They don’t understand why I like to higher english essay questions listen to music really loud.

However, what I really want my parents to understand is english essay topics why I am still in desdemona essay, a relationship with my boyfriend. I know I’m young and I’m sure I don’t know what love is, but I do know I like my boyfriend. We started dating a year ago on my 15th birthday. Research Essay? Since that day my parents have been telling me to watermark dump him. They keep telling me he’s not “the one” or “you’re not ready to be in a relationship right now.” My parents are just looking at the outside of him. They just don’t understand. My boyfriend, Marcus, is a good guy. He doesn’t smoke or drink or do anything harmful or put me in harm. In fact he encourages me to do well in english research essay topics, school.

My parents don’t understand that. What they see is a 6-foot-3 white male who has tattoos. They see a young man who’s going to child development pretending school because “he has to.” However, he has a job, he’s in school and research essay topics, he’s graduating with his class. My parents say I changed ever since we started dating. On Environmental Pollution? They say I used to be a sweet, smart, playful, outgoing teen and then changed to a moody, loud, angry, shy young adult. (lol) Not. Essay Topics? I’m still me; I’m still sweet and gmat essay scores, nice. It’s true my boyfriend has influenced my tastes in music but come on, be serious. After dating someone for essay topics, a year do you really think I’m going to change? OK.

Marcus is not the perfect boyfriend. We argue and we don’t always get along. What I’m trying to say is my mom wasn’t the best catch and my dad wasn’t Mr. Perfect. So don’t trip Mom and Dad.

Your little girl isn’t saying she’s in mckinsey business technology studies, love. What I’m saying is Marcus isn’t Mr. Research Topics? Right but he’s Mr. Brief On Environmental Pollution? Right Now. Please Mom and research essay, Dad, try to understand he’s not a bad guy. He’s nice and he’s my boyfriend.

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