What are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay
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Boethius’ Consolation of Philosophy Essay. Hundreds of philosophers existed thousands of years ago. It was a time when the only leisure you could probably do was think, theorize, analyze and discover things. Obviously, two thousand years can change the what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay habit of people and good kids, these days, thinking would take a lot of effort. The discovery of new things never stop as people have that urge to continue improves lives. In history and philosophy classes, great thinkers and and weaknesses in writing, philosophers were often studied. It is essays, pretty amazing to read their works and come up with such incredible thoughts at that time. Often, they talk about leadership and politics. It was a time when countries are still developed and what are your and weaknesses, lands are yet to be discovered so a great leadership was very important.
Although we would still analyze and essays on counseling, review the philosophers’ works, more often their teachings cannot be applied to the current times. Sometimes change does not only involve technology and advancement, it can also apply to leadership and certain philosophical views. A great factor would involve the what in writing essay changing times. On Brave New World! The lifestyle and the culture of the people are much different thousands of years ago. It was a time that women were limited to do domestic chores. Philosophers like Plato and what are your and weaknesses in writing, Aristotle, wrote about what they of women during that time. It was probably a time when the role of women in the society is not defined. Of course, women nowadays are powerful and strong. They have created their mark in the society and gender bias in a lot of major industries is non-existent. That is why a lot of rules and laws cannot be applied to the world today.
However, there are still some teachings that can be used up to now. Professional Behavior In The Workplace Essay! These are the teachings that involve a great perspective in life. Sometimes, an illustrious perspective on life makes a person great. Anyway, the brain is the most powerful organ that is why the mind should take control of one’s lives. Are Your In Writing! Teachings about life are very important that is nyu stern essay 3 mail, why some philosophers and great thinkers are idolized and people formed a religion to continue preaching their teachings. One of the members of the long list of philosophers is Boethius. Although not as familiar as Aristotle and Plato, Anicius Manlius Severinus is the real name of this Roman philosopher but he was more famously known as Boethius.
Boethius was born from a wealthy and educated family and like any other kids during that time; he studied poetry, mathematics and philosophy. Theodoric, the Gothic King ruling from what strengths, Italy to essays, Rome, appointed him court minister. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing! Soon, his two sons became court ministers as well. He was a bold and brave man, with thoughts envied by a lot of people. His boldness is being systematic essay, what brought him down as he became the object of vengeance of those oppressed. Boethius was known to and weaknesses in writing, check in the oppressions of good kids, some leaders. He was then accused of treason and was stripped of his dignities. In 524, he was executed in Pavia.
While in prison, Boethius immersed himself in what are your in writing, writing and there he wrote his greatest work. Essays! His masterpiece, The Consolation of are your and weaknesses essay, Philosophy, talks about random thoughts about nature, justice and evil doings. On Brave New World! The Consolation of Philosophy is a work mixed of prose and what strengths and weaknesses, verse. It is being systematic, a copy of Boethius conversation with Philosophy during the lonely years of the what strengths and weaknesses essay prisoners’ life. The work was theistic overall but it did not indicate whether the writer was Christian or not. In the Consolation of nuffield advanced biology, Philosophy, Philosophy showed Boethius how uncertain earthly fortune is and what, there is nothing more secure than virtue. Boethius was the last great Roman writer who translated Aristotle’s work. His translations were the sole means of studying Greek philosophy for a long time. His manuals on geometry, music, philosophy, arithmetic and behavior workplace, astronomy were used in medieval schools. It may seem that Boethius may be having apparitions in his prison, but these visions came with a great message and a deeper insight. Boethius saw the reason behind his imprisonment and in writing, his conversations with Philosophy ended his misery and opened his eyes to better things, better perception.
There was more to a great fortune and earthly things. It was probably some of the great things that Philosophy advised him that can still be applied up to essay, the modern times. The first part of the book opens with Boethius having some afternoon thinking and writing when all of what are your and weaknesses essay, a sudden a woman appears in front of being essay, her. He described the woman as very beautiful and having a very powerful presence. He distinctively described her dress having embroidered the Greek letter Pi at the bottom and on the top hem, Theta. There was a ladder in between the two letters. She was holding books to her right hand and a scepter in the left. She was the Muse of Poetry. Boethius was currently having one of his many melancholy moments. Tears were trickling down Boethius’ eyes when the essay Muse of Poetry became angry.
She was questioning the existence of sluts in Boethius’ place. She says that they only essay provide him temporary happiness that will not help him in his condition but instead will worsen it. What In Writing! The Muse of Poetry then pushed away the girls and they left in dismay. Boethius was teary-eyed as they left but eventually the Muse will explain why she did such thing (O’Donnell 21). The first part of the book shows how deserted Boethius feelings was in professional in the workplace, the prison that he tries to enjoy his self from getting temporary happiness. Apparitions or not, the Muse of Poetry shooed away the cause of in writing, all these but Boethius couldn’t help but feel terrible of her act he even questioned her authority. This lesson can still be applied to modern times. Often, when people have problems they are pushed to do band-aid solutions that will give them a short term solution to their problem. On Counseling Psychologist! It is such an emotional thing to do that people do not even think of the and weaknesses in writing long term effect or even the long term solution to their problem. A concrete example would be poverty.
It is a sad fact that poor people are often pushed to do the nuffield advanced biology bad thing. When a person is desperate to get food, he often steals. This solution just makes things more complicated as that person ends up ruining his life by spending it in jail. It is strengths in writing, one of the many things that emotions take over and the mind stays behind. People often think of essays, short-term solutions to their problems without considering the long-term consequences of these short-term solutions.
The next stanza talks about how the Muse of Poetry consoled Boethius grieving soul. It was very well written with descriptions of how miserable Boethius has been. She assured Boethius that everything was going to be okay and what strengths and weaknesses essay, that it was a time of nyu stern essay, healing not grieving. The Muse narrated how he brought up Boethius—being the great man that he is now. And although his situation may seem to what are your strengths, be not bright, these too shall pass for the Muse is there to protect him and assure him that his virtues will prevail in psychologist, this hardship (O’Donnell 24). This stanza was definitely was of the what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay most touching part of the book. Really, this was the consolation of philosophy and one can’t help but feel for Boethius suffering. He was deprived of the life he deserved yet his imprisonment didn’t stop him from writing wonderful works.
The second stanza also hints on the probable religion of the Philosopher—Christianity. 3 Mail! The Muse somehow reminds me of Mother Mary and how she would protect her son from danger. It also signifies that the are your strengths in writing essay philosopher believes in a supernatural being that is nyu stern essay 3 mail, more powerful than the what are your essay earthly soul. Like any other human being, Boethius was going through probably the toughest battle in his life. And every human goes through that. No matter how driven or optimistic we are in nyu stern essay 3 mail, our lives, there will always come a point that we want to give up. What the what Muse was trying to communicate was that Boethius was born and 3 mail, made greater than his problems.
And that does not exempt us. Are Your! This made be theistic, but God won’t give us a problem that we could not bear. It is just normal that we feel like giving up at times especially when all hope’s lost but all we have to do is to stick to that goal and the universe will conspire to make life better for us. The next stanza talks about how the night ended and the day started with Boethius describing his physician examining him. The physician turned out to be Philosophy and she narrated how she has been with Boethius all along. She narrated how she started with Plato and Socrates and how she has turned out to be what she is now. She explained to Boethius how she has been taking care of him all throughout his life. On Counseling Psychologist! The next stanza narrates his conversation with Philosophy. She tested him of the things he knew and are your strengths and weaknesses, welcomed him of her questions. The first thing that Philosophy asked him was if believed that life is full of chances. And he bluntly answered that God governs his creations and everything happens for a reason and he will never abandon His creation.
The Philosophy then asked him why he was in such grief when he believes that God knows the best for him. By then, the writer was dumbstruck for nuffield biology, he did not know the answer. The Philosophy knew something was missing and she was right. Are Your Strengths In Writing! Boethius soon confessed that he was overpowered by grief. He knew the answer but he was just miserable to realize that the answer was just right in front of him. Philosophy then declared that the reason of his sickness is essay prompts, his grief and it was he who created all of those (O’Donnell 28). The following lines were so powerful that one cannot help but relate to Boethius’ situation. Pretty sure every one has gone through that pain. It was a feeling of what and weaknesses, emptiness and pity.
It was as if the world has gone against essays psychologist us and what and weaknesses in writing, everything is so not going our way. At the back of our minds, we know that something great is lurking around. We just have to be patient as good things come to those who wait. It was also just a matter of believing and working for whatever it that we want. Essays Psychologist! It was a matter of realizing that we are in control of our lives—through God’s guidance that is. In general, the are your in writing teachings of nyu stern, Philosophy can definitely still be applied to modern times. We all go through trials no matter what time or age we may be. It is just a matter of perspective.
And although Boethius didn’t have any material thing left for him, it was his virtue that was more important than anything else. And that applies to all of us as well. Work Cited O’Donell, J. Life of Boethius. Pennsylvania: University of what are your strengths essay, Pennsylvania. Pages, 1996. University/College: University of Arkansas System. Type of 3 mail, paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter.
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What are your strengths and weaknesses in English?
Laissez Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: A Bibligraphical Essay by Ellen F. Strengths In Writing. Paul. Source: This essay first appeared in the journal Literature of Liberty: A Review of Contemporary Liberal Thought , vol. III, no. 4 Winter 1980 published by the Cato Institute (1978-1979) and essays psychologist the Institute for Humane Studies (1980-1982) under the strengths essay, editorial direction of Leonard P. Liggio. It is republished with thanks to the original copyright holders. Ellen Frankel Paul teaches at Bowling Green State university and is active in the Social Philosophy and Policy Foundation. She has written widely on social and political thought. Laissez Faire in new world Nineteenth-Century Britain: Fact or Myth?
A Bibliographical Essay by are your in writing essay, Ellen Frnakel Paul. Introduction: The Scholarly Debate over British Laissez Faire. Great Britain in the nineteenth century was a great bastion of on counseling psychologist individualism where that merciless principle of the political economists - laissez faire - dominated public opinion, and Parliament, under its sway, vanquished the what strengths, last vestiges of an overweaning, Mercantilist state. Captivated by systematic essay, two allied and seemingly indomitable intellectual forces, the radically individualist, antistatist philosophy of the Benthamite Utilitarians and what and weaknesses the rigidly free market economics of the Classical School, the Victorian era spurned governmental solutions to acute social problems. In its fanatic embrace of self-interest, self-help, and on brave new world themes atomistic individualism, the are your strengths in writing essay, period can only be characterized as an age of laissez faire.
It is precisely this halcyon or demonic vision (depending upon one's political perspective) of nineteenth century British economics, political philosophy, and governmental policy that has come under withering assault in essay the last three decades. Particularly in the mid-1960s a debate raged in the professional journals over essentially three interrelated issues. (1) What policy conclusions did Classical Economics dictate, and are your strengths in writing the Classical economists, as individuals, endorse? (2) Did Britain in the nineteenth century, or in some distinct portion of it, personify the ideal of on brave new world themes minimal governmental intervention in the economic and social realm, or rather, was the period the breeding ground for the rampant collectivism that would follow? (3) Finally, what was the essential thrust of and weaknesses Benthamism as a political philosophy, and as a theoretical tool for the analysis of policy; and what effect did Benthamites have upon the course of British politics? These questions ought not merely concern antiquarians, pedants, or those intrigued by semantic quibbles over the definition of laissez faire. If we are to comprehend the nature of the modern Leviathan state, we need to discern the being systematic essay, forces which promoted its creation and to examine the arguments advanced in support of its nascent powers. I. The Economic Policies of the Classical Economists. . . . the scholarship of the last forty years has proved beyond question that the architects of classical political economy cannot be characterized as upholders of the laissez-faire philosophy. 1.
To identify such doctrines [i.e., laissez faire] with the declared and easily accessible views of the Classical Economists is a sure sign of what essay ignorance or malice. 2. While such ringing declarations of a cleavage between the political economists and laissez faire may be a bit hyperbolic when applied to such figures as Adam Smith or David Ricardo, these assertions seem far less controversial when directed at nyu stern John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick, or J.E. Cairnes. What Are Your Strengths Essay. Those critics who take a dynamic rather than a static 3 view of the Classical School of essay economics agree that as the nineteenth century progressed the are your strengths and weaknesses, allegiance of leading economists to laissez faire became more and more attenuated. On Brave New World Themes. Whether one focuses upon what strengths and weaknesses in writing the death of behavior Ricardo in 1823, or the influence of Bentham's principle of utility, or John Stuart Mill's flirtation with socialism as constituting the definitive turning point toward a more activist, interventionist state, contemporary revisionist scholars concur in their assessment of the Classicals as deviationists from doctrinaire laissez faire. One might add, that for practically all of these contemporary authorities the effort to rescue the early political economists from the clutches of extreme noninterventionism is motivated by are your strengths essay, a desire to rescue their reputations, and, indeed, professional economics in its incipient stage, from scurrilous charges of extremism, callousness, and rigidity that have repeatedly defiled their memories.
With few exceptions, the Classical economists' deviations from pure laissez faire are praised as examples of their pragmatism, rather than condemned as departures from sound public policy. Being Systematic. Also, a Classical School replete with deviations, exceptions, and considerations of expediency is what are your strengths essay, a much more venerable ancestor for modern Keynesianism. Motivational considerations aside, the revisionists' interpretations of the normative side of Classical economics is essentially accurate. The conventional vision of the followers of Adam Smith as radical antistatists, shunning governmental incursions into private economic relationships on all fronts is, quite simply, indefensible. As in all reigning myths, there is, however, a solid kernel of truth. While the Classical economists tolerated, and in the workplace essay indeed encouraged, repeated governmental interventions to cure perceived social and economic ills, noninterventionism remained, to a greater or lesser extent depending upon the quirks of each particular economist, the regnant principle, and any departures from it required elaborate justification. The general presumption, then, was on the side of laissez faire; exceptions arose on an ad hoc, case by case, usually empirical basis; and the burden of proof lay on the interventionists.
Of course, over time this laissez-faire presumption was attenuated until, in the hands of men like John Stuart Mill, its dim shadow could barely be perceived. Robbins's Distinction of Two Individualist Moral Traditions: Natural Rights vs. Utilitarian. If the Classical economists' attitudes towards state intervention into the economy are to be rightly understood, we must delve beneath the surface of their various stands on such salient issues of their time as the are your strengths in writing, poor laws and the factory acts to the more fundamental level of their metaphysical and moral presuppositions. In a seminal work published in good prompts 1953, The Theory of Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, Lionel Robbins attempted such an analysis. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. Dispensing with such traditionalist views as that of Jacob Viner 4 who perceived Adam Smith (at least) as an adherent of a natural law-natural rights philosophy, Robbins contended that the Classical school took its criterion for economic policy from the good essay prompts kids, utility principle as adumbrated by David Hume.
Thus, Robbins draws a rather sharp distinction between two traditions within eighteenth and nineteenth century individualist thought. 5 The first tradition, as personified in such figures as Frédéric Bastiat (1801-1850) and Mercier de la Rivière, founded a system of economic freedom upon natural law or natural rights underpinnings which spontaneously generated a milieu in which state intervention would be not only unnecessary but deleterious. The second individualist tradition, the what are your strengths in writing, English Classical school, subscribed to a Utilitarian moral foundation, rejecting all metaphysical ascriptions of natural rights as, in Bentham's pungent phrase, nonsense upon stilts. 6 For the English economists, who followed this second tradition, the state, consequently, had a more positive function. They refused to systematic essay, lay down any categorical injunction against what are your and weaknesses in writing state intervention, relying instead upon nuffield advanced biology the principle of utility - the greatest happiness of the greatest number - to test the consequences of are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay each particular proposal for state activism. Robbins's taxonomy of two distinct traditions is undoubtedly perceptive, but it fails in one significant respect.
The Classical economists after Smith held nothing but contempt for either a natural law, deistic conception of the universe and man's place in it or for a moral philosophy buttressed by natural rights. Bentham spared none of his vituperative skills in excoriating such doctrines as mere self-serving myth, undefended and indefensible dogma, and professional behavior his calumnies banished such Lockean encumbrances from the arena of respectability. But for Adam Smith (1723-1790), Bentham's predecessor, such was not the case. Adam Smith: Naturalism and Laissez Faire. Upon careful scrutiny of both An Inquiry into the Nature and strengths in writing Causes of the Wealth of being Nations (1776) and The Theory of Moral Sentiments (1759), Smith emerges as a largely, although not wholly, consistent advocate of naturalism.
7 In his philosophical premises - a belief in in writing essay a natural, harmonious universe inhabited by men attuned by professional behavior workplace, an innate moral sense to in writing, play their part in society, and a natural harmony of interests between non-rights violating individuals - Smith adheres to principles which Robbins classified as belonging exclusively to the Continental individualist tradition. However, it is beyond question that when it came to his discussions of permissible governmental activities, Smith became much more pragmatic and seemingly utilitarian. There is a higher purpose to this quibble over the identification of Smith as either a naturalist or a Utilitarian. If one fails to distinguish between Adam Smith as a philosophical naturalist and the subsequent Utilitarianism of nyu stern 3 mail his economic successors, then one can only explain the gradual transition from quasi-laissez faire to quasi-statism as the result of what and weaknesses in writing essay social forces, the press of events, the blistering attacks of their critics, or some other equally weak or partial explanation. It is only when we pierce below the veil of a2 coursework their actual policy pronouncements, and what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay examine this awesome shift from naturalism to nyu stern, utilitarianism that we can adequately comprehend the attitude of members of the English Classical School towards the what are your and weaknesses in writing, state. Adam Smith advocated a truncated state, limited in its functions to defending its citizens against foreign and internal aggression, and creating and maintaining certain necessary public works and institutions which it can never be in the interest of any small number of individuals to maintain because the profit would not repay the expense.
8 Of course, the psychologist, inclusion of this public works category of permissible state intrusions nullifies the what are your strengths and weaknesses essay, claim that Smith was a laissez-faire purist, or a consistent advocate of natural harmony of interests. Salters Nuffield Biology A2 Coursework. But its inclusion was a harbinger of things to come, and that is its greatest significance. If the system of natural liberty broke down in certain cases, says Smith, and then we must be pragmatic instrumentalists in are your strengths in writing applying governmental remedies, why does it not break down in even more cases, inquired Smith's successors? Admittedly, Smith's own departures from noninterventionism were modest ones by contemporary standards - e.g. the state might intervene to provide such public works as roads, bridges, canals, lighthouses; to protect by tariffs industries necessary to defense and to retaliate against advanced biology foreign tariffs; to grant temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies in unexplored areas; to what are your strengths in writing essay, regulate the banking industry; to prohibit usury; and to provide state funded education to children of the indigent; and to collect taxes - but they set a striking precedent for advocating interventions in future cases where markets were seen to essay kids, operate inexpeditiously. Ricardo and Malthus: Interventionism vs. Laissez Faire. For Smith's immediate followers, David Ricardo and Thomas Robert Malthus, the presumption not of market beneficence per se but of state incapacity remained quite strong.
Given Malthusian population theory coupled with Ricardo's wages and rent theories, there was relatively little impetus to extend government's purview. 9 Of course, we would be grossly remiss not to mention Malthus's idiosyncrasies, particularly his rejection of Say's law (i.e., that supply creates its own demand, thus denying any pervasive disequilibrium within a general market). Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. This deviation from the professional workplace, position of the Classical School led Malthus to propose government intervention to correct the market during depressions, including the endorsement of government debts and large public works projects for the unemployed. From the impetus of another peculiar Malthusian doctrine, Malthus also broke the otherwise unanimous ranks of the economists in their efforts to repeal the Corn Laws. In contrast, Malthus's population theory which portended an what are your essay immutable conflict between population growth and the means of subsistence, led him, as it did Ricardo, to essays, vigorously advocate a gradual termination of the Poor Laws. It is in Malthus's introduction to the Principles of Political Economy (1820) that we first hear a refrain that would be repeated by other Classical economists - McCulloch, Sidgwick, Cairnes - that absolute laissez faire was not a doctrine endorsed by Smith and that such a blanket condemnation of all government regulation is are your strengths in writing, nonsensical: It is obviously, therefore, impossible for a government strictly to let things take their natural course; and to recommend such a line of conduct, without limitations and exceptions, would not fail to bring disgrace upon general principles, as totally inapplicable to practice. 10. David Ricardo (1772-1823) presents a curious case of an being systematic essay economist whose pure theories could have driven him to embrace interventionism, but who nevertheless endorsed a fairly abstemious and what are your strengths in writing essay consistent noninterventionism. Ricardo's theory of rent and its projection of antagonistic class interests and his prognostication of an eventual stationary state did not lead him to abandon laissez faire.
Why? Perhaps the explanation might lie in his understanding of these economic laws as tantamount to natural laws: hence, if government abridged them abysmal consequences would occur. Despite Ricardo's strong ties to Bentham, there was still a large measure of salters advanced biology a2 coursework moralistic individualism and suspicion of government in Ricardo that had seemingly little to do with his pure economic doctrines. When it came to essay, the activist campaigns of his day, Ricardo tended to adhere to essays on counseling, noninterventionist tenets: he opposed state provision for the poor, favored the repeal of the Corn Laws, theoretically opposed schemes to tax inheritance, prided himself on never voting for an increase in taxes while a member of Parliament, voted for and weaknesses in writing, repeal of a whole host of professional behavior in the workplace interventionist taxes, opposed all protectionist measures, argued for the resumption of gold after the Napoleonic War, and favored expeditious payment of the national debt. Ricardo's one momentous aberration was his advocacy of a national bank, which finally came to fruition under Robert Peel's ministry in 1844.
Despite this notable exception, Ricardo's adherence to laissez faire was more pronounced than any of his fellow Classical economists, with the exception of Adam Smith. Bentham: Utilitarian Erosion of Laissez Faire. Jeremy Bentham (1748 -1832), a melioristic social engineer if there ever was one, laid the theoretical groundwork for the enervation of the let alone principle. Colin Holmes may even understate the case when he writes: It is difficult to what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, maintain that Bentham expounded a negative view of the state's functions, for according to his principle of utility the laws and institutions of government are to be judged and justified merely by essay, their usefulness. 11. Bentham's explicitly avowed allegiance to Smithian economics was not destined to influence posterity. Are Your Essay. Quite the contrary, the legacy Benthamism would leave to posterity was inspired not by being systematic essay, the individualist strands in Bentham's writings, but rather by his collectivist tenets. Bentham, while certainly not the earliest expositor of the are your strengths in writing essay, utility principle, was undoubtedly its most zealous.
If every proposal for governmental activism must be evaluated on its merits according to the utilitarian felicific calculus, then it is only a matter of time before the being, laissez-faire principle is rendered nugatory in the wake of one enervating, rear-guard battle after another. Are Your And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. But we do not need to speculate on mere potentialities for erosion, for Bentham was diligent enough to provide an extensive catalog of what he termed agenda for government. By the time Bentham was finished enumerating various agenda, his be quiet dictum for government lay mortally wounded. The following passage offers a compendium of permissible interference which Bentham endorsed in various of his writings: . Essays On Counseling Psychologist. . Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. . to establish Poor Laws, hospitals for the indigent, workhouses for the unemployed; to levy taxes for being systematic essay, redistribution purposes and to decrease the need for what are your, direct taxes; to recompense victims of crime when the perpetrator is salters nuffield a2 coursework, indigent; to safeguard national security and establish courts and internal police; to disseminate useful information to industry; to what are your strengths and weaknesses essay, label poisonous substances; to on brave new world themes, guarantee marks for are your in writing essay, quality and quantity on goods; to set a maximum price for salters a2 coursework, corn; to provide security of what are your and weaknesses in writing subsistence by stock-piling grain or granary bounties to producers; to essay new world themes, encourage investment in times of unemployment; to grant patents to inventors; to regulate banks and stockbrokers; to promote government annuities and a voluntary government insurance plan; to establish government banks; to what are your strengths essay, establish and enforce a government monopoly on the issuance of paper currency; to engage in public works to put the unemployed to work; and, finally, to establish institutes, boards, and universities. 12. A prodigious list, indeed, and essays on counseling one that underscores the what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, interventionist proclivities of being a liberalism founded upon strengths and weaknesses in writing essay Utilitarian principle as opposed to 3 mail, a natural rights based liberalism. Most assuredly, Bentham in his philosophical, economic, and political writings incessantly urged state activism, but to in writing, characterize Bentham himself as a collectivist would be a gross oversimplification. Cohabiting in unholy alliance with his centralizing, social happiness maximizing tendencies was a core of on counseling psychologist individualism, of insistence that each person must count for one in strengths and weaknesses essay the social calculus, that governmental remedies require a special justification, and that one must guard one's liberty against an overweaning and good prompts often corrupt state. Whatever tendency Bentham had towards invoking governmental solutions was held at bay by these individualistic precepts and by his admiration for Smithian economics.
13. Mill and what strengths Utilitarian Collectivism. It was left to Bentham's brilliant, rebellious, and eventually reluctant disciple, John Stuart Mill (1806-1873) to extrude the collectivistic tendencies in Benthamism and drive the principle of utility to its statist denouement. On Counseling Psychologist. Driven to despair and a mental breakdown in his early twenties by what strengths in writing essay, the rigors of his father's aridly rationalistic, Benthamite regimen of education, Mill searched for new meaning for his life. This search led him to Coleridge, Carlyle, Comte, and even the essay new world, socialist St. Simonians.
The younger Mill's flirtations with socialism began as early as 1830. This attraction to Continental radicalism preceded his scandalous association with the humanitarian, Harriet Taylor. Perhaps Joseph Schumpeter's appraisal of Mill is a bit overstated, but it does capture much of the moral conviction which animated Mill's intellectual life: Though repeatedly changing his position in what are your and weaknesses in writing details, he was from about his middle twenties on an evolutionary socialist of associationist complexion. 14. Mill's Principles of essay 3 mail Political Economy published in 1848 became the leading text on what are your strengths essay, economics for a generation, thereby salvaging Ricardian economics and introducing young economists to an increasingly (as new editions emerged) sympathetic examination of Continental socialist creeds. For anyone familiar with the debates of the 1820s over essay new world the scope and method of political economy, the Principles must have appeared anomalous. Both Nassau Senior and what are your and weaknesses in writing J. S. Mill had drawn a seemingly impenetrable barrier between the pure science of economics and the art of policy prescriptions.
Economists, they had argued, could not, as scientists, give advice to statesmen. Curiously, Mill's Principles repaired to a Smithian conception of essay on brave political economy in what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing which the instructive powers of the discipline were, if not paramount, then of considerable importance. Apparently, Mill's motive for abandoning his art-science distinction was to present a political economy as encompassing as Smith's but bereft of essays psychologist his predecessor's natural law affinity and what and weaknesses in writing essay laissez-faire strictures. Mill's Interventionism: The Split Between Production and Distribution. One weapon that Mill employed to advance the second objective was a distinction between the being, laws of what strengths production, which were held to be immutable, and the laws of production, which could be manipulated at the discretion of nyu stern 3 mail legislators. As Mill declared in what are your strengths and weaknesses essay his Autobiography (1873), the essay, purpose behind this distinction was to underscore the flexibility of distributing wealth.
Social arrangements regarding distribution, rather than being immutable, as previous economists implied, ought to succumb to redistributive schemes, particularly those concerning private property. What Strengths In Writing Essay. It is not surprising, then, that Mill's agenda for government, under the professional behavior workplace essay, aegis of the general expediency (utility) principle, exceeded in are your both magnitude and intrusiveness that of his predecessors. Not only did he endorse land nationalization, aid for essay on brave themes, the unemployed, the curtailment of inheritance, the granting of a right to what and weaknesses in writing, relief, the enforcement of legal restraints against those among the poor who procreated, compulsory education, regulation of child labor, government housing schemes, but also the regulation or, if necessary, the nationalization of monopolistic or large scale industries. While laissez faire remained a principle to which Mill nodded respectfully, after the enumeration of his list of exceptions, virtually nothing is left of that once mighty barricade against the intrusive state. But Mill's fleeting acknowledgment of noninterventionism was even further negated by his sympathetic evaluation of the being systematic essay, socialists, St.
Simon, Fourier, and Robert Owen. While Mill's views on the particular details of socialistic schemes underwent various modifications through the years, 15 a persistent refrain can be heard throughout - that a property based free market system is transitory, and that in all likelihood human progress will result in some form of socialism. The seductive appeal for Mill of equality, fraternity, and communalism certainly held little charm for his predecessors. In fact, if men like Malthus, Ricardo, or Senior mentioned socialism at all, it was to cast aspersions upon it. In all fairness, one ought to add a caveat: Mill was never a rabid collectivist, perhaps because he was too much of an intellectual elitist and individualist to trust the what are your strengths essay, sovereignty of the masses, and particularly the stifling conformity of public opinion. Cairnes and being essay Sidgwick: The Split between Laissez Faire and Economic Science. Two disciples of John Stuart Mill, Henry Sidgwick (1838-1900) and J.E. Cairnes (1823-1875), completed in the 1870s and 1880s the Classical School's evolution toward constructing an impenetrable theoretical barrier between their economic science and what are your strengths in writing laissez faire. In 1870, Cairnes delivered a revealing essay at University College, entitled Political Economy and essays on counseling psychologist Laissez-Faire, in which he categorically denied that economics as a science had anything to do with laissez faire. Contending that the are your strengths and weaknesses essay, maxim had no scientific basis whatever, he dismissed laissez faire as a mere handy rule of practice, useful, perhaps, as a reminder to statesmen on which side the presumption lies in questions of industrial legislation, but totally destitute of advanced a2 coursework all scientific authority.
16 Cairnes also leveled a frontal assault upon the Smithian notion of harmony of interests and the invisible hand process which led individuals in pursuit of their self-interest to act in ways that prove beneficial to society. Society did not spontaneously organize itself, thought Cairnes, to what are your and weaknesses in writing, promote the social good. Systematic. He maintained that, despite the steady progression of laissez faire in the preceding fifty years, substantial social amelioration had not occurred. And Weaknesses In Writing. Ejected from the pantheon of scientific principle, laissez faire was demoted to a feeble reminder to legislators to move circumspectly in pursuit of social improvement. In a similar vein, Sidgwick promulgated a principle to replace the disgraced laissez-faire dogma: To sum up: the general presumption derived from abstract economic reasoning is not in favor of leaving industry altogether to private enterprise, in any community that can usefully be taken as an ideal for the guidance of practical statesmanship; but is on on brave new world, the contrary in favour of supplementing and controlling such enterprise in what are your and weaknesses in writing various ways by the collective action of the community. 17.
Mill and his successor, Henry Sidgwick, when bombarded with socialistic arguments condemning the essay themes, distributive effects of the free market as inequitable, challenging the private ownership of land as usurpation, and denouncing the capitalists' claim to profit as theft, conceded the distributive justice issue to are your in writing, the socialists. Here we see, most clearly, the effects of Bentham's jettisoning of natural rights moral theory with its theory of commutative rather than distributive justice. The principle of utility proved an unstable buttress for the laissez faire doctrine, as succeeding economists became less enamored of invisible hand explanations and prompts more hospitable towards governmentally promulgated reforms. If each proposed intrusion into the market must be judged upon a cost benefit, greatest happiness maximizing standard, with all the problems of measuring interpersonal comparisons of utility and unknown or unquantifiable costs that such a standard implies, governmental remedies are likely to be given a sympathetic hearing by economists. No longer would inflexible barriers, rigid principles, and what in writing doctrinaire injunctions stand between the economist and his enlightened social conscience. The weight of authority, both from original and on counseling critical sources, leads ineluctably to the conclusion that as the Classical School evolved - as Bentham succeeded Smith, and Mill followed Bentham - the connection between economics as a science and laissez faire as a policy became ever more tenuous.
Even Adam Smith, the grand mentor of the School, evinced pronounced and precedent setting departures from dogmatic laissez faire. The Manchester School and Free Trade: Richard Cobden and in writing essay John Bright. If the Classical School cannot be viewed as the nyu stern essay, great bastion and repository of in writing essay noninterventionism in nineteenth century Britain, were there other forces who did argue for a purist laissez-faire doctrine? Indeed, there were. Essay. Theorists of the Manchester School, led by Richard Cobden (1804-1865) and John Bright (1811-1889), who worked tirelessly for the repeal of the Corn Laws, would be one frequently cited example. Their status, however, as a group predominantly motivated by laissez faire has been questioned by the revisionists who view them, rather, as proponents of free trade as the fundamental principle. Cobden's support of the factory acts would appear as an aberration if one viewed the Manchester School as fundamentally noninterventionist, and as further evidence if one held to the revisionist line. Are Your In Writing. 18. Pure Laissez Faire: Martineau, the Journals, and Political Economy.
It was the good, popularizers of political economy, such as Harriet Martineau and Jane Marcet, who dispensed laissez-faire nostrums in their purest form, although in the case of Martineau her general hostility towards the state did not extend to are your, a denunciation of state provision of education. Other purist sources were the non-conformist journals and newspapers, particularly the Economist during the years 1843-1854 under the editorship of James Wilson and the Leeds Mercury of Edward Bain. It was the nuffield advanced, Economist which nurtured the budding antistatist, evolutionist, Herbert Spencer. 19 In such journals, one could find consistent and principled arguments that condemned such statist proposals as the sanitary laws, compulsory vaccinations, and are your and weaknesses in writing essay state grants to schools. In the popular mind of the time there certainly was an association between the political economists and the laissez-faire injunction against on brave themes state interference. What And Weaknesses Essay. While the Classical School undeniably did pay homage to that maxim, the encomiums became less frequent and essay more qualified as the century unfolded. Finally, in the hands of John Stuart Mill and his successors little was left of noninterventionism but a hollow shell.
II. The Age of Laissez Faire and Benthamism. Dicey vs. the Revisionists on the Reality of Nineteenth-Century British Laissez Faire and the Significance of what in writing essay Benthamism. A. V. Good Prompts Kids. Dicey's classic study published in what are your strengths essay 1905, Lectures on the Relation Between Law and Public Opinion in England During the Nineteenth Century, 19a serves as the focal point for a reappraisal of the extent of laissez faire in British politics of the period and the causes which led to its decline and professional behavior in the workplace fall. Beginning with a somewhat injudicious article by J. Bartlet Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth Century Britain, which appeared in the Journal of Economic History in 1948, a body of and weaknesses in writing revisionist historiography emerged which challenged the fundamental assumptions of Dicey's thesis: that Britain in the years 1825 to 1875 enjoyed a respite from interventionism and realized the apotheosis of individualism; and that Benthamism was the primary force inspiring this liberalization. With Brebner's typically hyperbolic pronouncement the essays psychologist, issues were joined: Conceivably, British laissez-faire was a political and economic myth in the sense formulated by what strengths and weaknesses essay, George Sorel half a century ago, that is, a slogan or war cry employed by new forces of enterprise in their political-economical war against the landed oligarchy. This seems the more likely when one discovers from good prompts, their writings that Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, who have been commonly represented as typical, almost fundamental formulators of laissez-faire, were in fact the are your, exact opposite, that is the formulators of state intervention for collectivist ends . In using Bentham as the archetype of 3 mail British individualism he [Dicey] was conveying the exact opposite of the what strengths and weaknesses, truth - Jeremy Bentham was the archetype of British collectivism. 20. The subsequent controversy has focused upon the extent to which laissez faire prevailed in the political arena and essay new world - if it did prevail - during which part of the century; and whether Bentham and his followers influenced the course of events in an individualist or collectivist direction. The weight of and weaknesses essay opinion seems to fall on the side contesting against an age of laissez faire, while the contending forces seem to be arrayed about equally on the question of the influence of Benthamism upon the political landscape.
There is, however, near universal agreement that, at least in theory, Benthamism had a strongly collectivist tinge, as evidenced by the Utilitarian philosopher's penchant for reform schemes necessitating the creation of prompts kids new administrative bodies with centralized inspectors empowered to what in writing essay, oversee compliance. Numerous examples of this proclivity are enshrined in Bentham's Constitutional Code. Dicey's Thesis: Benthamism's Role in on counseling Laissez Faire. If the contemporary debate is to be understood, we must first repair to Dicey's Law and Opinion. What And Weaknesses Essay. Dicey divided nineteenth century England into three somewhat overlapping periods: (1) 1800 to 1830 marked an epoch characterized as Old Toryism and good essay prompts kids legislative quietism; (2) 1825 to 1870 saw an England dominated by Benthamism or Individualism; (3) while 1865 to 1900 signalled the ascendancy of collectivism. 21 Dicey's characterization of the middle two quarters of the century as the apogee of strengths in writing essay laissez faire generated our contemporary controversy as did his assessment of both the nature and influence of being Benthamism upon that alleged era of noninterventionism. Upon Dicey's analysis, laissez faire emerges as in practice the what strengths and weaknesses essay, most potent and vital principle of Benthamite reform.
22 Bentham's principle that the being essay, individual is the best judge of his own happiness cast a legislative shadow aimed at the removal of encumbering restrictions. But Dicey implicitly acknowledged the malleability of the utility principle when he wrote: This dogma of laissez-faire is not from a logical point of view an essential article of the what in writing, Utilitarian creed - But though laissez-faire is not an essential part of Utilitarianism it was practically the most vital part of Bentham's legislative doctrine, and in England gave to good essay, the movement for reform of the law, both its power and its character. 23. In order to preserve this specter of Benthamite individualism, Dicey performed some fancy footwork, for example, describing the passage of the factory acts (particularly the Ten Hour Act of 1847) as a defeat for the Benthamites that set a precedent for socialistic enactments that would nurture future collectivism.
While the latter judgment seems judicious, it is difficult to what are your, maintain that such legislation was a defeat for the Benthamites, considering the number of them who were influential figures on the Royal commissions and who tirelessly campaigned for factory legislation. In chronicling Britain's slide into legislative collectivism in the latter third of the nineteenth century, Dicey displayed a more measured appraisal of the effects of Benthamism upon the creation of Britain's administrative state. The principle of utility, the thrust for parliamentary sovereignty, and nyu stern essay 3 mail the extension and and weaknesses improvement of the mechanism of government, Dicey views as the enduring legacy of Utilitarianism which undermined (and he thinks this occurred unconsciously) the dominant individualism of the nyu stern, Benthamite creed. In 1830 the are your in writing essay, despotic or authoritarian element latent in utilitarianism was not noted by the statesman of nyu stern any party. The reformers of the day placed, for the most part implicitly, faith in the dogma of laissez-faire, and failed to perceive that there is in truth no necessary logical connection between it and the greatest happiness principle which may with equal sincerity be adopted by either believers in what strengths individual freedom, or by the advocates of paternal government . The Liberals then of 1830 were themselves zealots for individual freedom, but they entertained beliefs which, though the men who held them knew it not, might well under altered social conditions, foster the despotic authority of a democratic State. . . . Somewhere between 1868 and 1900 three changes took place which brought into prominence the authoritative side of Benthamite liberalism. Faith in laissez-faire suffered an eclipse; hence the principle of utility became an argument in favour, not of individual freedom, but of the absolutism of the State. Nyu Stern Essay. Parliament under the what and weaknesses in writing essay, progress of essay democracy became the representative, not of the middle classes, but of the whole body of householders; parliamentary sovereignty, therefore, came to mean, in the last resort, the unrestricted power of the wage-earners.
English administrative mechanism was reformed and strengthened. The machinery was thus provided for are your and weaknesses in writing essay, the practical extension of the activity of the salters nuffield biology a2 coursework, State. . . In Writing. . Benthamites it was then seen, had forged the arms most needed by essays, socialists. 24. However unwittingly, the Benthamites forged the tools of socialism by are your strengths essay, creating an efficient administrative state in place of the corrupt, medieval, nepotistic one which they decried. 25. Dicey's analysis of the impact of Benthamism is professional workplace, more sophisticated than some of his critics recognize. He does not absolve Benthamism of blame for the collectivism that ensued, but he steadfastly refuses to recognize that they consciously contributed to are your in writing essay, it. The unceasing efforts of Bentham's disciples in launching a propaganda barrage that altered the on counseling psychologist, climate of opinion and are your and weaknesses won legislative approval for a large measure of the social engineering legislation of the 1840s escaped Dicey's scrutiny. Brebner's and good essay prompts kids the Revisionists' Critique of Dicey. The revisionist assault upon Dicey, initiated by J. Bartlet Brebner, focused upon two features of Dicey's analysis: (1) that there was, indeed, an are your strengths and weaknesses in writing age of laissez faire in nineteenth-century England, and (2) that Benthamism was an essential ingredient in fostering the climate of individualism that characterized the period.
Although these two issues are intimately intertwined in the revisionist literature, and nyu stern essay 3 mail also in the counter-revisionist work which that literature inevitably triggered, it will prove expeditious to examine the two arguments separately, as the commentators tended to diverge on the two as the and weaknesses essay, debate wore on. A. Nuffield A2 Coursework. Was There an what strengths and weaknesses in writing Age of Laissez Faire? Brebner's Critique of the nuffield a2 coursework, Myth of Laissez Faire. Brebner categorically denied such an era, branding it as a fallacious myth. The supposed perpetrators of a laissez-faire ideology, Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill, in Brebner's eyes, turn out to be the very opposite: apostles of state interventionism for collectivist ends. And while the state did remove its regulations from commerce in the early part of the what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, century it simultaneously extended them to industry. Almost year by year a parallel development of laissez faire and state intervention can be documented, as competing political interests vied for power. 26 Occasionally one interest triumphed, but usually the battle terminated in an uneasy compromise. New World. To Brebner, the what strengths, engine of essay new world themes change in the nineteenth century was neither laissez faire nor state interventionism, but rather the basic forces of industrialization. Yet, there was from 1832 on, that is, from the year of the what are your and weaknesses in writing essay, first Reform Act, a snowball effect of one intervention leading to the next. In the large, power passed from the land to salters nuffield advanced a2 coursework, other forms of wealth and from them to the people, but as it did so, and as the three politico-economical elements moved in and out of the possible combinations of two against one, there was an astonishingly consistent inclination to resort to the Benthamite formula for state intervention.
27. Brebner's sympathizers, the most important of whom include Oliver MacDonagh, David Roberts, H. Scott Gordon, William B. Anydelotte, W. L. Burn, and Colin Holmes, 28 have succeeded in what strengths in writing essay amassing powerful and persuasive documentation of a pervasive interventionism by the British government during Dicey's putative era of laissez faire. Their arguments, and the somewhat more feeble attempts at essays psychologist refutation by their adversaries, deserve a detailed examination. MacDonagh and the Interventionist Governmental Revolution In his influential article, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal, Oliver MacDonagh attempted to extrapolate from his earlier work on the emigration administration a model that would explain the genesis of what he conceived to be a governmental revolution in Britain during the middle portion of the nineteenth century. What And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. There were, he argues, powerful forces that contributed to this transformation in the functions of government, a transformation that definitively put to rest any belief that individualist forces could be left free to take their own, unregulated course. Conspicuous among these forces were the social problems generated by steam powered industrialization, the vast increase in the concentration and mobility of the good essay kids, population, the widespread influence of humanitarian sentiments, an increasing sensitivity of political institutions to the pressure of public opinion which generated a prodigious growth in Parliamentary investigative organs and legislation, and, finally, the possibility of solutions to social problems generated by technological developments in mass production and rapid transportation. MacDonagh argues that it was these coterminous forces that created a partial collectivism upon which the government could build in the last quarter of the century. Once one understands both the what are your and weaknesses, mechanism at work in the earlier period and essay the momentum it generated, Britain's very general collapse of political individualism becomes comprehensible. The model MacDonagh offers for explaining this phenomenon of the growth of Britain's administrative state is compelling; although critics have found fault with its detail, they have by and large displayed little desire to dispute its perception of a profound administrative revolution. According to MacDonagh's model, the first stage in the process was usually triggered by the exposure of some outrageous social evil (e.g. child labor, accidents in the mines, rampant disease in the cities) followed irresistibly by demands for a remedy:
No wall of either doctrine or interest could permanently withstand that single cry ('intolerable'), all the more so as governments grew more responsive to public sentiment, and public sentiment ever more humane. The demand for remedies was also, in the contemporary context, a demand for are your essay, prohibitory enactments. Men's instinctive reaction was to legislate the evil out of existence. 29. Naturally, resistance was encountered from the endangered interests, but the usual result was not inaction; rather, a weak compromise was reached establishing a precedent for future, more comprehensive regulationism.
In MacDonagh's second stage, new revelations were publicized, indicating that the original evils remained untouched by nuffield advanced biology a2 coursework, the earlier legislation which lacked an enforcement mechanism and, thus, left compliance in the hands of local officials. These discoveries led to the third stage, the appointment of central administrators who gradually gained expertise in their fields and became a vocal force for agitating additional legislation and greater centralization. The fourth stage in the growth of the administrative state was characterized by a new sophistication on the part of these centralized bureaucrats who began to view their mission as a protracted one. They substituted a dynamic for a static concept of administration, wherein they would play a leading role in closing loopholes and tightening the screws. Finally, in the ultimate stage, these bureaucrats became enamored of the idea of scientific expertise and adopted a more or less conscious Fabianism.
This process of what in writing administrative centralism helps to explain how collectivism spread like a contagion out of sight during the essay, century. Roberts's Attribution of the Rise of the Administrative State to Ad Hoc Responses to Industrialism. In his fascinating study, Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State, David Roberts advances a view of the genesis and motivations behind Britain's erection of the are your in writing, welfare state. Roberts's analysis is compatible with MacDonagh's contention that this statist development was largely unintended. In remedying perceived social evils, but not primarily economic evils, the Victorians laid the foundation for Britain's administrative, centralized, bureaucratic state. And they did so not out of any overarching ideological imperative, but rather from an ad hoc pragmatism which Roberts characterizes as presumptuous empiricism. Essay On Brave Themes. That the mid-Victorians were an activist breed cannot be denied once we consider Roberts's prodigious list 30 of new central administrations and commissions established during the period 1833 to 1854: I. Permanent Departments for General Administration A. Independent Commissions 1. Poor Law Commission (1834) 2. Ecclesiastical Commission (1836) 3. Lunacy Commission (1842) 4. Charity Commission (1854) 5. Registrar of Births, Deaths, and Marriages (1836) B. Home Office Inspectorates 1. Factory inspectors (1833) 2. Prison inspectors (1835; after 1854 they also inspected reformatories) 3. Anatomy inspectors (1839) 4. Mining inspectors (1842 and 1850) 5. Burial inspectors (1854) 6. What And Weaknesses. Constabulary inspectors (1856) C. Colonial Office Colonial Land and Emigration Commission (1839) D. Prompts Kids. Privy Council Departments 1. What Strengths And Weaknesses. Committee on Education (1839) 2. Board of Trade a. Merchant Marine Department (1850) b. Department of Arts and Sciences (1852) c. Railway Board (1839) d. Commissioners of essays psychologist Patent and Invention (1850) e. Office of Registrar of Joint-Stock Companies (1833) f. Design of Registry Office (1839) II. Permanent Departments for and weaknesses in writing essay, the Metropolis A. Home Office: Metropolitan Police 1. Inspectors of essay common lodging houses (1853) 2. Inspectors of noxious trade (1854) B. Office of Woods and Forests and in writing Public Works: expanded powers over Thames embankments, parks, and 3 mail numerous streets C. Board of Trade 1. Inspectors of are your and weaknesses essay London water sources (1852) 2. Commissioners to regulate London's coal whippers (1843) D. Metropolitan Sewers Commission (1847) E. Metropolitan Building Commission (1844) III.
Temporary Commissions A. Administrative 1. Oxford University commissioners (1854-58) 2. Commissioners of Tithes, Enclosures, and Copyhold (1836, Tithes; 1841, Copyhold; 1845, Inclosure; 1851, consolidated) B. Commissioners of salters nuffield biology Inquiry into: 1. Statute law 2. Cambridge University 3. Fine arts 4. Newcastle cholera 5. London Corporation 6. Charitable donations 7. Three election disputes 8. Mercantile law 9. Registration and conveyance 10. County courts. Roberts repeats a refrain that runs through the literature - that Each reform was passed to meet an observed fact, not to accord with principle, and that the transforming event was not a party platform or political philosophy, but rather the phenomenon of the industrial revolution itself. Roberts's arguments epitomize a strand of historiography which denigrates the role of ideas and strengths in writing essay individuals while attributing change to seemingly independent forces. And so the industrial revolution, with its large factories, mines, railways, steamships, and crowded cities, led to the concentration of abuses and behavior workplace essay their increased visibility, and strengths and weaknesses in writing these abuses generated governmental restrictions. Other equally dehumanized forces operated in a parallel direction, for example, the advance of science, the essay, rapid increase of wealth, a deep humanitarianism, and a growing belief in progress. In Roberts's analysis, these disembodied forces account for England's transformation from among the what and weaknesses in writing, least interventionist governments in professional workplace Europe in 1833, into one of those most involved in securing the wellbeing of its citizens by 1854. Thus, Britain succeeded, inadvertently, in are your strengths essay creating an administrative state which she didn't want. Although Roberts evidently overstates his case for mechanism over human agency as an explanatory tool of historical change, he is undoubtedly on firmer ground in his appraisal of the ideological inconsistency of the leading forces in British politics of the day.
While both the Conservatives and the Whigs had traditions of opposition to centralism, they both contributed to the creation of the administrative, interventionist state. Only one faction favored a strong, benevolent government, in Roberts's account, and that was the utilitarians, while the Tory Evangelicals, such as Lord Ashley (Earl of Shaftesbury), were also committed to reform, they did not operate from any consistent principle. Given his mechanistic viewpoint, however, Roberts remains reluctant to cede to either of these active minorities any conspicuous or controlling role in building the collectivist state. Gordon's Distinction between Laissez Faire and Free Trade. The same general theme was sounded by being systematic essay, H. Scott Gordon in his essay, The Ideology of Laissez-Faire, but with a slightly different twist. Gordon denigrates the notion that the Anti-Corn Law crusade was the result of a principled laissez-faire position, citing the absence from the voluminous Parliamentary debate of a single mention of the term laissez faire, and Sir Robert Peel's declaration that there were no more than half a dozen MPs who believed in applying that maxim to economic questions generally. What Gordon does perceive, instead, was a vigorous free trade ideology: A widespread development of free trade ideology developed in mid-nineteenth-century England, but a similar laissez-faire ideology did not.
31 Thus, a substantial fault in historiography accounts for the fallacious identification of laissez faire and free trade. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. Once this apparent high tide of laissez faire in the successful effort to rescind the Corn Laws has been disposed of, Gordon's case for an ad hoc piecemeal growth of the administrative state concludes on (by now) familiar grounds. 32. Burn's Age of Equipoise: Localism vs. Professional Workplace Essay. Centralization.
Perhaps the most equivocal position of the revisionists was enunciated by W. L. What And Weaknesses Essay. Burn in his study of mid-Victorian England, The Age of Equipoise. He characterizes the nyu stern 3 mail, years between 1852 and 1867 as a particularly confused period. 33 It becomes more and more apparent that any hard-and-fast distinction between Individualism and strengths essay Collectivism is not merely useless but harmful. The most that can be said is that public opinion had a bias toward Individualism. 34 What seems most pronounced to Burn, as to the other revisionists, is the salters nuffield advanced, piecemeal and theoretical approach to solving social problems as they jostled the public conscience. Rather than attempting to investigate the period along the what and weaknesses in writing essay, lines of a conflict between individualism versus collectivism, he perceives a bifurcation as between the good essay prompts, forces of centralization and localism. Before completing the revisionist case, we would be woefully remiss not to mention some of the key pieces of intrusive legislation that were passed in are your strengths essay the period and repeatedly cited to buttress the revisionist case. This anti-laissez-faire legislation included: the Poor Law Reform Act of 1834 which established central inspectors (as did the Prison Act of 1835); the various Educational Acts from the 1830s on, which eventually culminated in 1880 in compulsory education at state expense; the prohibition of women, apprentices, and children under thirteen working in the coal mines in 1841 (and other acts extensively regulating the mines); the various Factory Acts which from 1833 on limited the hours of work for women and children; the inspection of asylums; the extensive regulation of essays railroads; the what are your essay, creation of the Metropolitan Building Act empowering the Board of Works to 3 mail, set building specifications (all this in the 1840s inspired by the Tory Paternalists); the are your strengths in writing, Public Health Act of 1848; the nuffield advanced a2 coursework, Mining Inspection Act; Merchant Shipping Act; and Burial Ground Act of 1850; and other acts of the 1850s designed to regulate London's common lodging houses, to suppress smoke in London, to regulate lighthouses, to what strengths essay, aid juvenile reformatories, to behavior in the workplace essay, establish a permanent charity commission, to regulate the merchant marine, and to create a department of science and art in order to promote new technology. The list could go on, and every authority who makes such a compendium adduces somewhat different examples; there are certainly an abundance to choose from.
The Counter-Revisionists' Case for an Age of Laissez Faire Taylor's Case for an Era of Relative Laissez Faire. Given this overwhelming evidence testifying to are your strengths and weaknesses essay, the energy and inventiveness of Victorian legislators it is no wonder that the counter-revisionists - i.e., those who contend that there was, indeed, an age of laissez faire - advance a somewhat hesitant and qualified case. Essays On Counseling Psychologist. Arthur Taylor's Laissez-Faire and State Interventions in Nineteenth-Century Britain, is typical of this genre. For Taylor, laissez faire set the what are your strengths essay, terms of debate in mid-century, and it acted as a brake against more extreme interventionism, forcing compromises rather than simply vanquishing statism.
An example of this activity would be the salters nuffield advanced, Factory Acts in which laissez faire set limits to the scope of reform; that is, while men like Senior and what essay McCulloch supported the Act of professional 1833 to regulate the working hours of women and children, they balked at the more intrusive Ten Hour campaign of 1846. Taylor concedes that the noninterference principle was quite often honored more in the breach than in the observance: Yet while the claims of the non-interference principle could never be wholly excluded from ministerial calculation, decisions on policy often took an interventionist course. Are Your In Writing. Even when the invalidity of non-interference was conceded in principle, expediency demanded and secured policies which breached both the being systematic, letter and the spirit of laissez-faire. 35. How, then, does Taylor resolve the question of a supposed age of laissez faire? Curiously, he concludes that, in essence, such an age lies in the eyes of the beholder.
Laissez faire certainly cannot be viewed as the keystone of the arch, yet its effects were important. In fact, when we focus upon the economic realm an age of laissez faire seems justifiable. But even here, the evidence is not conclusive in the areas of banking, patents, bankruptcy, weights and measures, and joint-stock companies. What Are Your And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. However, on essay 3 mail, the larger economic issues - free trade, internal economy of industry, and what and weaknesses in writing frugality in government - Taylor sees ample warrant for a verdict of pronounced laissez faire. Taylor examines government expenditures between 1820 and 1870 and accounts for the relatively trivial increase (57.5 million pounds to 69 million pounds) as evidence of a fiscal policy of psychologist frugality and balanced budgets inspired by laissez faire. While government expenditures increased tenfold between 1900 and 1938 they increased at an infinitesimal rate in the nineteenth century; in fact, government expenditures as a percentage of gross national product fell from 11% in 1792 to 8.9% in 1890. Taylor concludes that the attempt to regulate the economy in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (and, indeed, in the twentieth) is strengths and weaknesses, as evident as the deliberate abstention from such endeavors in the nineteenth.
Set beside the experiences and policies of an earlier and later age and related to the principles and 3 mail practices followed by her European contemporaries, nineteenth century England may be said to have come closer to experiencing an age of laissez-faire than any other society in what the last five hundred years of world history. Thus, though laissez-faire was on more than one occasion honored in on counseling the breach in Britain itself and still more clearly subverted in what and weaknesses the economic policies applied to Ireland and being systematic essay India, it was until at what are your strengths essay least 1870, and arguably for a further twenty-five years beyond that, the strongest impulse influencing the shape and character of governmental economic policy. 36. Given the essay, extent of interventionism that can only be denominated economic- the factory acts, railroad and mining regulation, banking, etc. - one must remain somewhat skeptical of Taylor's rather exaggerated conclusion as indeed Taylor himself is in some of his more equivocal pronouncements. Crouch on Refined Laissez Faire and Enlightened Interventionism Undoubtedly, the most inventive of the counter-revisionists is R. L. Crouch. His Laissez-Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Myth or Reality? went to tortuous lengths in what are your in writing redefining laissez faire, thereby emasculating it to advanced, such an in writing essay extent that it is barely recognizable, all in good essay prompts kids order to what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, resurrect an age of laissez-faire. Crouch attempts to convince us that what Roberts and Brebner take as evidence of nuffield biology incipient welfarism was, rather, quite consistent with a refined laissez faire position of the classical economists.
The classical economists, in Crouch's account, embodied this refined laissez-faire position, not the what are your strengths in writing essay, anarchy plus the essay on brave, constable caricature castigated by Carlyle. Government functions under such a refined view of government's role include: (1) to establish and enforce the law and arbitrate disputes, (2) to combat monopoly and promote competition, (3) to make allowances for the existence of externalities (for example, Adam Smith's views on public works, patents, and monopolies), (4) to exercise unavoidable paternalism (as in the case of children), (5) to provide a stable monetary framework, and (6) to protect the indigent. And Weaknesses. Having redefined the being systematic essay, concept of laissez faire to include whatever the Classical economists had to in writing, say about government's legitimate powers, Crouch, to no one's great surprise, finds nineteenth-century legislative enactments in conformity with his redefinition. But as we discovered earlier, the Classical School was far from a repository of a consistent noninterventionism. A few examples ought to suffice to illustrate how far Crouch stretched the concept of laissez faire on his procrustean bed in being order to strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, make it fit British regulationism. Now, the Factory Act of 1833, the Chimney Sweep Act of being systematic 1840, the Miners' Act of 1842, and the Ten Hour acts of 1847 - 48 are pictured as measures designed to combat firm - individual external diseconomies, or alternatively as acts of unavoidable paternalism.
Dicey, according to Crouch, was simply wrong in denouncing state involvement in education or the and weaknesses in writing, imposition of minimum safety and being essay sanitary standards as inconsistent with laissez faire and the harbingers of collectivism. Rather, they were the quite natural results of a refined laissez faire position which requires a substantial amount of enlightened interventionism. Crouch fervently denies that his refined principle could justify every policy of modern welfarism. Such salient features of the welfare state as nationalization, import controls, public housing, price controls, minimum wage legislation, and agricultural support programs would remain unjustifiable. Colin Holmes, in his assault upon the counter-revisionists, unveils Crouch's semantic sleight-of hand: In seeking to reconcile classical economics with the laissez-faire position Crouch begs the question, on the grandest scale possible, by what essay, offering a compromise redefinition of professional essay laissez-faire that is so wide as to strengths, be devoid of being essay useful meaning.
Acts of government intervention that are justifiable in terms of the resulting external economies include nationalization of key industries and state provision of essay welfare schemes. Therefore, Crouch's redefined version would accommodate most mixed economies and welfare states of the late twentieth century; in this way the last 150 years could be described as an age of laissez-faire. 37. Holmes obviously has the better of the arguments here because Crouch's redefined laissez faire could quite easily embrace the welfare state measures which he declares beyond its pale with little more ingenuity required than he employed in justifying the factory acts. Holmes fired one more salvo against the counter-revisionists when he refuted Taylor's claim that a low rate of increase in governmental expenditures during the nineteenth century reflects a prevailing opinion against interventionism. If one compares the decade of the 1820s with that of the 1870s, the professional behavior workplace essay, categories of civil and educational expenditures have jumped from 1% of the national budget to what, 20.4%. The Final Judgment on professional behavior in the essay, Britain's Age of Laissez Faire How might we appraise this heated controversy over what and weaknesses in writing an age of laissez faire? The record of salters advanced a2 coursework interventionist legislation is are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, prodigious, but we ought not to dismiss too lightly the being, legislative excrescences of the mercantilist age that were jettisoned in the first half of the what are your strengths and weaknesses essay, century; e.g., the advanced biology a2 coursework, combination laws which had prohibited labor unions, the Navigation Acts, the Corn Laws, and myriad other lesser known restraints on are your in writing essay, trade. And when we consider the whole host of governmental controls over the economy exercised by modern welfare states - an ersatz currency, nationalization, compulsory social security and Medicare, minimum wage laws, massive deficit spending, fine-tuning of business cycles, etc. - the Victorian state appears singularly apathetic. After 1870, of course, the legislative and administrative landscape would be far more recognizable to the modern interventionist.
Taylor's position or Burn's may be closer to the mark in on counseling assessing England in mid-century as a contested battleground between collectivism and individualism. However, what seems fairly uncontroversial - although even here there are naysayers who view England as simply slipping from one age of interventionism into the next with nary an interregnum - is that, by comparison with the England of earlier and later centuries, the nineteenth century was a high tide of laissez faire. Spengler: Why Laissez Faire Leaves Few Tracks. Joseph Spengler raises one important historiographical point which touches upon in writing essay this question of an age of laissez faire. 38 He cautions that sources of bias may affect recent findings which indicate that state intervention played a much greater role than experts in the nineteenth century had thought. Historians may discover relatively more evidence of interventionism than was characteristic of the period simply because statist acts are much more likely to systematic, leave tracks than are events consonant with laissez faire. What In Writing Essay. Advocacy of laissez faire in written forms would be far less likely in an age where it is the regnant ideology and needs little enunciation, while government reports, pamphlets and books agitating for interventionism would be abundant.
Also, bureaucrats and philanthropic organizations prove diligent keepers of their own records, while the good, evidence of laissez faire would tend to disappear since it was composed largely of what strengths and weaknesses in writing private agreements and dealings. These factors would be accentuated with the passage of time. Spengler's cautionary remarks are revealing, and they might account for the fact that the early writers on in the, the question of the extent of are your and weaknesses in writing essay noninterventionism in nineteenth century England tended to essay prompts, view the period as the apotheosis of laissez faire. After all, revisionism is a rather late phenomenon dating from the late 1940s and it only gathered full momentum in the 1960s. B. What Effect Did the Benthamites Have on the Politics of Their Day? Brebner's Revisionist Indictment of are your and weaknesses Benthamite Collectivism. Once again, it was Brebner's article, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, which launched the revisionist assault upon good prompts the traditionalist view of Benthamism as either an innocuous bystander or an unwitting accomplice in the rise of are your strengths in writing essay collectivism. Not only was Bentham the archetype of British collectivism, on the theoretical level, but his disciples are revealed as the prime movers in being systematic every interventionist pie.
Edwin Chadwick, Bentham's amanuensis and collaborator on the Constitutional Code becomes the architect of state intervention as he industriously labors on royal commissions to promote the Benthamite ends of state inspection and regulation. Whether it be the poor laws, the factory acts, the municipal police, or the are your strengths and weaknesses essay, public health agitation, Chadwick's role and that of professional behavior in the workplace essay fellow Utilitarians was vital. Lest one assume that the influence of the Utilitarians ended with the death of are your strengths and weaknesses in writing Bentham or the aging of his disciples, Brebner assures us that John Stuart Mill, that liberal socialist, insured the continuation of nyu stern 3 mail Benthamite activism. Are Your In Writing Essay. Mill, then, throughout his independent life and thought was at bottom the Benthamite interventionist, not the apostle of laissez-faire. 39.
Roberts and behavior essay MacDonagh: A Tory Interpretation vs. Brebner. It is rather curious that two of Brebner's most ardent followers among the are your and weaknesses in writing essay, revisionists on the issue of a supposed age of laissez faire, comprise, on this question of the influence of Benthamism, the strongest chorus of dissent. 40 MacDonagh and Roberts do not deny the mammoth body of evidence of Benthamites' staffing royal commissions and good essay kids agitating for compulsory education and state provision, limitations of child labor, and are your and weaknesses essay sanitary legislation, etc. Yet they refuse to concede to the Benthamites an indispensible role. MacDonagh goes even farther in his condemnation of Benthamism as irremediably tainted with the onus of individualism. In administrative matters, MacDonagh contends, Benthamism had no influence upon either opinion at large or most public servants: . nothing is more mistaken than a 'blanket' prima facie assumption that 'useful,' 'rational,' or centralizing changes in the nineteenth century were Benthamite in origin. On the contrary, the onus probandi [burden of nyu stern proof] should rest on Benthamism.
The great body of such changes were natural answers to are your in writing essay, concrete day-to-day problems, pressed eventually to the surface by the sheer exigencies of the on brave, case . Generally, we can say, first, that the genuine contribution of Benthamism to modern government must be measured in terms of the particular actions of particular individuals; secondly, that Benthamism, insofar as it took colour from other contemporary ideologies, was an obstacle, after their fashion, to the development of modern government, and thirdly, that the 'administrative' Benthamism, where it was effective, also made a peculiar, idiosyncratic contribution to are your and weaknesses, nineteenth century administration, and one which was extraneous and at points antagonistic to the main line of growth. 41. Roberts's Case against the Importance of Benthamism for Collectivism. The most elaborate analysis of both Bentham's Constitutional Code for the reconstruction of Britain's government, and the machinations of the Benthamites in agitating for political, social, and on brave new world economic reforms is given by David Roberts in his article, Jeremy Bentham and the Victorian Administrative State. Consonant with his general aversion to attributing historical changes to the efficacy of ideas or individual men, which we reported earlier, Roberts denies to the Benthamites any pivotal role in strengths and weaknesses in writing essay building the collectivist state. But the evidence which he adduces of overwhelming Benthamite staffing of behavior in the key royal commissions, seems to belie Roberts's own conclusion. In his Constitutional Code, written in the 1830s and known to his followers (although published only in 1841), Bentham's sweeping reforms were nothing if not centralist. He called for the establishment of thirteen ministries to supervise local authorities in order to secure free public education, an efficient police force, good roads, and expeditious poor relief. Castigating Britain's amateur bureaucracy chosen by favoritism, he called for the establishment of what are your strengths a professional, paid, central administration, chosen by being systematic, competitive examination.
Yet Roberts views this reformation as embracing a belief in laissez faire and a balance between localism and centralism. He is ably and decisively taken to task by L. J. Hume on precisely these points. Are Your And Weaknesses. Hume interprets Bentham's reforms as essentially centralizing, as an attempt to reorganize the law to ameliorate social disorders. He consequently views Benthamism as in conformity with the actual reforms that built the collectivist state. 42. It is in on brave new world themes his examination of the great social and economic reform acts of the what and weaknesses essay, 1830s through the 1850s that Roberts's case against Benthamite influence is most tortured. He meticulously documents the nyu stern essay, efforts of what strengths Bentham's disciples in agitating for these reforms, but in each case he dismisses their importance by either finding some slight departure from orthodox Benthamism in essays psychologist the final product, or a certain inevitability about the outcome that would belie the Benthamites' influence. Thus: (1) Although Nassau Senior and Edwin Chadwick were the leaders of the Poor Law Reform of 1834 by comprising the royal commission which established central administrators, Roberts doubts whether Chadwick was inspired by what strengths essay, Benthamism; (2) Although the Utilitarians, Chadwick and Southwood Smith, served on the Factory Commission, the Benthamites did not initiate the on brave new world, reforms nor shape its final form, since it was fomented and shaped by the Evangelical Tories and large manufacturers; (3) Although Chadwick, Smith, and James Kay wrote reports as Poor Law Commissioners in and weaknesses 1838 and 1839 which exposed unhealthy conditions and urged sanitary improvements, the Act which emerged in 1848 was not particularly Benthamite. The same procedure is applied to the dismissal of Benthamite influence in reforms involving education, prisons, insane asylums, private charities, railways, and essay on brave the merchant marine.
All of these reforms were endorsed and agitated for by the same group of what strengths in writing essay Utilitarians. Roberts appears to have made his adversaries' case, but he adamantly refuses to concede anything more to Benthamism than being in tune with the times. Essay 3 Mail. The simple calculation of doing the strengths and weaknesses, greatest good to the greatest number, and not God's will or natural law, offered Victorian social reformers a strong justification for the establishment of on counseling psychologist a larger and more active state, one guaranteeing the well-being of the factory worker, the railway passenger, and the tenement dweller. 43 Despite this admission and the tell-tale trail of Benthamites penetrating royal commissions and agitating for state intervention, Roberts declared that had Bentham never written a word Victorian reformers would have continued their poor laws, factory acts, and strengths in writing essay education schemes, all with central inspectors. It was simply a necessity of the times. 44.
Hart's Critique of the MacDonagh-Roberts Tory Interpretation What should not be surprising, then, in the light of Roberts's own evidence undermining his conclusion, is the vehemence of the counterattacks which sought to salvage the good name of the Benthamites as avid interventionists. Jennifer Hart's Nineteenth-Century Social Reform - A Tory Interpretation of History, 45 while not the first of this genre, certainly warrants our attention for its perceptiveness in nuffield advanced biology designating the MacDonagh-Roberts school as exemplifying a Tory interpretation of history. While a Whig interpretation requires heroes and villains, a Tory view belittles the role of men, and even more significantly, ideas. What Hart finds most fallacious about this Tory interpretation is its belittling of what are your and weaknesses in writing Benthamite influence; its overemphasis upon on brave new world humanitarianism and what and weaknesses in writing essay an aroused Christian conscience as tools shaping public opinion in nyu stern 3 mail the direction of are your strengths and weaknesses in writing reform; its contention that evils were dealt with when men felt them to be intolerable; and its belief that reforms were not premeditated or planned but were the result of the historical process or blind forces. In Hart's anthropocentric conception of nineteenth-century legislative history, the Benthamites capture center stage. From the Factory Act of 1833, to the Poor Law Reform of 1834, the salters nuffield advanced a2 coursework, Public Health Act, and prison reform, Hart asserts the centrality of the Benthamites in what strengths agitating for the reforms and formulating their mechanisms. Parris's Reassertion of the Link between Benthamism and Collectivism. Henry Parris in an earlier contribution to essay new world themes, the debate, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, 46 emphasized the unconscious influence of ideas on men's minds, so that if not everyone who was instrumental in and weaknesses essay propagating reforms had read Bentham, his ideas still could have been decisive as they influenced the intellectual climate of the day. Being Systematic. It may be perfectly true, as MacDonagh suggested, that public servants in general had not read Bentham, yet one Edwin Chadwick counted for more than many hundred of public servants. Furthermore, MacDonagh's model fails to explain either why the transition to what essay, centralism occurred when it did, or why it did not occur long before.
The missing ingredient is Benthamism. Parris replies to those who devalue the Benthamites' influence with a model of his own, one which underscores the centrality of the essays on counseling, Utilitarians. He maintains that the nineteenth-century revolution in government cannot be understood without an examination of the part played by thought, that is, by ideas about political and social organization. Dicey astutely made this very point when he drew the connection between law and public opinion. In this relationship between law and opinion, the nineteenth century separates into two distinct periods with the dividing line falling in 1830. Throughout the second period, the dominant current of opinion was Utilitarian. Prompted by the principle of utility as its central core, the Utilitarians agitated for what essay, considerable extensions of both laissez faire and of state intervention simultaneously. Nyu Stern Essay. And once central administrative officers were appointed to administer the new reforms, a device promoted by the Utilitarians, these bureaucrats played a leading role in legislation, including the and weaknesses essay, development of their own powers. 47 Now, Benthamism moves with the spirit of the age, but it does so as a prime mover not a disinterested or reluctant bystander. Bentham was working with the grain. But it does not follow that the same solutions would have been reached had he never lived.
48 A description of Edwin Chadwick, which Parris takes from R. Salters Advanced Biology A2 Coursework. A. Lewis's study, will suffice to demonstrate the nature of the faith that drove the Benthamite who was most instrumental in agitating for what strengths and weaknesses, the interventionist reforms: He had great faith in self-interest. He commended it as the spring of individual vigour and efficacy; and it figures prominently in his thought as the most persistent and calculable element in human character. But he saw no evidence at all that social benefits resulted of necessity from its pursuit, and much which persuaded him that without the on counseling, barriers erected by the law its undirected energies might disrupt society. He put his trust, therefore, not in the rule of some 'invisible hand' blending the interests of the individual and society in a mystic reconciliation, but in the secular authority of the state which, abandoning the superstitions of laissez-faire, should intervene to guide the activities of individuals towards the desirable goods of communal welfare. 49. The Final Judgment on the Role of Benthamism. What conclusions may one draw from this heated controversy over the extent of Benthamite influence in propelling Britain towards the welfare state? The preponderance of evidence indicates that in both Bentham's own writings - whether it be on and weaknesses in writing, political administration, economics, or social problems - and in the political activities of the Utilitarians in Parliament, in the bureaucracy, and on the royal commissions, a highly significant, if not indispensable, buttress for state interventionism is apparent.
Chadwick and his Utilitarian associates were in the thick of the essay, polemical movement for every piece of what are your and weaknesses interventionist legislation of the second quarter of the nineteenth century. Although it is undeniably true that they were aided and abetted by Evangelical Tory reformers, their efforts were far from inconsiderable or expendable. The history of advanced Britain's movements away from laissez faire, if indeed there ever was an archetypal period of laissez faire, can only be understood once the Benthamites are awarded their proper and are your strengths essay leading role. Whether Britain in the middle quarter of the nineteenth century epitomized a golden era of laissez faire, or whether the Benthamites precipitated a period of collectivism or individualism, both of these disputes pale in significance before an indisputable fact. The final two or three decades of the century, virtually all analysts agree, marked the arrival of the age of collectivism. By any yardstick, this was a triumphal period of legislative interventionism: compulsory state supported education was enacted by a series of acts in 1870, 1880, and 1891; the Public Health Act of 1875 provided for slum clearance; an all-encompassing factory act passed in 1878, extending the purview of earlier legislation; the Arbitration Acts (1867-1896) established government boards of inquiry to arbitrate labor disputes; and by the Employer's Liability Act (1880) and the Workmen's Compensation Act (1897) employers were compelled by law to insure workers against industrial accidents. In foreign affairs, too, the old liberal doctrine suffered an undignified demise, as new forces arose championing internationalism, militarism, imperialism, and even protectionism. Britain's Slide to Statism and good kids Imperialism: Collectivism or Liberalism?
Commentators have long striven to explain this recrudescence of statism and imperialism. Of course, for those who view the period from 1825 to 1870 as incipiently collectivist, the transition allows a felicitous explanation, i.e., it was simply a logical development, a mere gaining of momentum on a foreordained course. What And Weaknesses Essay. Others, who perceive a decisive breach around the years 1865 or 1870, offer complementary explanations of the ascendancy of the corporate state. As Winston Churchill wrote: The great victories had been won. All sorts of lumbering tyrannies had been toppled over. Authority was everywhere broken, slaves were free. Conscience was free.
Trade was free. But hunger and squalor were also free and the people demanded something more than liberty. How to fill the professional behavior workplace essay, void was the riddle that split the what strengths essay, liberal party. 50. It was not as though liberalism had failed, but in a strange, convoluted way it had succeeded too well.
Thus, men began searching for direct remedies to shore up the remaining deficiencies of the social order, deficiencies made all the more conspicuous by the urbanization of the country and nuffield advanced the attendant concentrations of deformities in in writing plain view. Herbert Spencer's Account of Britain's Rebarbarization Perhaps the most eloquent and persuasive explanation of Britain's slide into rebarbarization, was propounded by behavior workplace essay, a philosopher who mourned the death of the Old Liberalism more acutely than any of his contemporaries. Herbert Spencer (1820-1903), in a series of essays published as The Man Versus the State and written in the early 1880s, decried the path taken by liberalism. 51 The new Liberals, Spencer charged, forgot the animating heart of their beliefs - that is, individual freedom as opposed to state coercion - and rather than seeking the popular good by what strengths and weaknesses essay, indirect, market means, by relaxing restraints on individual enterprise, they began to search for on counseling psychologist, easy fixes, for direct, governmental means to what and weaknesses in writing essay, advance the social good. A curious phenomenon occurred, then; for precisely when social evils decreased, the denunciation of them increased. And the public began demanding the therapeutic intervention of the state. Each piece of nyu stern 3 mail meddlesome legislation served as precedent increasing the momentum for what strengths in writing essay, further regulation, and Spencer became increasingly pessimistic, convinced that Britain was ineluctably slipping into a new age of feudalistic militarism.
Various Factors Contributing to Anti-Laissez Faire. Reverberating through the explanations offered by professional behavior in the, the commentators - whether it be Spencer, Dicey, Schumpeter, or Hutchison 52 - are the following causes or factors: (1) the second and what strengths essay third parliamentary reform acts which finally created universal manhood suffrage (1867, 1884) 53 ; (2) the cumulative effect of the denigration of laissez faire by influential cultural critics such as Carlyle and Ruskin; novelists such as Dickens, Thackery, and Flaubert; and romantic poets like Shelley, Wordsworth and Coleridge; (3) the salters advanced a2 coursework, rise of a working class labor movement combined with an what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay intellectual cadre in salters nuffield advanced biology the form of are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay Fabian socialists (precipitated by a severe depression); and (4) the a2 coursework, erosion of belief in what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay noninterventionism and self-help among the business class and, also, among the leading economists. This last factor cannot be denied, for the most influential successors of John Stuart Mill, W. S. Jevons and John Marshall, found not only interventionism alluring but, in the case of new world themes Marshall, socialism appealing. Is the Drift from Capitalism to Socialism Inevitable? Marxist interpreters, nurtured by V. I. Lenin's Imperialism, perceive an inevitability about in writing this genesis of imperialism out of salters nuffield advanced biology capitalism. According to this interpretation, imperialism is the are your in writing, final stage of capitalism that arises inevitably out of the new conditions of large-scale production as capitalists try to stave off the fall in profits by exporting their surplus products.
Joseph Schumpeter, oddly enough, propounds a similar theory, relying again on some inherent, ineluctable feature of capitalism to professional in the essay, explain the transition to collectivism: as Schumpeter wrote: . one need not be a Marxist in order to realize that the what are your strengths essay, private enterprise system tends to develop toward a socialist form of organization. The facts we have been discussing . however ominous they may have been for the bourgeoise order of things, were therefore part and parcel of this very order and in this sense perfectly 'natural.' 54. The Final Verdict on the Demise of Laissez faire: Utilitarianism vs. Themes. Natural Rights. We do not, however, need to what in writing essay, repair to arguments from good essay prompts, inevitability to explain the tremendous outpouring of interventionist legislation in and weaknesses essay the last quarter of the nineteenth century. Leading intellectuals, the heirs of the Classical Economists conspicuous among them, diligently labored to demonstrate that economic science most certainly did not lead to the policy principle of being systematic laissez faire. What Are Your Strengths In Writing Essay. Thus, by being systematic essay, the close of the century scarcely any voices were heard championing noninterventionism as the solution to perceived social dislocations.
Herbert Spencer stood nearly alone in his advocacy both of laissez faire and of a natural rights moral theory which spurned any taint of Utilitarian pragmatism. Certainly, the are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, Utilitarians played a leading role in essay 3 mail removing that sturdy barrier against ad hoc interventionism - natural rights - and for this alone they can claim a great deal of credit for what are your strengths in writing essay, the piecemeal movement towards collectivism. Their efforts were far from insubstantial, as we have seen, in the realm of practical politics, as Edwin Chadwick and his associates labored unstintingly for universal education, the factory acts, sanitary legislation, and a reformed administrative state. In all likelihood, Britain in the earlier part of the nineteenth century did not embrace a version of laissez faire that would warm the heart of a purist. Perhaps W. T. Hutchison came closest to the mark when he wrote that a new interventionism arose in midcentury before the old interventionism had been fully expunged. 55 Yet it is undeniable that liberalism and the spirit of nyu stern essay governmental quiescence enjoyed greater respectability than at any time before or since. Journals, newspapers, popular novels, and the earlier economists labored to secure respectability for the ideal of limited government. While the defense promulgated by and weaknesses in writing essay, the political economists was flawed, they, nevertheless, succeeded in erecting the principle of laissez faire as a bulwark against state intervention in the market. Admittedly, it was a crumbling bulwark, increasingly so as the century progressed. But what distinguishes that earlier epoch from our own is that the interventionists rather than the free-marketers were the ones constantly on the defensive. For each proposed act of governmental regulation a case had to be made - the general presumption against the meddlesome state was at least that strong.
Today the contest would be limited to competing schemes all exhibiting the same interventionist feature of governmental solutions to social problems. It is this influence, more than anything else, that would earn Victorian England her designation as an age of laissez faire. Full citations for works listed in the footnotes may be found in the following Bibliography.  Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire in Theory and Practice: Britain, 1800-1875, Journal of European Economic History 5(Winter 1970):680.  Lionel Robbins, The Theory of nuffield advanced a2 coursework Economic Policy in English Classical Political Economy, p. 37. For appraisals of the extent of adherence to laissez faire among the what are your strengths, classical political economists see: G. Essay On Brave New World Themes. J. Stigler, The Economist and the State, The American Economic Review 55(March 1965):1-18; W. D. What Strengths. Grampp, Economic Liberalism, and On the History of nuffield advanced biology Thought and Policy, Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association 55(May 1965):128-142; Jacob Viner, Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire, Journal of Political Economy 35(1927), reprinted in are your strengths and weaknesses essay Viner, The Long View and the Short; Joseph A. Schumpeter, History of salters Economic Analysis; Warren A. Samuels, The Classical Theory of Economic Policy; Thomas Sowell, Classical Economics Reconsidered; T. W Hutchison, 'Positive' Economics and Policy Objectives.
 E.g., Arthur J. What Are Your Strengths Essay. Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, takes a dynamic view focusing upon both the shift of nyu stern essay 3 mail position by strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, such figures as Senior and McCulloch over a twenty year period and the general movement away from workplace essay, laissez faire among the economists who succeeded Ricardo. Others, Sowell for one, tend to view the Classicals in a more static view with their differences on individual issues displayed but without generating a definite trend.  Viner, The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, The Journal of Law and Economics 3(October 1960):60. It is clear, moreover, that for Adam Smith laissez-faire, beyond its material benefits, had ethical or moral value in are your and weaknesses in writing essay that it left to the individual unimpaired that 'natural system of a2 coursework liberty' to which he had a natural right. It is quite probable, therefore, that Adam Smith would have rejected an extensive program of state regulation of economic enterprise even if he had believed that the wealth of what are your in writing nations would thereby be augmented. See: R. Lindgren, The Social Philosophy of Adam Smith for essay new world, an interpretation of Smith as outside the natural rights tradition.
 Lionel Robbins, Theory of Economic Policy, p. 177.  Jeremy Bentham, Anarchical Fallacies, Works, II, p. 501.  See Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and Economic Science, Chapter I.  Adam Smith, A n Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations, IV, ix, p. 51.  Others, now called Ricardian socialists, would employ Ricardo's theory of rent to argue for and weaknesses in writing essay, land nationalization. After all, if landowners enjoy windfall returns as a result of the scarcity of behavior in the workplace essay land and the premium paid for more advantageous plots, and strengths in writing essay not as a result of any merit on their part, why not nationalize the systematic essay, unjust returns.
Such, of what are your and weaknesses in writing essay course, was not Ricardo's opinion; rather, he argued for repeal of the Corn Laws to forestall for a short period the time of reckoning.  Thomas Robert Malthus, An Essay on essay on brave, the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, p. 16.  Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire Theory and Practice, p. 677.  Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and Economic Science.  For discussions on what strengths in writing, the extent of good kids Bentham's adherence to Smithian economics and his place in the Classical School see: J. What Are Your And Weaknesses Essay. B. Brebner, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Journal of Economic History, Supplement 8(1948); J. W. Hutchison, Bentham as an Economist, Economic Journal (June 1956), pp. 288-306; A. V. Dicey, Lectures on nuffield a2 coursework, the Relationship Between Law and are your strengths Public Opinion in systematic essay England During the Nineteenth Century; Leslie Stephen, English Utilitarianism.  Joseph Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, p. 531.  For a detailed examination of Mill's various metamorphoses on what are your strengths in writing, the question of socialism see: Lionel Robbins, The Theory of Economic Policy, Lecture V; and Ellen Frankel Paul, Moral Revolution and on brave new world themes Economic Science, pp. 167-175.  J. E. What Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses. Caines, Political Economy and Laissez-Faire, p. 244.
 Henry Sidgwick, The Principles of Political Economy, p. 417.  For a study of the Manchester School of on counseling psychologist Economics; Bernard Semmel, The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, Classical Political Economy and the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750-1850; Norman McCord, The Anti-Corn Law League, 1838-1846.  A more extensive discussion of such sources can be found in Colin Holmes, Laissez-Faire in are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay Theory and Practice, pp. 680-682; and Arthur Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, pp. 27-30. [19a] I would like to thank Robert Hesson of the Hoover Institution for his valuable assistance in locating portions of the literature discussed in this section.  J. Bartlet Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth Century Britain, pp. 59-60, 61.  Other early historians who share Dicey's view of the nineteenth century as embodying a protected period of laissez faire include: W. Cunningham, The Growth of English Industry and Commerce in Modern Times, Part II: Laissez Faire; C. Essays On Counseling Psychologist. R. Fay, Great Britain From Adam Smith to the Present Day and Life and Labour in the Nineteenth Century; L. C. A. Knowles, The Industrial and Commercial Revolution in Great Britain During the Nineteenth Century; E. What In Writing. Lipson, Planned Economy or Free Enterprise: The Lessons of History.
 A. V. Dicey, Law and new world Opinion, p. 144.  A. V. Dicey, Law and Opinion, pp. 144, 146.  A. V. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. Dicey, Law and Opinion, pp. 307, 146.  A. V. Dicey, Law and Opinion, p. 309. Essay New World Themes. For a more recent appraisal which supports Dicey's view of the Benthamites' contribution to collectivism as an unwitting one see: Arthur J. Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in what are your in writing Nineteenth-Century Britain, pp. 36-37.
Taylor contends that there exists a fundamental dichotomy between the essay, views of the Benthamites and and weaknesses in writing the Fabians towards the state: that the Fabians saw the state as a positive tool to promote the essay, greater good, while the Benthamites took it to be a negative institution reluctantly required on occasion to secure the greatest happiness. What And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. To this extent the 3 mail, Utilitarians' contribution to the emergence of the Welfare State, however real, was essentially an unwitting one . it may be claimed with no less plausibility that had there been no Bentham the nineteenth century would have had to create one.  J. B. Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention, p. 65.  J. B. Brebner, Laissez Faire and State Intervention, p. What Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. 65.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal, The Historical Journal 2 (1958):52-67; David Roberts, Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State; H. Scott Gordon, The Ideology of nuffield advanced a2 coursework Laissez-Faire, in A. W. Coats, The Classical Economists and are your strengths and weaknesses Economic Policy; William D. Anydelotte, The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Early Victorian Social Legislation, Victorian Studies, No.
2(1967-68):225-236; W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise: A Study of the Mid-Victorian Generation; Colin J. Holmes, Laissez-Faire in Theory and Practice: Britain, 1800-1875, pp 671-688.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government, p. 58.  David Roberts, Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State, pp. 93-96.  H. Gordon, The Ideology of essay on brave themes Laissez-Faire, p. In Writing Essay. 202.
 H. Psychologist. Gordon discovers further ammunition for are your and weaknesses in writing, his case in the work of Anydelotte, The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Early Victorian Social Legislation, who examined the division lists in Parliament during 1841 to essay prompts, 1871 on radical proposals regarding political reform, the are your strengths in writing, Corn Laws, and the Ten Hours Bill. He found almost no statistical relationship between how men voted on reform and the Corn Laws, and essay how they voted on economic regulation in the Ten Hours Bill. The conclusion reached was that there was no underlying ideological consistency that prompted men in their voting behavior. Radical reform . and the regulation of working hours in factories constituted two different attitude dimensions largely unrelated to are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, each other, p. 233.  W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise, p. 217.  W. L. Burn, The Age of Equipoise, p. 150.  Arthur Taylor, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, p. 48.
 Colin Holmes, Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of nyu stern Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57(October 1949):438-441.  [Editor: This footnote is what in writing, missing in the original text. Essays On Counseling. In the Bibligraphy the following work by Spengler is listed: Spengler, Joseph A. Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of what Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57,5 (October 1949):438-441.]  J. Brebner, Laissez-Faire and State Intervention, p. 69.  For a competent survey article on this topic see: Valerie Cromwell, Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century Administration: An Analysis, Victorian Studies 9, No. 3(March 1966):245-254.  Oliver MacDonagh, The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government, pp. 65, 66-67.
 L. J. Hume, Jeremy Bentham and the Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government, The Historical Journal 10, No. 4(1967):361-375.  David Roberts, Jeremy Bentham and the Victorian Administrative State, Victorian Studies (March 1959):207.  For other authorities who concur with MacDonagh and Roberts in disparaging the influence of Benthamism upon British collectivism see: Kitson Clark, The Making of Victorian England; R. L. Behavior In The. Lambert, A Victorian National Health Service - State Vaccination, 1855-71, Hist. Fl. V(1962), pp. 1-18; Robert M. Gutchen, Local Improvements and Centralization in Nineteenth-Century England, Hist. Fl. Strengths And Weaknesses. 4(1961):85-96; W. L. Burn, Age of Equipoise.
 Jennifer Hart, Nineteenth-Century Social Reform: A Tory Interpretation of History, Past and Present, No. 31(July 1965):39.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, Historical Journal 11(1960):17-37.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution, p. Essay Prompts Kids. 35.  Henry Parris, The Nineteenth-Century Revolution, p. 36.
For other authorities who view the influence of the Benthamites upon the creation of the Victorian administrative state as profoundly significant see: Sidney and Beatrice Webb, English Poor Law History, Part II; B. What Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. L. Essay Prompts Kids. Hutchins, The Public Health Agitation; Elie Halevy, The History of the English People in and weaknesses in writing essay the Nineteenth Century; Samuel Finer, The Life and Times of nyu stern essay 3 mail Edwin Chadwick, pp. 12-37,74-75.  R. A. Lewis, Edwin Chadwick and the Public Health Movement, p. 188.  W. I. Churchill, Lord Randolph Churchill, pp. 268-69, as quoted in Viner, The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, p. What. 68.  Herbert Spencer, The Man Versus the State, see particularly The New Toryism, The Coming Slavery, and From Freedom to Bondage.  W. Hutchison, A Review of Economic Doctrine 1870-1929.  Dicey discounts this factor, remarking on the tendency of the rich to either feebly resist or explicitly favor collectivist legislation. Dicey, Law and essays Opinion, p. 218.  Schumpeter, History of Economic Analysis, p. 763.  Hutchison, A Review of Economic Doctrine, Ch.
I. Anydelotte, William D. The Conservative and Radical Interpretations of Early Victorian Social Legislation, Victorian Studies 11,2(1967-68):225-236. Bentham, Jeremy. Anarchical Fallacies, in what and weaknesses essay The Works of Jeremy Bentham. Vol. Essays Psychologist. II. Ed. John Bowring.
Edinburgh: William Tait, 1839. Blaug, Marc. Economic Theory in Retrospect. Homewood, Illinois: Richard D. Irwin Press, 1962, 1968. _______. Ricardian Economics.
New Haven: Yale University Press, 1958. Brebner, J. B. Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain, Journal of Economic History, Supplement (1948):59-70. Burn, W. L., The Age of Equipoise: A Study of the Mid-Victorian Generation. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1964. Cairnes, J. E. Political Economy and Laissez-Faire, Essays on Political Economy. London: Macmillan, 1873. Checkland, S. G. The Rise of what are your strengths essay Industrial Society in England: 1815-1885. 1964. Clark, Kitson.
The Making of Victorian England. London, 1962. Cromwell, Valerie. Interpretations of Nineteenth-Century Administration: An Analysis, Victorian Studies 9,3(March 1966):245-254. Crouch, R. L. Laissez-Faire in Nineteenth-Century Britain: Myth or Reality? The Manchester School, 35(September 1967):199-215. Cunningham, W., The Growth of English Industry and systematic essay Commerce in Modern Times, Part II; Laissez Faire. What Strengths And Weaknesses. 1905. Dicey, A. V. Lectures on the Relationship between Law and Public Opinion in England During the essays on counseling psychologist, Nineteenth Century. Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. London: Macmillan, 1905. Fay, C. R. Great Britain From Adam Smith to the Present Day.
1928. _______. Life and Labour in professional in the workplace essay the Nineteenth Century. Cambridge, 1920. Fetter, Frank. Are Your Essay. Development of British Monetary Orthodoxy, 1797-1875. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1965.
Finer, Samuel. The Life and Times of behavior Edwin Chadwick. London, 1952. Gordon, H. Scott. The Ideology of Laissez-Faire, in A. W. Coats, The Classical Economists and Economic Policy. London: Methuen and Co. What Strengths In Writing. Ltd., 1971. _______. Laissez-Faire, International Encyclopedia of the essays, Social Sciences.
New York, 1968. Grampp, William D. Economic Liberalism. New York; 1965. _______. On the History of Thought and Policy, Papers and Proceedings of the American Economic Association 55(May 1965):128-142. ________. The Manchester School of Economics. Oxford, 1960. Gutcher, Robert M. Local Improvements and Centralization in Nineteenth-Century England. Hist.
Fl. 4(1961):85-96. Halevy, Elie. Are Your And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. The Growth of Philosophical Radicalism. London: Faber and Faber, 1952. _______. The History of the English People in on counseling the Nineteenth Century. New York: Harcourt, Brace and what are your Co., 1924.
Hart, Jennifer. Nineteenth Century Social Reform: A Tory Interpretation of History, Past and Present 31(July 1965). Himmelfarb, Gertrude. Bentham Scholarship and the Bentham Problem, Journal of Modern History 41(1969):189-206. Holmes, Colin J. Laissez-Faire in Theory and Practice: Britain 1800-1875.
Journal of European Economic History 5,3(Winter 1976). Hume, L. J. Jeremy Bentham and the Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government, The Historical Journal 10,4(1967):361-375. Hutchins, B. L. The Public Health Agitation. London, 1929. Hutchison, T. W. Essays On Counseling Psychologist. Bentham as an Economist, Economic Journal (June 1956):288-306. _______. 'Positive' Economics and Policy Objectives. What And Weaknesses. London: George Allen and Unwin, 1964. . _______. A Review of Economic Doctrine 1870-1929. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1953, 1966. Knowles, L. Advanced Biology. C. A. The Industrial and Commercial Revolution in what are your strengths and weaknesses Great Britain During the nyu stern 3 mail, Nineteenth Century. 1921.
Lambert, R. Central and Local Relations in Mid-Victorian England: The Local Government Act Office, 1858-71, Victorian Studies, 6(1962):121-150. _______. A Victorian National Health Service - State Vaccination, 1855-71, Hist. Fl. 5(1962):1-18.
Lenin, V. I. Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, 1917. Lewis, R. A. Edwin Chadwick and are your essay the Public Health Movement. 1952. Lindgren, R. Essay. The Social Philosophy of Adam Smith. The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1973. Lipson, E. Planned Economy or Free Enterprise: The Lessons of History. 1944. MacDonagh, Oliver. The Nineteenth-Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal. The Historical Journal 1(1958):52-67.
MacGregor, D. H. Economic Thought and Policy. What Are Your And Weaknesses. Oxford, 1949. McCord, W. The Anti-Corn Law League, 1838-46. London, 1958. Malthus, T. Professional In The Workplace Essay. R. An Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future Improvement of Society, 2nd ed. London: William Pickering, 1836 (First Edition, 1798).
Mill, John Stuart. Principles of Political Economy: With Some of Their Applications to Social Philosophy. Sir William Ashley, ed. New York: Augustus M. Kelley, 1969. Parris, Henry. The Nineteenth Century Revolution in Government: A Reappraisal Reappraised, Historical Journal 2(1960):17-37.
Paul, Ellen Frankel. Moral Revolution and Economic Science: The Demise of Laissez-Faire in Nineteenth-Century British Political Economy. Westport, Connecticut: Greenwood Press, 1979. Polanyi, Karl. The Great Transformation. 1944. Robbins, Lionel.
The Theory of Economic Policy in what strengths English Classical Political Economy. London: Macmillan and Co., 1953. Roberts, David. Jeremy Bentham and essays psychologist the Victorian Administrative State, Victorian Studies 3(March 1959):193-210. _______. Victorian Origins of the British Welfare State. Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing Essay. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1960. _______. Tory Paternalism and Social Reform in Early Victorian England. American Historical Review 63(1958):323-337. Samuels, Warren A. The Classical Theory of Economic Policy.
Cleveland: World Publishing Co., 1966. Schumpeter, Joseph A. Essay. History of Economic Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press, 1954. Schwartz, Pedro. The New Political Economy of and weaknesses in writing J. S. Mill. Durham, North Carolina: Duke University Press, 1972. Semmel, Bernard. The Rise of Free Trade Imperialism, Classical Political Economy and essay the Empire of Free Trade and Imperialism, 1750-1850. Cambridge, 1970. Sidgwick, Henry.
The Principles of Political Economy, 3rd ed. Strengths And Weaknesses. New York: Kraus Reprint Co., 1969. Smith, Adam. An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations. Eds. R. Salters Nuffield Advanced Biology. H. Campbell and A. S. Skinner.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1976. Sowell, Thomas. Classical Economics Reconsidered. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1974. Spencer, Herbert. The Man Versus the State. Caldwell, Idaho: Caxton Publishers, 1965. Spengler, Joseph A. Laissez-Faire and Interventionism: A Potential Source of Historical Error, Journal of Political Economy 57,5(October 1949):438-441. Stephen, Leslie. English Utilitarianism. 3 vols.
London: Duckworth, 1900. Stigler, G. J. The Economist and the State, The American Economic Review 55(March 1965):1-18. Taylor, Arthur J. Laissez-Faire and State Intervention in Nineteenth-Century Britain. London: Macmillan, 1972. Viner, J. Adam Smith and Laissez-Faire, Journal of Political Economy 35(1927), reprinted in Viner, The Long View and the Short. _______. The Intellectual History of Laissez-Faire, The Journal of Law and Economics 3(October 1960):45-69. Webb, Sidney and are your strengths in writing Beatrice. English Poor Law History, Part II. Professional Behavior. London: 1929. Woodard, Calvin.
Reality and Social Reform: The Transition from Laissez-Faire to the Welfare State, Yale Law Journal 72,2(December 1962):286-328. Last modified April 13, 2016. Copyright ©2004 - 2017 Liberty Fund, Inc. All rights reserved. Application designed and developed by Walter Davis Studio.
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Strengths and Weaknesses essays
Paradise Lost: possible thesis topics. John Milton’s 17th-century masterpiece Paradise Lost is an epic poem of biblical proportions. It explores universal themes whilst providing a rich religious tale of opposites. And it is are your and weaknesses in writing essay, between opposites where the most interesting aspects of essay 3 mail this epic poem lie. On one hand we have the devil, Satan, banished from heaven, a sinner and a master schemer.
It is her who ultimately one must hold responsible for the fall of man. On the what strengths and weaknesses in writing, other hand, we have God, his devout angels and Adam and Eve, all of advanced biology whom anybody within the Western world will have encountered in numerous guises. On one side, there is strengths in writing, sin and on the other there is purity. One might say neither could exist without the other, and this is perhaps a central theme within the poem. Essays On Counseling Psychologist? And of course, one cannot the obvious backdrop to all of these opposites: heaven and hell, the ultimate opposites, opposed in every sense. One is in the sky, the other below the ground, one is light, the other is dark, one is full of pleasure, the in writing, other pain. It is the ultimate way in essay new world themes, which to symbolise opposition. Good and evil, right and what are your and weaknesses in writing essay, wrong.
But what about between these opposites? What lies these? Of the many thesis topics one could use to write about Paradise Lost, or indeed, simply to write essays on nyu stern 3 mail, Paradise Lost , the notion of opposites and the abyss which lies between those opposites is a vast plain, one in what and weaknesses in writing essay, which one can attempt to find the complicated and uncomfortable truths within Paradise Lost, the essay on brave new world, flaws of man and what in writing essay, the flaws of good prompts kids purity, the flaws in our perception of the wholly evil. These are themes and what and weaknesses essay, potential topics for discussion that could be explored at great length should anybody wish to do so. Nyu Stern 3 Mail? One possible example of an effective thesis topic might be an exploration of the character of Satan, simultaneously the hero and the villain too, embodying and occupying both paradoxical positions in the poem as our flawed antihero, hellbent on destroying the purity of man and of God’s earth in what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, general, whilst also obtaining a degree of sympathy from the reader thanks to Milton’s humanisation of an essays psychologist eternally cursed and epically feared creature. is Satan evil? Is Satan a hero? Is God, rather than the devil, actually the villain? It is and weaknesses, sometimes, and more so in Paradise Lost, a case not of opposites, but of nyu stern grey areas. Grey areas that pervade through a seemingly black and what are your, white universe. A Paradise Lost essay, of course, cannot be complete without a deep discussion of religious ideology, and namely Christian religious doctrine, without which many of the poems integral themes, characters and the plot would not be understood in the way it is.
And this is the same for any essay, be it a Paradise Lost essays or just a generic essay , the context in professional in the workplace essay, which any given work was written, the what strengths, influences that had an impact on the work, and systematic essay, the motivations of the person who produced it must be scrutinised and in writing, understood as best one can in order to nyu stern 3 mail, sharpen the insights one can have into the work being studied. Paradise Lost essays will inevitably pay a great deal of attention to the characters, who are icons and symbols of concepts that have a powerful place in our shared collective conscience, but perhaps a more astute student should also pay close attention to Milton’s relationship with Christianity and with politics at that time. Some have stated that Milton himself, the poems author, was very critical of the monarchy, and his apparent support, or the painting of Satan in a rather flattering light, is a byproduct of his own dislike of the monarchy, in the poem, possibly represented by God and the other angels. Where he and the other rebel angels scrutinise God’s decisions, God’s loyal subjects, the angels in heaven and what strengths essay, then subsequently Adam and Eve give God all of the respect one might royalty; it is unquestionable loyalty, free from doubt and sense. On Brave? Politics is what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, never far from art, and nyu stern essay 3 mail, Paradise Lost essay questions , essays regarding Paradise Lost, and Paradise Lost essay topics should incorporate such themes in their content as Paradise Lost essays surely cannot avoid the questions of what are your strengths in writing essay politics, loyalty and especially those of the author.
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In order to are your strengths, write on it well, one needs to know it well, and to essay, have explored the themes suggested by others, as well as having their own ideas and insights into the work. The example of a thesis topic about the depiction of Satan as both a hero and villain cited in the first paragraph of this essay above in which the are your in writing essay, author discusses how Satan is simultaneously sympathetically portrayed and “is not completely evil as believed to be.” I cite the on counseling, source as it is a good example of what I believe to be the grey area, as it were, between the black and white opposites the poem initially seems to deal with. This essay also mentions Milton’s apparent dislike of the monarchy, which my essay draws upon. John Milton’s 17th-century masterpiece Paradise Lost is an epic poem of biblical proportions. Are Your? It explores universal themes whilst providing a rich religious tale of opposites. And it is systematic, between opposites where the most interesting aspects of are your and weaknesses essay this epic poem lie. On one hand we have the devil, Satan, banished from heaven, a sinner and salters advanced, a master schemer. Are Your In Writing? It is her who ultimately one must hold responsible for the fall of man. A2 Coursework? On the other hand, we have God, his devout angels and Adam and Eve, all of whom anybody within the Western world will have encountered in numerous guises. On one side, there is sin and on what strengths essay, the other there is purity. One might say neither could exist without the being systematic essay, other, and what strengths and weaknesses in writing, this is perhaps a central theme within the poem.
And of course, one cannot the obvious backdrop to all of these opposites: heaven and hell, the ultimate opposites, opposed in every sense. One is in the sky, the other below the ground, one is light, the other is dark, one is full of pleasure, the other pain. It is the ultimate way in which to symbolise opposition. Good and evil, right and wrong. But what about between these opposites? What lies these? Of the many thesis topics one could use to write about Paradise Lost, or indeed, simply to write essays on Paradise Lost , the notion of opposites and the abyss which lies between those opposites is essay, a vast plain, one in which one can attempt to find the complicated and uncomfortable truths within Paradise Lost, the flaws of man and the flaws of purity, the flaws in are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, our perception of the wholly evil. These are themes and behavior in the, potential topics for discussion that could be explored at great length should anybody wish to what are your and weaknesses in writing, do so. One possible example of an effective thesis topic might be an exploration of the character of Satan, simultaneously the hero and the villain too, embodying and occupying both paradoxical positions in the poem as our flawed antihero, hellbent on destroying the purity of man and of God’s earth in general, whilst also obtaining a degree of sympathy from the reader thanks to Milton’s humanisation of an eternally cursed and essay, epically feared creature. is Satan evil? Is Satan a hero? Is God, rather than the devil, actually the villain?
It is sometimes, and more so in Paradise Lost, a case not of strengths and weaknesses essay opposites, but of grey areas. Grey areas that pervade through a seemingly black and white universe. A Paradise Lost essay, of course, cannot be complete without a deep discussion of essays on counseling religious ideology, and what and weaknesses in writing essay, namely Christian religious doctrine, without which many of the essay, poems integral themes, characters and what strengths and weaknesses, the plot would not be understood in the way it is. And this is the same for any essay, be it a Paradise Lost essays or just a generic essay , the context in which any given work was written, the influences that had an impact on the work, and essays psychologist, the motivations of the person who produced it must be scrutinised and understood as best one can in order to what are your and weaknesses, sharpen the insights one can have into the work being studied. Paradise Lost essays will inevitably pay a great deal of attention to the characters, who are icons and nuffield advanced biology a2 coursework, symbols of concepts that have a powerful place in our shared collective conscience, but perhaps a more astute student should also pay close attention to Milton’s relationship with Christianity and with politics at that time. Some have stated that Milton himself, the poems author, was very critical of the what are your strengths and weaknesses essay, monarchy, and his apparent support, or the painting of nyu stern Satan in a rather flattering light, is a byproduct of his own dislike of the monarchy, in the poem, possibly represented by God and the other angels. Where he and the other rebel angels scrutinise God’s decisions, God’s loyal subjects, the are your strengths in writing, angels in heaven and then subsequently Adam and Eve give God all of the respect one might royalty; it is unquestionable loyalty, free from doubt and sense. Politics is never far from art, and Paradise Lost essay questions , essays regarding Paradise Lost, and Paradise Lost essay topics should incorporate such themes in their content as Paradise Lost essays surely cannot avoid the questions of politics, loyalty and especially those of the author. If one plans to write a reaction paper on Paradise Lost, one should know first and foremost, a great deal about the source text, and nyu stern 3 mail, also a great deal on how to write a reaction paper . Essay? Like any academic essay, such as an apa essay or any other formatted essay that will face academic scrutiny, a great deal of systematic knowledge must be possessed in order to write it well. A sample case study would be somebody that attempts a reaction paper without any knowledge of are your and weaknesses in writing essay that which they are reacting against or reacting to.
The whole point of the reaction essay is to draw comparisons and parallels between one’s point of view and perception of something to that of another. Without the sufficient knowledge, the arguments and insights fall apart under any kind of scrutiny. A Paradise Lost essay is no different. In order to write on it well, one needs to know it well, and to have explored the themes suggested by others, as well as having their own ideas and insights into the work. The example of a thesis topic about the depiction of Satan as both a hero and villain cited in the first paragraph of this essay above in which the author discusses how Satan is simultaneously sympathetically portrayed and “is not completely evil as believed to good essay, be.” I cite the source as it is a good example of what I believe to be the are your in writing essay, grey area, as it were, between the black and white opposites the poem initially seems to deal with. This essay also mentions Milton’s apparent dislike of the professional behavior essay, monarchy, which my essay draws upon. John Milton’s 17th-century masterpiece Paradise Lost is an epic poem of biblical proportions. Are Your And Weaknesses In Writing Essay? It explores universal themes whilst providing a rich religious tale of opposites. And it is between opposites where the most interesting aspects of this epic poem lie. On one hand we have the nyu stern, devil, Satan, banished from heaven, a sinner and a master schemer. It is her who ultimately one must hold responsible for the fall of man.
On the other hand, we have God, his devout angels and Adam and Eve, all of whom anybody within the Western world will have encountered in numerous guises. On one side, there is sin and on the other there is purity. Are Your Essay? One might say neither could exist without the other, and this is perhaps a central theme within the systematic essay, poem. What Are Your And Weaknesses In Writing? And of course, one cannot the obvious backdrop to all of these opposites: heaven and hell, the advanced biology a2 coursework, ultimate opposites, opposed in every sense. One is in the sky, the and weaknesses, other below the ground, one is light, the other is dark, one is full of essays on counseling pleasure, the other pain. It is the ultimate way in which to symbolise opposition. Good and evil, right and wrong. But what about in writing between these opposites? What lies these? Of the essay on brave new world themes, many thesis topics one could use to write about Paradise Lost, or indeed, simply to write essays on Paradise Lost , the notion of opposites and are your strengths and weaknesses essay, the abyss which lies between those opposites is a vast plain, one in which one can attempt to find the complicated and uncomfortable truths within Paradise Lost, the flaws of man and the flaws of purity, the flaws in essay kids, our perception of the wholly evil.
These are themes and potential topics for discussion that could be explored at great length should anybody wish to do so. One possible example of an strengths in writing effective thesis topic might be an exploration of the character of Satan, simultaneously the behavior in the essay, hero and the villain too, embodying and occupying both paradoxical positions in are your strengths in writing essay, the poem as our flawed antihero, hellbent on destroying the purity of man and of God’s earth in general, whilst also obtaining a degree of sympathy from the reader thanks to Milton’s humanisation of an eternally cursed and epically feared creature. is Satan evil? Is Satan a hero? Is God, rather than the devil, actually the villain? It is sometimes, and more so in Paradise Lost, a case not of opposites, but of grey areas. Grey areas that pervade through a seemingly black and white universe. A Paradise Lost essay, of course, cannot be complete without a deep discussion of religious ideology, and namely Christian religious doctrine, without which many of the poems integral themes, characters and the plot would not be understood in the way it is.
And this is the same for any essay, be it a Paradise Lost essays or just a generic essay , the context in which any given work was written, the influences that had an impact on the work, and the motivations of the essay prompts kids, person who produced it must be scrutinised and what are your and weaknesses, understood as best one can in order to sharpen the insights one can have into the work being studied. Paradise Lost essays will inevitably pay a great deal of attention to the characters, who are icons and symbols of concepts that have a powerful place in our shared collective conscience, but perhaps a more astute student should also pay close attention to Milton’s relationship with Christianity and with politics at that time. Some have stated that Milton himself, the poems author, was very critical of the monarchy, and his apparent support, or the painting of Satan in a rather flattering light, is a byproduct of his own dislike of the monarchy, in the poem, possibly represented by God and the other angels. Where he and the other rebel angels scrutinise God’s decisions, God’s loyal subjects, the angels in heaven and then subsequently Adam and Eve give God all of the respect one might royalty; it is unquestionable loyalty, free from essay, doubt and sense. Politics is never far from what strengths, art, and Paradise Lost essay questions , essays regarding Paradise Lost, and Paradise Lost essay topics should incorporate such themes in their content as Paradise Lost essays surely cannot avoid the questions of politics, loyalty and especially those of the author.
If one plans to good prompts, write a reaction paper on Paradise Lost, one should know first and are your and weaknesses, foremost, a great deal about the source text, and also a great deal on how to write a reaction paper . Like any academic essay, such as an apa essay or any other formatted essay that will face academic scrutiny, a great deal of knowledge must be possessed in order to write it well. A sample case study would be somebody that attempts a reaction paper without any knowledge of that which they are reacting against or reacting to. The whole point of the reaction essay is to draw comparisons and being systematic, parallels between one’s point of are your strengths essay view and perception of something to that of another. Without the sufficient knowledge, the arguments and insights fall apart under any kind of scrutiny. A Paradise Lost essay is no different. In order to write on it well, one needs to know it well, and to have explored the essay on brave themes, themes suggested by are your and weaknesses in writing essay, others, as well as having their own ideas and insights into the work. The example of good a thesis topic about the depiction of Satan as both a hero and are your strengths and weaknesses, villain cited in the first paragraph of this essay above in which the author discusses how Satan is simultaneously sympathetically portrayed and “is not completely evil as believed to essay kids, be.” I cite the source as it is a good example of what I believe to be the grey area, as it were, between the what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, black and white opposites the poem initially seems to deal with.
This essay also mentions Milton’s apparent dislike of the monarchy, which my essay draws upon.
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Strengths and Weaknesses essays
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The Five- Paragraph Essay A Framework for systematic, Expository Writing Different Kinds of Writing ? We write for fun. We write letters, . Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing? stories, jokes, and to share information with our family or friends. ? Most school writing, however, is essay expository writing and fits into a different category. And Weaknesses In Writing Essay? The purpose of most expository writing is to communicate ideas or answer questions. Expository Writing ? Gives information about a topic ? Explains ideas ? Gives directions ? Shows how to do something. Essay , Expository writing , Paragraph 941 Words | 28 Pages. complete one master recording of at least _________________ minutes duration every year during the term of this Agreement. Lynch Mob Records will have final . rights of a2 coursework approval on all material to be recorded by strengths in writing essay _________________ under this Agreement. On Brave New World Themes? 3 . In Writing Essay? Professional Name _________________ will perform and on brave record under the professional name _________________. What Are Your? _________________ will not use different name in connection with Mater recording unless _________________ and the Lynch Mob Records mutually agree. Good Essay Prompts Kids? Contract , Lynching , Master 1449 Words | 5 Pages. How to Write a Five Paragraph Essay Essays come in various forms, as do subjects, professors, writing styles, . and graders. In order to and weaknesses in writing, make the best of a writing assignment, there are a few rules that can always be followed in order to find success. While you can never know exactly what a teacher will like, as long as you have proven a point, you will write a successful essay . The beauty of writing is that the power is in your hands.
There is not always a right or wrong answer. You simply. Essay , Essays , Five paragraph essay 1114 Words | 4 Pages. Being Systematic? Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is vague, overlapping with . What And Weaknesses In Writing? those of an article, a pamphlet and a short story. Behavior Workplace? Essays can consist of a number of elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of daily life, recollections, and reflections of the author. Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's.
Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. read Aesop’s fables then I can quickly fill myself in what are your and weaknesses with the necessary background information I need to understand the context of these stories through an salters advanced a2 coursework . additional source; Wikipedia for and weaknesses in writing essay, example. Likewise, when I read the original story for good essay prompts kids, this essay question, I was unaware of strengths and weaknesses in writing essay what a begum, or a Birbal is. Essay 3 Mail? However, because I am a native English speaker it was easy for me to quickly find and what strengths and weaknesses in writing essay understand this additional information and on counseling make myself aware of the context. By checking the meaning of these. Emperor , England , English language 1238 Words | 4 Pages. • What is a paragraph ? • A paragraph is a collection of related sentences dealing with a single topic. • Learning to write . good paragraphs will help you as a writer stay on track during your drafting and revision stages. • Good paragraphing also greatly assists your readers in strengths and weaknesses in writing following a piece of writing. Advanced Biology? You can have fantastic ideas, but if those ideas aren't presented in an organized fashion, you will lose your readers (and fail to achieve your goals in writing). Qualities of a Good Paragraph: . Essay , IDeaS , Paragraph 1567 Words | 6 Pages. you will see that they do go hand in are your and weaknesses in writing essay hand. In Proverbs 6:6-8, it says, “Go to the ant, you sluggard; consider its ways and be wise! It has no commander, no . overseer or ruler, yet it stores its provisions in summer and gathers its food at harvest” ( 3 ). The ant is diligent by going out, on its own free will, and prepared the fields for nyu stern, his crops in the summer and then when harvest arrived, he was blessed with a bountiful harvest. This example mirrors diligence with wisdom. Are Your Strengths In Writing? He was wise by preparing.
Bible , Book of Proverbs , New Testament 824 Words | 3 Pages. Being? Jun. 17, 2013 ESSAY WRITING ESSAY . – A short literary composition of an analytical, interpretive, or reflective kind, dealing with its subject in a non-technical, limited, often unsystematic way and, usually expressive of the are your strengths in writing, author’s outlook and personality. Essays On Counseling? - An attempt. TYPES OF ESSAYS – Personal – Describes how you feel about what are your strengths essay, someone or something. YOU are at the center . . Good Essay Kids? Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. ???,????????????? ESSAY ? Essay ????????,???????????????????????????? 2?? ?? ?????? 1.main idea?? example 2.supporting . What Strengths In Writing Essay? parts 3 .concluding sentence ??? ??????? ESSAY ??????,????????????? ??journal ? ESSAY ????,journal?????,??????????,??,?????,?????. ?? essay ?????????,introduction(introductory paragraph ),a body (at least one ,but usually two or more paraphs),and a conclusion(concluding paragraph ) introduction??:general statements and on brave new world themes thesis statement body paragraph ??: paragraph A:topic. Argument , Explanation , Philosophical terminology 873 Words | 6 Pages. An Essay About an Act of Kindness. Experiment # 3 : Isolation of Caffeine from Tea Leaves Purpose: The purpose of what are your in writing essay this lab was to extract caffeine from tea leaves, crystallize . it and determine whether or not our findings were actually caffeine by using a melting point determination. Introduction: Caffeine is a member of essays psychologist compounds organic chemists call alkaloids. Alkaloids are organic compounds containing nitrogen. Caffeine can found in many things can act as both a stimulant and diuretic.
The way we will observe our caffeine. Green tea , Laboratory glassware , Liquid 895 Words | 3 Pages. Sample SAT Essays —Up Close Below is our sample essay question, which is designed to be as close as possible to are your in writing essay, an . essay question that might appear on the SAT. Essay? You’ll recognize that it’s based on the great philosopher Moses Pelingus’s assertion, “There’s no success like failure,” which we have referred to throughout this chapter. This particular essay topic presents you with a very broad idea and are your strengths essay then asks you to explain your view and back it up with concrete examples. Not every SAT essay topic will. Nyu Stern 3 Mail? Dot-com bubble , Essay , Essays 2405 Words | 7 Pages. What Are Your Strengths In Writing Essay? Writing Although it often seems that paragraphs can take an infinite number of forms, there are really only a few formats for paragraphing . in formal, academic prose. What makes paragraphs seem unique to the reader is the style of the 3 mail, writer's prose, not the actual format of the information.
There are four main types of paragraphs in academic prose: the standard paragraph , the essay, explanatory paragraph , the evidential paragraph , and the introductory paragraph (whose format is sometimes mirrored in on counseling the. Critical thinking , Explanation , Meaning of life 1651 Words | 6 Pages. ?How to Write a Descriptive Essay Descriptive essays are often subjective tasks. The first issue at hand is to make sure you . know what type of what are your strengths essay paper you are writing. Good Essay Kids? The descriptive essay is often creative, personal, or simply artistic. Discuss the assignment with your professor or teacher before you begin.
Even though your descriptive essay is more personal than a standard five- paragraph or compare-contrast essay , there is still quite a bit of what are your strengths homework to be done. Here is a list of important rules. Emotion , Essay , Essays 1406 Words | 5 Pages. 8th) MY FAVORITE FOOD ESSAY (Basic) A Tasty Way To Write an Incredible Essay © Copyright 2007 Hot Topic . Essays , Super Achievement, Inc. All Rights Reserved www.superachievement.net Introducing: __________________! Paragraph One—Introductory Paragraph Fill-in-the-blanks to show what this paragraph does: 1. Introduces the topic • (Your Topic)______________________________ 2. Nyu Stern Essay? Makes a statement about the topic. • My favorite food is _____________________. And Weaknesses In Writing? 3 . Being Systematic? Gives three reasons why. Writing 525 Words | 6 Pages. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing? ?An expository essay is nyu stern a piece of what are your essay writing where the writer presents opinions, points of view, ideas, concepts, arguments on a particular . topic. It is usually a formal piece of writing with an being systematic essay introduction, a discussion, and a conclusion. Ang isang nagpapaliwanag sanaysay ay isang piraso ng pagsulat kung saan ang manunulat nagtatanghal ng mga opinyon, punto ng view, mga ideya, konsepto, argumento sa isang partikular na paksa. Ito ay karaniwang isang pormal na piraso ng pagsulat na may isang panimula.
Article , Essay , Essays 2149 Words | 10 Pages. face some psychological problems due to their Internet addiction. In the essay “Internet Addiction or Excessive Internet Use”, Weisteinand and . Lejoyeux have reviewed many cross-sectional studies to prove that there are high risk of mental disorder among Internet addicts such as “affective disorder, anxiety disorders (including generalized anxiety disorder, social anxiety disorder), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder” ( 3 ). It is also found that there is a positive relationship between Internet. Addiction , Drug addiction , Facebook 2389 Words | 8 Pages. Senior Scholars to Freshmen Flunks: the Five Paragraph Essay Unraveled. about the universal argument towards the are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, five paragraph essay and on brave new world themes formulaic writing in general. To help share this information, I . wanted to present the opinions of several accredited sources, and insert them into a conversational format so that the reader can easily navigate and understand their arguments. Apart from strengths and weaknesses in writing essay informing the public about the essays psychologist, current debate, I wanted to introduce a solution to the problem of students using the five paragraph essay in their college English classes. By introducing. Education , Essay , Five paragraph essay 2659 Words | 7 Pages. How to make an essay plan in just 5 minutes This document contains everything you need to are your and weaknesses essay, know about essay plans It . On Counseling? includes a template for you to print out and use to create your own essay plans 2 Exam survival kit Why make an what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay essay plan? Essay plans are about to become your best friend.
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Strengths and Weaknesses essays
Essay: A Review of momentum trading strategy after Global Financial Crisis. Unlike normal portfolio managers who perform various analysis on the fundamental performance of equity stocks, a momentum portfolio is only concerned with the strengths and weaknesses, patterns of the on brave, stocks. The portfolio will then take a long or short position on the stock in order to arbitrage from the continuation of what are your and weaknesses essay, its upward or downward movement, which is so called momentum. Inspired by Jegadeesh and Titman (2011), I focus the attention on the post-crisis performance of momentum trading strategy with the special focus on the negative return on the year 2009. A sample of 1294 firms from good essay, NYSE from July 2009 to June 2015 is investigated and what are your essay, the result from the regression shows that the return of the good kids, momentum strategy has been disappeared in the US. Based on the research, the adjusted returns, based on the Fama-French factor model, of all the winner and loser portfolios are not significantly different from zero. The regression result indicates that the disappearance of strengths and weaknesses, abnormal return discovered in Jegadeesh and professional behavior in the workplace, Titman (1993). Therefore, this paper employs behavior model and attributes the return to the market over or under reaction to information. This conclusion may also provide support for testing the efficient market hypothesis, to which the momentum effect is strongly against.
Chapter 1 Introduction. Since 1960s, efficient market hypothesis has been widely accepted by the financial market. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. Traditional finance theory proposed by Fama and French declares that there is a tradeoff between risk and return, and no one can consistently achieve higher profit without taking additional risk. Nyu Stern 3 Mail. Later, the arbitrage pricing theory put out by Stephen Ross provided further explanation for the price movement under the efficient market situation. Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. However, these papers do not prevent the passion of greedy individuals from exploiting zero risk profit. Good Kids. Researchers and investors have consistently found problems with the efficient-market hypothesis and what are your strengths in writing essay, APT, the prompts kids, most prominent one is the momentum anomaly discovered by Jegadeesh and Titman. Strengths. The momentum strategy is based on the phenomenon that the best (worst) performed stocks during the past several months tend to nyu stern essay, continue to perform good (bad) over the following months. According to Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) this strategy could consistently generate an abnormal return of strengths essay, about 1% per month for the U.S. market over the period 1965-1989. In the following paper Jegadeesh and Titman (2011) shows that momentum strategies still persist to nuffield biology, be profitable until 1990s and there are more empirical evidences across countries to support it. Moreover, it also extended its research until 2004 and successfully got a consistent result. However, the strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, strategies experienced the first loss for the five year period from prompts kids, 2004.
Another five years has now passed since that paper and are your and weaknesses in writing essay, the financial market has survived and is recovering from the financial crisis. It is interesting for being systematic essay, the researcher to know how the momentum strategy performed after the what are your, financial crisis and what is the reason behind the dramatic change in the momentum profit. So my research question is: What is the performance of momentum portfolio after the global financial crisis? In particular, this article will focus on the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of being systematic, also six months. Using the what strengths, same lengths of ranking and holding periods as Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), we are in systematic an attempt to and weaknesses essay, compare with their result to prompts kids, see whether the successful performance of the momentum strategy still persists. In our follow-up study, the research will also be conducted on are your strengths in writing, the performance of the momentum strategy with a ranking period of six months and a holding period of three months to see whether the result is consistent.
To illustrate our process in a nutshell, the sample consists of all the 1991 stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange that have a continuous price record from June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. From this sample small size firms and systematic essay, low priced stocks are then excluded to avoid liquidity issues. The remaining 1315 firms are used to form winners/losers portfolios at the end of each ranking period based on their past six-month returns. What Are Your Strengths In Writing. These portfolios are then held for the next six months. Essay Themes. Monthly roll over strategy is what are your strengths, applied, which means, for every consecutive twelve months in our sample period starting from July 2009 to May 2013, there is a ranking and holding period formed. The winners/losers momentum return for a particular month is the average of being essay, returns of and weaknesses essay, all the winners/losers portfolios held at that month.
The calculated monthly winners/losers momentum return time series are then used to test for the risk adjusted returns using the CAPM/ the Fama-French three-factor model. Besides these, the average book to market value and essays, the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio and the average monthly return of each momentum portfolio are also reported to assist in interpreting the result. The remainder of this paper is constructed as follows: Chapter 2 provides a brief background of what strengths essay, momentum studies. Chapter 3 details our data processing and methodology. Chapter 4 demonstrates the results and analyses, and Chapter 5 concludes the paper. Chapter 2 Literature review and prior empirical evidence. 2.1 What is momentum trading strategy. The phenomenon that the best- and worst-performing stocks of the past three to twelve months continue to realize, respectively, high and low returns over the next three to twelve months, is 3 mail, called price momentum (Nico L. van der Sar, Stock pricing and Corporate Events, 2nd edition 2011). The theoretically best trading strategy based on this phenomenon which basically takes a long position in the past winners while going short in the past losers is and weaknesses essay, called the momentum trading strategy.
This strategy consists of two time periods. Period A is the ranking period where stocks are ranked based on their past returns, while period C is the holding period for when the portfolios of the professional behavior in the essay, selected stocks are held. Sometimes there is also a period B called the skipping period added in between A and C to aid the performance of this strategy. However, this paper does not include this period, as Jegadeesh and what are your and weaknesses essay, Titman (2001) did. Investors following this strategy can construct different portfolios by choosing different ranking and holding periods ranging from 3, 6 to 12 months. The great profit they achieved through applying this strategy on good essay prompts, the earlier found price momentums raises the and weaknesses in writing, question of whether this phenomenon shall persist, or whether it is just a compensation for risk. 2.2 Theories behind the momentum profit. In explaining the source of the momentum profit, traditional finance theory and the behavioral finance field deviate much.
In traditional finance theory, the market is considered to be overall efficient. An informational efficient market in finance refers to a market where prices completely reflect all relevant available information at any given moment (Fama, 1970). For this informational efficiency, Fama (1970) distinguishes three forms, each of these forms being related to a specific collection of information, one containing more than the other. The weak form which lies at the very bottom of this efficient market hypothesis holds when prices fully reflect all currently available security market data. Advanced A2 Coursework. According to this, future price movements are completely independent from the past price patterns. Strategies like momentum trading are thus in vain.
The risk adjusted abnormal returns achieved by Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) are therefore considered to be an what are your and weaknesses in writing anomaly which attempts to reject the EMH. However, due to the joint hypothesis problem, one can never reject the EMH since there is always a voice judging that the risk factor model may be not perfect. Conrad and Kaul (1998) thus argued that the momentum profits could be entirely explained due to the cross-sectional variation in mean returns rather than any predictable time-series variation in stock returns. Traditional finance theory has struggled for years to try to essays, explain this anomaly. Fama and French (1996) addressed the price momentum phenomenon as the major embarrassment of their model to which further robustness tests on what are your strengths and weaknesses essay, other recent data sets would be appropriate. Grundy and Martin (2001) demonstrated that the high momentum profit could also not be explained by the Fama-French three-factor model even the dynamics of the good essay prompts, factor betas were taken into what are your and weaknesses account. Where traditional finance has failed, behavioral finance has offered numerous explanations for price momentum. These explanations can be summarized as medium-term over- and/or under- reactions as a result of investors’ misperception of essay, information or cognitive biases.
Various theoretical models were built to explain these inefficiencies. Among them are the model built by Daniel, Hirshleifer and Subrahmanyam (1998) based on investor overconfidence and self-attribution, the what essay, model developed by Barberis, Shleifer and Vishny (1998) which has one security assumed to systematic essay, follow random walk and one investor who believes in either of two incorrect regimes, and the model developed by Hong and Stein (1999) which separates the population into two groups -‘the news watchers’ and ‘momentum traders’-and let information diffuse gradually among them. 2.3 Prior empirical evidence. Besides theoretical models built to illustrate the momentum profit, empirical evidence was documented to demonstrate the strength of and weaknesses in writing, its existence and the performance of momentum strategies. De long, Shleifer, Summers and 3 mail, Waldmann (1990) showed a strong evidence of positive feedback trading in the majority of 32 merging and mature stock index futures markets. Rouwenhorst (1998) demonstrated the existence of a high risk adjusted momentum profit of more than 1% per and weaknesses in writing month in twelve European countries from systematic essay, 1980 to 1995.
De Haas (1999) examined the price momentum effect for all stocks in the Netherlands from 1976 to 1998 and also achieved a significant abnormal return of over 1% per month. The results were also positive though low for emerging Asian markets documented by Chui, Titman and Wei (2000). Studies showed a disappearance of momentum profit has also brought our attention. What Are Your. Muga and Santamaria (2007) in examining the essay on brave new world themes, momentum effect in the Spanish stock market during the 1990s showed that the evidence of momentum disappeared after the 1997 crisis. Grinblatt and Titman (1989) and Grinblatt, Titman and strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, Wermers (1995) showed that a large number of essay 3 mail, successful mutual funds appeared to have a preference for stocks of what in writing, past winners. A question arises of whether the intense institutional trading recent years has eroded the momentum effect to its disappearance. Chapter 3 Data and Methodology. 3.1 Data overview.
The data used in this paper comes from the Datastream database[TBD]. It contains all the 1991 equity securities listed on the NASDAQ stock exchange from June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. These 1991 firms do not include those that went public or got delisted during this period. On Counseling. Thus all the firms included have a continuous monthly price record for the whole period. The number of firms that went public during this period is 329 within which there is no firm that also got delisted during this period. Unfortunately, we do not have the number of firms that had survived till June 30th 2009 but got delisted during the following 4 years of sample period. Further research will be conducted on this. But we do not expect this number to be large and hope the total number of firms excluded will not count above 20 percent of the whole sample.
Also, firms tend to face a decline in their market value before delisted. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. They are likely to fall into the ‘small stock’ category we later define which anyway will be excluded from the dataset in ex-post sample selection. Professional Behavior In The Workplace Essay. Therefore, we believe the exclusion of what in writing, these firms will not make our results biased because of either survivorship bias or cross-sectional data mining. The monthly price data we use for these 1991 firms is the adjusted closing price at the end of each month starting from essay, June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. What In Writing Essay. The adjusted price is defined as the closing price which has been historically adjusted for bonus and rights issues. The data also contains the daily market value and the daily price to book value of each firm during the period. The market value is defined as the share price multiplied by the number of ordinary shares in psychologist issue.
We also have the strengths and weaknesses essay, daily ‘market value corporation’ data available for each firm which also takes into account the good, market values of other listed and unlisted equities. But we find this two does not make any significant difference for us to what are your strengths essay, define small stocks. Thus only the market value is used. The price to book value is defined as the nyu stern essay 3 mail, share price divided by the book value per share. 3.2 Sample selection and descriptive statistics.
Small firms and what are your strengths, low priced stocks are excluded from our sample to ensure that our results are not driven primarily by essay new world, small and illiquid stocks or by bid-ask bounce pointed out by Conrad and Kaul (1993) to De Bondt and Thaler (1985). To achieve this, we define the market capitalization of each firm as the three-year average of their daily market value from strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, January 1st 2010 to being systematic, May 31st 2013. Are Your Strengths In Writing. For the essay prompts, 1991 firms in total, we first rank them according to this average and exclude those that belong to strengths and weaknesses, the bottom decile. 200 firms are in this case excluded from the nyu stern essay, sample and the remaining 1791 firms have their market capitalization from $28.9 million to the highest $377 billion. We then count the what are your, number of times for each of the remaining firms to be priced below $5 per share at the ends of the essays psychologist, total 36 ranking periods from December 31st 2009 to November 30th 2012.
The length we use for a ranking period is six months. Thus the first ranking period is from July 1st 2009 till December 31st 2009 while the last is from June 1st 2012 till November 30th 2012 after 35 monthly roll-overs. Those firms that are priced below $5 per share for above 10 times at the ends of the 36 ranking periods (i.e. the holding periods’ beginnings) are excluded from the in writing essay, sample. These are what we define as low priced firms. 476 firms are in this case excluded, and the remaining 1315 are those finally used to form portfolios. The descriptive statistics of the market capitalization, the three-year average of daily price to book value and the average monthly return of these 1315 firms can be found in Appendix Table 1. Due to data limitations there are 30 firms that do not have their daily price to book value available. [TBD] By using the monthly adjusted closing prices, first the monthly returns for each firm from a2 coursework, July 2009 to May 2013 are calculated. Then the compounded returns of every six consecutive months for each firm are calculated, starting from July 1st’December 31st 2009 to June 1st-November 31st 2012. These are the 36 ranking periods discussed in the previous section. Following Jegadeesh and what and weaknesses in writing, Titman (1993), at the end of on counseling psychologist, each ranking period we rank the 1315 stocks in are your strengths and weaknesses in writing our sample based on their past six-month compounded returns and then group them into 5 equally weighted portfolios based on these ranks. Each portfolio consists of workplace essay, 263 firms and what are your, is held for the next six months.
Ranking Period Holding Period. ( Month -5 to Month 0 ) ( Month 1 to professional workplace essay, Month 6 ) Portfolio I always contains stocks ranked from 1-263 which are those stocks that perform worst in the ranking period. Portfolio II always contains stocks ranked from 264 to 789, and so on. It is the Portfolio V that holds the what are your and weaknesses essay, past winners. Each portfolio in systematic essay our holding period is rebalanced monthly for simplicity. Since each portfolio is only held for six months every time, we believe our monthly returns for each portfolio will not deviate much from those if not rebalanced. To increase the power of our tests, we also construct overlapping portfolios as Jegadeesh and Titman (1993) did: In this case, a momentum quintile portfolio in any particular month holds stocks ranked in that quintile in any of the previous six ranking months.
For instance, a December winner portfolio comprises twenty percent of the stocks with the highest returns over the previous June to November period, the strengths and weaknesses essay, previous May to October, and so on up to the previous January to systematic essay, June period. Are Your Strengths And Weaknesses Essay. Each monthly cohort is assigned an equal weight in systematic this portfolio. To put in another way, for every month (except the beginning five and the ending five months) we now have six Portfolio I s, six Portfolio II s and so on, and the return of the winner/loser portfolio (denoted as Portfolio 5/Portfolio1) in that month is the average of the returns of the six Portfolio Vs/Portfolio Is.TBD. Chapter 4 Results and Analyses. 4.1 Average monthly returns.
Appendix Table 2 presents the average monthly return from Jan 2010 to strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, May 2013 for each of the five momentum portfolios. The sample is the 1315 stocks we selected. EWI is the average monthly return for an equally weighted portfolio that contains every stock in our sample, also rebalanced monthly. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the on brave, stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, while P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest past six-month returns, and so on. Compared with Jegadeesh and Titman (2001), the monotonic increasing pattern of returns over portfolio ranks observed in their result now disappears. Instead, our result reveals a symmetric U shape of returns over ranks. What Are Your Strengths Essay. It is the new world themes, winners and the losers portfolios (P5 and P1) that achieve the highest average monthly returns.
It is the most modest portfolio P3 that achieves the lowest average monthly return. Somewhat ironic is that the losers portfolio even outperforms the winners. However, these differences are all not statistically significant. The difference between the P5 and P1 portfolio returns is -0.037% and the t statistic is only -0.1068. This is in contrast to the 1.17% difference and 4.96 t statistic found in Jegadeesh and Titman (1993). We also take the difference between the P1 and P3 portfolio returns and find their t statistic is are your and weaknesses essay, also smaller than 1. [ Insert Appendix Table 2 ] To see whether our result of the losers portfolio P1 outperforming the winners portfolio P5 on the average case is due to a potential outlier effect of systematic, one specific month, the monthly returns of the two portfolios from January 2010 to May 2013 are presented in Appendix Figure 1. Indeed there is one month (January 2012) in which the losers portfolio P1 significantly outperforms the winners portfolio P5. However, from the figure there is no evidence suggesting for the most part P5 outperforms P1 in the other months.
After we exclude the January 2012 returns, very slightly P1 still outperforms P5 indicating the momentum effect is now gone. [ Insert Appendix Figure 1 ] 4.2 Average price to book values and what strengths in writing, Average market capitalizations. Appendix Table 3 reports the average price to book value of firms under each portfolio. The price to book value of a firm under this case is defined as the three-year average of its daily price to book value. Good Prompts. We also have transformed the price to book value to the book-to-market ratio and report under Table 3. [ Insert Appendix Table 3 ] There is a roughly increasing pattern of the what strengths and weaknesses essay, book-to-market ratio from professional in the, P5 to strengths in writing, P1 indicating that the past winners portfolio P5 is to a large extent constructed by those glamour stocks named by Lakonishok, Shleifer and Vishny (1994), while the losers portfolio tends to contain the value stocks. Professional Behavior Essay. The pattern is not very robust and the book-to-market ratios are actually very close to each other. This may be because that we have only divided the sample into five quintiles, and strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, what most crucial is that we have used the three-year average (which does not vary with time) to define a firm’s book-to-market ratio under each holding period which varies with time and essays on counseling psychologist, with the firm’s position changes within the five quintiles. Table 3 also reports the average market capitalization of firms under each momentum portfolio. There is also an increasing pattern from P1 to P5 indicating that the are your strengths and weaknesses in writing essay, past losers portfolio is to a large extent constructed by those stocks of small size firms while the past winners tends to contain big firms. Similar to the price to book value, here the market capitalization suffers from the nuffield a2 coursework, problem of using the three year average of market value to define a firm’s market capitalization under each holding period. The results above suggest that the highest average monthly return of what are your strengths and weaknesses, P1 seems to be partly due to good kids, its smaller market capitalization and higher book-to-market ratio.
This is strengths in writing essay, consistent with the Fama-French three-factor model (Fama and French, 1993) as small size firms and firms with higher book-to-market ratios tend to have higher risk factor coefficients. However, this reasoning cannot explain our observed high average monthly return of the past winners P5. This may be due to the problem we discussed before that makes our average book to market ratio and average market capitalization indications not timely precise to each holding period. Also we have not considered the essay kids, sensitivity of each portfolio to the market risk factor and its magnitude which explains the risk adjusted return in part as well. In order to look further on this, in strengths essay the next section we test for the risk adjusted abnormal return using the essay, three factor model and check the factor coefficients patterns among the five portfolios.
4.3 The risk adjusted abnormal returns. Though the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 on average outperform P2 P3 and P4, we have to check whether this outperformance is attributed to risk. Appendix Table 4 Panel A summarizes the factor sensitivities of each portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model with their t statistics reported in parentheses. The market sensitivity to the CAPM model is estimated by regressing the monthly return of each momentum portfolio less the risk-free rate (except for in writing essay, the zero investment P1-P3 and P5-P1 portfolios) on the monthly return of the NASDAQ composite index less the risk-free rate, while the factor sensitivities to the Fama-French three-factor model is estimated by regressing on the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors. FF: R-R_f=i??i??(R_m-R_f )+ b_s (SMB)+b_v (HML)+i??i?? The risk-free rate used in both cases is the monthly interest rate on the Treasury bill. This data is from the good essay kids, Wharton Research Data Services. And the data for the monthly returns of the three Fama-French factors is from the Kenneth R. French Data Library. Due to data limitations the monthly interest rate only are your strengths and weaknesses essay has an available record till December 2012. However, as a result of the Federal Reserve quantitative easing policy, the monthly interest rates during the whole sample period are very close to zero with the highest only 0.01%. Thus even without minus these interest rates the results are the same.
Also we have tested that with the nuffield, last five months excluded our results change little. Chapter 5 Conclusion. Are all results in accordance? Do they really tell a story? How is the story that emerges different from the previous results in what are your and weaknesses in writing essay the literature? How would the new world themes, results contribute or advance our current knowledge?
Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (1993), Returns to what in writing, buying winners and selling losers: Implications for workplace, stock market efficiency, Journal of Finance 48, 65-91. Jegadeesh, N. and S. Titman (2001), Profitability of momentum strategies: An evaluation of alternative explanations, Journal of Finance 56, 699-720. Conrad, J. and G. Kaul (1998), An anatomy of what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, trading strategies, Review of Financial Studies 11, 489-519. Barberis, N., A. Shleifer and R. Vishny (1998), A model of investor sentiment, Journal of Financial Economics 49, 307-343. Hong, H., and J.C. Stein (1999), A unified theory of underreaction, momentum trading, and overreaction in being essay asset markets, Journal of Finance 54, 2143-2184. Daniel, K., D. Hirshleifer and A. Subrahmanyam (1998), Investor psychology and security market under- and what are your, overreactions, Journal of Finance 53, 1839-1885. Rouwenhorst, K.G. (1998), International momentum strategies, Journal of being systematic essay, Finance 53, 267-284. De Long, J.B., A. What Are Your Strengths In Writing Essay. Shleifer, L.H. Summers and essay new world themes, R.J.
Waldmann (1990), Positive feedback investment strategies and destabilizing rational speculation, Journal of Finance 45, 379-395. Chui, Andy C.W., S. Titman and K.C. John Wei (2000), Individualism and momentum around the what are your, world, Journal of Finance 65, 361-392. Muga, L. and essay themes, R. Santamaria (2007), The stock market crisis and momentum: Some evidence for the Spanish stock market during the 1990s, Applied Financial Economics 17, 469-486. De Haas, S.A. (1999), Momentumstrategieen op de Nederlandse aandelenmarkt, master thesis, Erasmus University Rotterdam. Fama, E.F. and K.R. French (1993), Common risk factors in returns on stocks and what are your in writing, bonds, Journal of Financial Economics 33, 3-56. Lakonishok, J., A. Shleifer and new world, R.W. Vishny (1994), Contrarian investment, extrapolation, and risk, Journal of Financial Economics 32, 23-43.
Grinblatt, M. and what are your essay, S. Titman (1989), The persistence of mutual fund performance, Journal of Finance 47, 1977-1984. Grinblatt, M., S. Titman and R. Wermers (1995), Momentum investment strategies, portfolio performance, and herding: A study of mutual fund behavior, American Economic Review 85, 1088-1105. Fama, E.F. (1970), Efficient capital markets: A review of theory and on brave, empirical work, Journal of Finance 25, 383-417. N.L. Van der Sar, Stock pricing and what are your strengths essay, corporate events, 2nd edition, Rotterdam, Erasmusshop Rotterdam, 2011. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1998), Value versus growth: The international evidence, Journal of Finance 53, 1975-1999. Grundy, B.D. and J.S. Martin (2001), Understanding the nature of the risks and the source of the rewards to momentum investing, Review of nuffield, Financial Studies 14, 29-78. Fama, E.F. and K. French (1996), Multifactor explanations of asset pricing anomalies, Journal of Finance 51, 55-84. Conrad, J. and G. What Are Your Strengths. Kaul (1993), Long-term market overreaction or biases in computed returns?, Journal of Finance 48, 39-63.
De Bondt, W.F.M. and R.H. Themes. Thaler (1985), Does the stock market overreact?, Journal of Finance 40, 793-805. Jegadeesh, Narasimhan and Titman, Sheridan, Momentum (August 29, 2011). Available at SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=1919226 or http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1919226. Monthly Returns of the Winners and the Losers Portfolios. This figure reports the monthly returns of the winners portfolio P5 and the losers portfolio P1 from January 2010 to May 2013. P1 is the strengths, equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over nyu stern essay 3 mail, the previous six months and P5 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the highest returns over the previous six months.
The sample stocks used to form these portfolios is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Summary of Descriptive Statistics. This table reports the descriptive statistics of the average daily market value (market capitalization) and the average daily price to what and weaknesses in writing essay, book value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013 for the 1315 (except for the average PTBV where the data for 30 firms is missing) firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of professional workplace essay, June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. Also the descriptive statistic of the average monthly return from January 2010 to May 2013 of the 1315 firms is reported. This average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. The selection of the 1315 firms is based on are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for on brave, above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for MKT_CAP is in millions. Average Monthly Returns.
This table presents the average monthly return for each of the five momentum portfolios formed based on past six-month returns and essay, held for six months. The average monthly return is calculated in the monthly compounded case. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the nyu stern essay 3 mail, lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the what are your strengths essay, stocks with the good essay prompts kids, next lowest returns, and what and weaknesses in writing, so on. Essay Prompts. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the are your and weaknesses, 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to essay on brave, May 31st 2013. The selection of the are your in writing essay, 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the being systematic essay, sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and strengths and weaknesses in writing, stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Average Price to professional behavior essay, Book Values and Average Market Capitalizations.
This table reports the average price to book value, the are your and weaknesses in writing essay, average book to market ratio and the average market capitalization of firms under each portfolio. The price to book value/market capitalization of nuffield advanced biology, a firm under this case is defined as its average daily price to book value/market value from January 1st 2010 to May 31st 2013. What Strengths. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the systematic, next lowest returns, and so on. The sample NASDAQ Stocks is the strengths and weaknesses essay, 1315 firms selected from all the behavior workplace, stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the what are your strengths, 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the salters advanced a2 coursework, sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. The unit for MKT_CAP is in millions. PANEL A CAPM and Fama-French Factor Sensitivities. This table presents the factor sensitivities of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and the Fama-French three-factor model. CAPM market sensitivities/FF factor sensitivities are the slope coefficients in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions.
Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. What Strengths And Weaknesses In Writing. The testing period is from January 2010 to December 2012. Essays Psychologist. ‘Market’ is the market factor, ‘SMB’ is the size factor and ‘HML’ is the book to market factor. P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the strengths and weaknesses essay, equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and so on. The sample of firms used is the 1315 firms selected from all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the essay prompts kids, sample period of what strengths and weaknesses in writing, June 30th 2009 to good essay kids, May 31st 2013. The selection of the are your and weaknesses, 1315 firms is based on the criteria illustrated in nuffield advanced a2 coursework section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. PANEL B The Risk Adjusted Abnormal Returns. This table reports the what, risk adjusted returns of each momentum portfolio to the CAPM model and being systematic, the Fama-French three-factor model. The CAPM Alphas/FF Alphas are the intercepts in the CAPM model/Fama-French three factor model time-series regressions. Their t statistics are reported in parentheses. The testing period is from are your and weaknesses, January 2010 to essays, December 2012.
P1 is the equally weighted portfolio of are your strengths, 20 percent of the stocks with the psychologist, lowest returns over the previous six months, P2 is the equally weighted portfolio of 20 percent of the stocks with the next lowest returns, and in writing essay, so on. The sample of on brave themes, firms used is the 1315 firms selected from what are your strengths and weaknesses in writing, all the stocks listed on the NASDAQ exchange during the sample period of June 30th 2009 to May 31st 2013. The selection of the 1315 firms is salters nuffield a2 coursework, based on the criteria illustrated in section 3.2 following which firms went public or got delisted during the sample period, firms with a market capitalization belong to essay, the bottom decile and stocks priced below $5 for above 10 times at the 36 ends of ranking periods are excluded. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Finance essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you.
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