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Michael costa essay

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La Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis et la decision Hamdan c. Costa Essay. Rumsfeld. Sommaire des nouveaux numeros. Votre alerte a bien ete prise en compte. Vous recevrez un email a chaque nouvelle parution d'un numero de cette revue. Erreur lors de l'enregistrement de votre alerte. Vous avez deja enregistre cette alerte.

Vous pouvez gerer vos alertes depuis le menu Mon cairn.info. La decision de la Cour Supreme dans Hamdan c. Psychology Autism. Rumsfeld le 29 juin 2006, vint clarifier un certain nombre de considerations legales concernant les commissions militaires autorisees par le president George W. Michael Essay. Bush par un ordre militaire du 13 novembre 2001, a la suite des attentats du 11 septembre sur le World Trade Center et le Pentagone – ordre qui souleva de vives polemiques et qui prit par surprise le secretaire d’Etat Colin Powell et la conseillere a la Securite nationale Condoleezza Rice [1] [1] Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker, 3 juillet. Chemosynthesis By Sulfur Bacteria. . L’administration Bush avait soutenu dans l’affaire Hamdan que les pouvoirs inherents qui appartiennent au president aux termes de l’article II incluaient le plein pouvoir de creer des commissions militaires. Michael Costa Essay. Aux termes de cette position, il n’etait donc pas besoin de solliciter une loi a cet effet aupres du Congres. Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. Telle qu’elle fut exprimee dans le brief du departement de la Justice, cette position de l’administration affirme que les pouvoirs presidentiels aux termes de l’article II « incluent le pouvoir inherent de creer des commissions militaires meme en l’absence d’autorisation statutaire specifique, parce que ce pouvoir est un element essentiel des pouvoirs de guerre [du president] et existe de longue date » [2] [2] Brief for michael costa essay, Respondents, Hamdan c. Comparison. Rumsfeld, N° 05-184. Costa Essay. . Comparison. En consequence, soutient l’administration Bush, tout au long de l’histoire de la nation, les presidents successifs ont exerce le pouvoir inherent dont ils disposent en tant que commandants en chef pour etablir des commissions militaires sans autorisation du Congres [3] [3] Ibid., p. Costa. 22. Core 3 Coursework Comparison. . Essay. Et l’administration se fonda sur les precedents offerts par des causes similaires pour soutenir que le president pouvait determiner que les protections accordees aux prisonniers de guerre et aux detenus aux termes de la Convention de Geneve ne s’appliquaient pas a Al-Qaida en Afghanistan ou ailleurs, et que les detenus d’Al-Qaida ne pouvaient etre consideres comme prisonniers de guerre [4] [4] Ibid., p. Thesis Faculty. 38. Michael Costa. . 3 Coursework. Une position qui souleve de nombreuses critiques aux Etats-Unis et notamment au sein de ce qu’on en vint a appeler la quatrieme branche du gouvernement. Costa. « Ce president a mis en avant des theses qui sont reellement alarmantes, commente le New Yorker . Chemosynthesis By Sulfur Bacteria. D’apres lui, il n’est pas de limites a son pouvoir, tel qu’il le concoit, de rassembler des informations, d’ouvrir le courrier, d’avoir recours a la torture, et d’utiliser des moyens de surveillance electronique. Costa. Si nous suivons le raisonnement du president, nous pourrions nous permettre de mettre le Congres hors d’etat de fonctionner en raison de l’etendue des fuites d’information qui proviennent des membres du corps legislatif. Chief Essay. » [5] [5] Voir Jane Mayer, art. Michael Essay. cit., pp. Bromden. 44-45. Dans Hamdan , la Cour Supreme soutint que les commissions militaires du genre de celles qui etaient etablies par l’administration n’etaient expressement autorisees par aucune loi ( statute ) du Congres. Michael Essay. La loi en vigueur, y compris l’article 21 du Uniform Code of being Military Justice (UCMJ), ne reconnait pas au president un mandat pour autoriser toute sorte de commission qu’il decide d’etablir. Michael Costa. La Cour ne trouva pas non plus de justification dans le texte meme ou dans l’histoire legislative de l’ Authorization for analysis essay, Use of michael essay Military Force (AUMF), qui fut adopte apres les evenements du 11 septembre 2001, qui entendait etendre la portee de l’autorisation reconnue aux termes de l’article 21 ou en modifier les termes [6] [6] Hamdan c. Psychology. Rumsfeld, 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. Costa Essay. . Systematic Essay. L’AUMF fut adopte afin d’autoriser les operations militaires contre l’Afghanistan. Costa Essay. Aucun membre du Congres ne fit mention, au cours des debats legislatifs portant sur l’AUMF, de l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires. Bacteria. La Cour ne trouva pas non plus d’autorite pour etablir des telles commissions dans le Detainee Treatment Act du 30 decembre 2005. Michael. Cette loi fut promulguee par le Congres afin de fournir des criteres uniformes pour l’interrogation de personnes detenues par le departement de la Defense. 3 Mail. Dans l’une des sections de cette loi (la section 1005), le Congres mentionna les commissions militaires, mais la Cour considera cette reference insuffisante pour justifier legalement des commissions comme celles envisagees ou creees par l’administration.

Ainsi, la Cour identifia dans l’etablissement des commissions militaires des deficiences fondamentales du point de vue de la separation des pouvoirs. Costa Essay. Les commissions comme celles qui etaient envisagees ou etablies par l’administration « risquaient de concentrer entre les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir de juger et de sanctionner qui excedait celui qui fut envisage par la loi ou par la Constitution ». La Cour decida que la commission militaire etablie par l’administration violait pour ce qui est de sa structure meme et de ses procedures a la fois l’UCMJ et les quatre Conventions de Geneve. Nyu Stern 3 Mail. La haute juridiction conclut en effet que l’article 36 de l’UCMJ n’avait pas ete respecte, parce que le president avait mis en avant des justifications insuffisantes pour s’ecarter des procedures qui gouvernaient les cours martiales. Essay. La Cour s’inquieta de ce que l’accuse et son conseil civil « pouvaient etre exclus et empeches de connaitre quelles preuves furent presentees au cours d’une partie quelconque du proces que l’autorite qui avait etabli la commission ou l’officier qui la presidait decideraient d’“interdire” ». Chief Essay. Egalement inquietant etait le fait que ni « les temoignages devant la commission, ni les depositions des temoins ne devaient etre faits sous serment ». L’administration n’etait pas tenue de suivre chacune des procedures etablies dans l’UCMJ, mais tout ecart vis-a-vis de ces procedures devait etre proportionne a l’exigence qui l’avait rendu necessaire. Michael Costa. Or il s’agit la d’une exigence a laquelle l’administration ne s’etait pas conformee. Being. A moins d’etre impraticables, les regles etablies aux termes du Manual for michael, Courts-Martial « devaient s’appliquer aux commissions militaires ». To The. Or rien dans les documents soumis a la Cour ne montrait qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles et procedures des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece. Michael. Le fait que l’administration soit incapable de demontrer le caractere impraticable ou le fait qu’elle ne veuille pas le faire est particulierement troublant lorsqu’on le considere a la lumiere de l’echec evident de l’administration quant au respect de l’une des protections les plus fondamentales reconnues non seulement par le Manual for essay, Courts-Martial , mais aussi par l’UCMJ : le droit pour l’accuse d’etre present.

La Haute cour s’exprima en ces termes : La commission militaire, un tribunal qui n’est ni mentionne dans la Constitution ni cree par statut, est nee de la necessite militaire. Costa Essay. La necessite seule ne peut justifier l’etablissement de tribunaux militaires penaux et le recours a de tels tribunaux qui n’ont pas ete envisages par l’article I § 8 et l’article II § 1 de la Constitution, a moins qu’une autre partie de ce document n’autorise une reponse a une telle necessite lorsque celle-ci se fait ressentir […]. Thesis Submitted To The Faculty. Et cette autorite, si elle existe, peut seulement decouler de pouvoirs confies de facon concurrente au president et au Congres en temps de guerre […]. Costa Essay. Pris ensemble, continue la Cour, l’UCMJ, l’AUMF et le DTA reconnaissent tout au plus une autorite presidentielle d’etablir des commissions militaires dans des circonstances qui seraient justifiees aux termes de la Constitution et des lois, y compris la loi de la guerre. Being. En l’absence d’une autorisation plus specifique de la part du Congres, le devoir de la Cour est de decider comme elle l’a fait dans [Ex parte] Quirin si la commission militaire qui doit juger Hamdan est justifiee. Ayant ecarte les objections d’ordre juridictionnel, le juge Stevens affirma qu’« aucune des actions que Hamdan etait accuse d’avoir commis ne constitue une violation du droit de la guerre ». Essay. Ces faits a eux seuls jettent un doute sur le caractere legal de l’accusation, et en consequence, de la commission elle-meme. Essay. […] Le delit dont on costa accuse Hamdan « n’est pas susceptible d’etre juge par une commission militaire etablie aux termes du droit de la guerre […]. Psychology Autism. Il n’est pas suggere que le Congres, en exercant son autorite constitutionnelle de “definir et de punir […] les delits contre le droit des gens” a identifie le “complot” ou la “conspiration” comme constituant un crime de guerre ». Michael Costa Essay. Or, « sans autorisation explicite de la part du Congres », on psychology thesis autism encourt le risque de « concentrer dans les mains du pouvoir militaire un degre de pouvoir judiciaire et punitif au-dela de ce qui fut envisage par les lois ou par la Constitution ». Que le gouvernement ait inculpe Hamdan d’un delit contre la loi de la guerre susceptible d’etre juge par commission militaire ou non, « la commission n’a pas le pouvoir de juger Hamdan, affirma le juge Stevens pour la majorite. Michael. L’UCMJ soumet le recours par le president a des commissions militaires a l’exigence de conformite non seulement avec la common law of bacteria war mais aussi avec le reste de l’UCMJ, en tant qu’il s’applique, et avec les regles et les preceptes du droit des gens » [7] [7] Hamdan c. Michael Costa Essay. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., Ibid. Chief Bromden Essay. , y compris, entre autres, les quatre Conventions de Geneve signees en 1949. En plus de vices de procedures que le juge Stevens identifia, notamment en ce qui concerne le mode d’administration de preuves au sein de la commission et l’acces par l’accuse aux preuves et temoignages introduits contre lui, il souligna que « les procedures gouvernant les proces par commission militaire historiquement ont ete les memes que celles gouvernant les cours martiales. Michael Essay. […] Le principe d’uniformite n’est pas inflexible ; il n’exclut pas une deviation des procedures dictees par le recours aux cours martiales. Essay. Mais toute deviation doit etre a la mesure de l’exigence qui l’a rendue necessaire. Costa Essay. […] Les regles mises en avant dans le Manual for being essay, Courts-Martial doivent etre appliquees aux commissions militaires a moins qu’elles ne soient impraticables. Michael Essay. […] Rien dans les documents ou dossiers qui nous sont soumis ne montre qu’il serait impraticable d’appliquer les regles des cours martiales dans le cas d’espece » [8] [8] Ibid. Essay. . Enfin, la Cour affirma que les procedures adoptees par l’administration pour les tribunaux militaires violaient les Conventions de Geneve.

Une cour federale inferieure avait ecarte cet argument aux motifs suivants : (1) Les Conventions de Geneve ne sont pas susceptibles d’etre mises en ?uvre devant les tribunaux ; (2) dans tous les cas, le demandeur dans le cas d’espece (Salim Ahmed Hamdan) ne jouissait pas du droit de se prevaloir de la protection de ces conventions et (3) meme dans un tel cas, l’abstention judiciaire etait en l’occurrence la reponse la plus appropriee a sa demande. Costa. En ce qui concerne ce dernier point, les cours federales conclurent qu’elles devaient attendre l’issue d’un proces militaire en cours avant de pouvoir connaitre d’une mise en cause de ce meme proces. Core. La Cour Supreme rejeta chacun de ces trois arguments. Michael Costa Essay. Quels que soient les droits qui devaient etre reconnus a Hamdan, la Cour decida que ces droits faisaient partie du droit de la guerre. Thesis Submitted Faculty. De plus le respect du droit de la guerre est « la condition en vertu de laquelle l’autorite mise en avant aux termes de l’article 21 est reconnue ». Michael Costa. La Cour decida qu’il etait au moins une disposition des Conventions de Geneve qui s’appliquait a l’affaire Hamdan – l’article 3 auquel l’on se refere souvent comme le Common Article 3 (article 3 commun) parce qu’il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Being Systematic. Le Common Article 3 prevoit [9] [9] L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve. Costa. qu’en cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions qui « protegent les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par […] la detention ». Being Essay. L’une de ces dispositions interdit que des condamnations soient prononcees et des executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Michael Costa Essay. La cour federale d’appel fut d’accord avec la these de l’administration selon laquelle le Common Article 3 ne s’appliquait pas a Hamdan, puisque le conflit avec Al-Qaida avait bel et bien une portee internationale et n’appartenait donc pas a la categorie susmentionnee de « conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international ». Being Systematic Essay. La Cour Supreme considera que ce raisonnement etait errone.

Le conflit avec Al-Qaida etait bel et bien inclus dans les protections minimales prevues par le Common Article 3 . La Cour s’exprima ainsi : L’Executif […] soutient que la guerre avec Al-Qaida echappe a la portee des Conventions de Geneve. Costa. Nous […] sommes en desaccord avec cette conclusion. Chief Analysis Essay. Le conflit avec Al-Qaida n’est pas, d’apres le gouvernement, un conflit auquel s’appliquent toutes les protections reconnues aux prisonniers aux termes des Conventions de Geneve de 1949 parce que l’article 2 de ces Conventions (qui apparait dans chacune des quatre Conventions) rend les protections dans leur entierete applicables seulement aux cas de guerre declaree ou tout autre conflit arme qui pourrait avoir lieu entre deux ou plus des Etats signataires. Michael Costa Essay. Etant donne que Hamdan a ete capture et detenu a l’occasion du conflit avec Al-Qaida et non au cours du conflit avec les Talibans, et puisque Al-Qaida, contrairement a l’Afghanistan, n’est pas un [Etat signataire] desdites conventions, les protections de ces conventions ne sont pas, soutient le gouvernement, applicables a Hamdan. Nous n’avons pas besoin de decider cet argument sur le fond car il est au moins une clause des Conventions de Geneve qui s’applique au cas d’espece, meme si le conflit en question n’en est pas un entre des parties contractantes. Being. L’article 3, auquel on costa se refere souvent comme Common Article 3 parce que, comme l’article 2, il est commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve, prevoit qu’en cas de « conflit qui n’ait pas de caractere international qui se deroulerait sur le territoire de l’un des Etats signataires, chaque partie au conflit serait tenue d’appliquer, au minimum », certaines clauses protegeant « les personnes qui ne prennent pas de part active a ces hostilites, y compris les membres des forces armees qui ont depose les armes et qui ont ete mis hors de combat par […] la detention ». Psychology Thesis. L’une de ces clauses interdit que des sentences soient prononcees et des executions mises en ?uvre sans que des jugements prealables soient rendus par une cour dument constituee, et reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires qui sont admises comme etant indispensables par les nations civilisees [10] [10] Voir Hamdan c. Michael. Rumsfeld, 548 U.S., p. Being Systematic. 73. Costa. . La Cour conceda que l’expression « cour dument constituee » n’est pas specifiquement definie ni dans le Common Article 3 ni dans les commentaires l’accompagnant, mais que d’autres sources venaient eclaircir le sens qu’on devait essentiellement lui donner. 3 Mail. Les tribunaux regulierement constitues incluent « les tribunaux militaires ordinaires » mais excluent « tous les tribunaux speciaux ». Michael Costa. L’un des traites de la Croix Rouge definit « les tribunaux regulierement constitues » tel que l’expression est utilisee dans l’article 3 commun comme signifiant « etabli et organise en conformite avec les lois et les procedures qui sont deja en vigueur dans un pays donne ». Bromden. Les tribunaux militaires regulierement constitues des Etats-Unis sont les cours martiales etablies par les lois du Congres, et non les commissions militaires etablies par le president Bush. La decision de la Cour forca l’administration a chercher aupres du Congres l’autorite legislative necessaire. Michael Essay. Hamdan marqua en effet un rejet clair et significatif du raisonnement legal et constitutionnel adopte par l’administration et pourtant les hauts fonctionnaires de la branche executive repondirent comme s’il n’etait pas de failles serieuses dans la structure et les procedures qu’ils avaient adoptees pour les commissions militaires. Being Systematic Essay. Au cours des auditions du Congres, les membres de la branche executive du gouvernement qui comparurent pour temoigner, furent d’avis qu’il suffisait au Congres d’adopter une loi qui endosserait ce que l’administration avait propose avant que la decision de la Cour n’ait ete rendue.

Au cours d’une audition devant la commission des affaires judiciaires du Senat, le 11 juillet 2006, Steven Bradbury, haut responsable du departement de la Justice, affirma que la Haute Cour « n’avait pas aborde le pouvoir constitutionnel du president et ne s’etait prononcee sur le fond sur aucune question constitutionnelle » [11] [11] Temoignage de Steven G. Essay. Bradbury, 11 juillet 2006. Being Systematic. . Costa Essay. Il s’agit la d’un bien etrange argument. Bromden Analysis. Il est clair que la Cour s’est bel et bien prononcee sur une question constitutionnelle de fond lorsqu’elle rejeta la position de l’administration selon laquelle le president possedait une autorite suffisante aux termes de l’article II de la Constitution et n’avait nul besoin d’une loi du Congres. Michael Costa Essay. De plus, la Cour se fonda sur le pouvoir du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution afin d’adopter les Articles of systematic essay War 21 et 36 et d’exiger que le president se conformat a ces articles. Michael Costa. Bradbury tourna en derision la decision de la Cour en soulignant que « la notion meme selon laquelle les militaires devaient lire sur le champ de bataille aux ennemis combattants faits prisonniers leurs droits aux termes de la decision Miranda n’a aucun sens » [12] [12] Ibid. Analysis Essay. . Michael Costa. Ces propos critiquaient implicitement la Cour pour une position qu’elle n’avait cependant jamais adoptee ou meme suggeree. Nyu Stern 3 Mail. Bradbury insista que la Cour dans Hamdan « n’avait pas decide que les Conventions de Geneve dans leur ensemble s’appliquent a notre conflit avec Al-Qaida ou que les membres d’Al-Qaida ont droit aux privileges qui accompagnent le statut de prisonnier de guerre ». Michael. La Cour a bel et bien affirme, cependant, que les criteres essentiels contenus dans l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve s’appliquent au conflit avec Al-Qaida [13] [13] Ibid. Core. . Bradbury prevint que l’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve « devrait etre interprete comme s’appliquant uniquement aux transgressions serieuses ». Michael Essay. Il considera qu’il etait « indeniable que certains des termes de l’article 3 commun etaient intrinsequement vagues », comme la prohibition concernant « les atteintes a la dignite des personnes », et notamment « les traitements humiliants et degradants ». Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. Il souligna que le document etait vague quant au sens qu’il fallait donner aux « garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises » [14] [14] Ibid., p. Michael Costa. 5. Submitted. . Essay. Au cours de ces memes auditions, Daniel Dell’Orto, du conseil juridique du departement de la Defense, entreprit lui aussi de critiquer la Cour de maniere injustifiee. Faculty. Il invita le Congres a adopter des procedures « visant a eviter le resultat absurde qui reviendrait a reconnaitre des protections aux terroristes que les citoyens Americains ne recoivent pas devant les cours civiles » [15] [15] Declaration de Daniel Dell’Orto, Principal p. Michael. 1 ; . Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. . Costa. Il ajouta qu’il n’etait simplement pas praticable en temps de guerre de reunir des preuves d’une facon conforme aux exigences strictes des procedures penales [16] [16] Ibid., p. Chief Essay. 2. Costa. . Chemosynthesis. C’etait la une question a laquelle le Congres devait faire face en decidant si les preuves obtenues des detenus par la force pouvaient etre utilisees contre eux devant les tribunaux. Au cours d’auditions devant la Commission des services armes de la Chambre le 12 juillet 2006, un legislateur suggera : « nous pourrions simplement ratifier ce que la branche executive et le departement de la Defense ont fait et aller de l’avant ». Michael Costa Essay. « Ce serait en effet une maniere souhaitable de proceder » [17] [17] Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in thesis to the Congress Over Military. Michael Essay. , souligna Dell’Orto. Chief. Mais d’autres membres du Congres mirent en garde contre cet esprit cavalier. Michael Costa. Le senateur Lindsey Graham, fort de son experience d’avocat specialiste des questions militaires remarqua que « l’idee de valider les commissions militaires telles qu’elles avaient ete concues et etablies serait une erreur » [18] [18] Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to 3 coursework comparison Change. Michael. . Les auditions du Congres revelerent une division importante entre les avocats civils et militaires au sein de l’administration. Being. Les avocats des services militaires s’opposaient au recours a des preuves fondees sur des ouie-dires ou obtenues par la force. Michael Costa. Ils protestaient egalement contre la pratique selon laquelle des preuves fondees sur des informations classees secretes pouvaient etre communiquees a l’avocat de la defense mais pas a l’accuse [19] [19] R. 3 Coursework Comparison. Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan. Costa. . Analysis Essay. Les avocats civils qui avaient redige les nouvelles procedures ne voyaient cependant pas d’inconvenient a denier aux accuses le droit de confronter les temoins a charge ou meme de leur refuser le droit d’etre presents a leur propre proces [20] [20] R. Costa. Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand. 3 Mail. . Costa. Pour John D. Essay 3 Mail. Hutson, l’avocat le plus en vue de la Marine entre 1997 et 2000, les procedures proposees par l’administration lui permettraient d’opposer a un detenu : « Nous savons que vous etes coupable.

Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire pour quelles raisons, mais il est une personne, dont on costa essay ne peut vous dire qui elle est, qui nous a donne certaines informations a ce sujet. Thesis. Nous ne pouvons pas vous dire quelles sont ces informations, mais vous en etes coupable » [21] [21] Ibid. Essay. . By Sulfur Bacteria. Si des informations ou des preuves sont classees secretes et ne peuvent etre partagees avec l’accuse, ou si l’identite d’un informateur ne peut etre revelee, il est une pratique qui consiste en ce que ce soit l’administration qui en subisse les consequences en abandonnant l’accusation [22] [22] Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the michael costa essay, Name of by sulfur National Security. Costa. . Les auditions du Congres soulignerent egalement l’importance de la reciprocite dans toute decision concernant les commissions militaires. Autism. Au cours des auditions qui furent tenues devant la commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout 2006, le senateur Graham avanca le raisonnement suivant : La reciprocite est le facteur essentiel qui me guide dans cette decision. Michael. Ne faisons rien au sein de ce comite que nous ne souhaiterions pas voir appliquer a nos propres troupes. Psychology. La question revient donc pour moi a se demander, si un soldat de l’armee americaine vient a etre juge en territoire etranger, souhaiterions-nous que ce proces soit mene de telle maniere que le jury puisse recevoir des informations concernant la culpabilite de l’accuse sans que cette information ne soit partagee avec l’accuse, et que cette personne soit soumise a la peine de mort ? Il m’est difficile d’accepter cette idee.

Le fait d’informer l’avocat de l’accuse ne me satisfait pas non plus car je pense que la plupart des avocats ressentent une obligation morale et ethique de partager leurs informations avec leur client. Ce que la Cour fit dans Hamdan revenait a restituer au Congres le pouvoir constitutionnel qui lui appartenait aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution, mais qu’il avait refuse d’exercer. Costa Essay. La decision enleva egalement aux mains de l’administration une procedure se fondant sur des commissions militaires qui etaient censees assurer « une justice rapide », mais qui avaient en fait echoue de maniere lamentable au cours des cinq dernieres annees a poursuivre en justice et a condamner ne serait-ce qu’un seul terroriste presume. Psychology Autism. L’un des membres de la commission du Senat parla du systeme mis en place par l’administration comme d’« un effort desorganise mene par une poignee d’avocats relativement peu experimentes pour poursuivre en justice des accuses de petite envergure dans un proces qui apparait comme etant truque ». L’une des vertus d’une democratie est la possibilite de debattre de questions de politique publique de facon ouverte, ce qui oblige les hauts responsables a justifier et defendre leurs programmes et a obtenir l’autorite du pouvoir legislatif avant de les mettre en ?uvre. Essay. Le succes n’est jamais garanti, mais cette maniere de proceder offre bien plus d’espoir et de legitimite que l’approche unilaterale, ancree dans le secret, pronee par l’administration. Submitted To The Faculty. Le president Bush et ses conseillers deciderent de transferer la tache de rediger le document des avocats de l’armee qui comprennent la loi militaire a ceux qui sont moins informes et qui mettent en avant des theories abstraites du pouvoir presidentiel et qui ont sans doute en vue leur avancement ou leur nomination a des positions de juges ou autres formes de retribution.

Il s’agit la d’un modele a eviter a tout prix a l’avenir. L’ Attorney General Alberto Gonzales comparut devant la Commission des services armes du Senat le 2 aout afin d’exposer les elements essentiels de la proposition de loi qui etait en cours de preparation. Michael Costa. Il proposa la redaction d’un nouveau code des commissions militaires ( Code of chief analysis Military Commissions ) qui suivrait le modele des procedures de cours martiales de l’UCMJ, mais qui serait adapte a l’usage dans les proces de combattants illegaux accuses de terrorisme. Michael Essay. Le nouveau code suivrait une grande partie des procedures et des structures de l’UCMJ. Essay. Les commissions militaires seraient presidees par un juge militaire autorise a rendre des decisions finales au cours du proces concernant les questions legales et la recevabilite des preuves, comme c’est le cas pour les cours martiales. Costa. Aussi, suivant toujours le modele des cours martiales, le juge militaire n’aurait pas le droit de voter au sein de la commission militaire. Bacteria. Gonzales recommanda que l’on augmente le nombre minimum des membres de la commission a cinq au lieu de trois et que la commission comprenne douze membres dans les cas ou la peine de mort etait requise. Michael Essay. Il incomberait au gouvernement de prouver la culpabilite de l’accuse au-dela du doute raisonnable. Quant a l’article 3 commun, Gonzales temoigna que l’armee des Etats-Unis n’avait jamais auparavant applique les provisions des Conventions de Geneve en tant que critere de detention. Being. Au lieu de cela, l’armee avait l’habitude d’appliquer les procedures speciales de la Convention aux combattants legaux captures en tant que prisonniers de guerre.

Il dit que plusieurs des provisions de l’article 3 commun interdisaient des actions qui sont universellement condamnees comme le « meurtre », la « mutilation », la « torture » et la « prise d’otages ». Essay. Il s’inquieta de ce que certain langage de l’article 3 commun (tel que l’« outrage a la dignite humaine ») et le « traitement humiliant et degradant » manquait de clarte et risquait de creer « un degre d’incertitude inacceptable pour ceux qui combattent pour nous defendre des attaques terroristes, particulierement parce qu’une violation de l’article 3 commun constitue un crime federal aux termes du War Crimes Act ». Gonzales proposa que l’on clarifie l’article 3 commun a travers l’adoption de l’amendement McCain qui avait ete inclus dans le Detainee Treatment Act de 2005. Nyu Stern Essay. Le langage de cet amendement, dit-il, etait « une interpretation raisonnable des provisions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun ». Michael Costa Essay. L’amendement McCain interdisait les punitions cruelles, inhumaines, ou degradantes. Submitted Faculty. L’administration Bush considerait le critere etabli par l’amendement McCain comme etant en conformite avec nos obligations aux termes des dispositions pertinentes de l’article 3 commun et comme y apportant des eclaircissements utiles. Michael Costa. Au cours de l’audition, les senateurs tenterent de comprendre quel genre de techniques seraient permissibles pour interroger les detenus. Thesis Submitted. Le senateur Carl Levin demanda a Alberto Gonzales s’il pensait que l’admission de temoignages ou preuves obtenus par le biais de techniques comme « le supplice de l’eau, les positions stressantes, l’intimidation par le recours aux chiens, le manque de sommeil, [et] la nudite forcee » serait compatible avec l’article 3 commun. Michael. « Je ne peux imaginer qu’un tel temoignage puisse etre fiable ; en consequent, je pense qu’il est improbable qu’un juge militaire, quel qu’il soit, permette de tels temoignages comme faisant partie des preuves recevables », repondit l’ Attorney General . Lorsque la proposition de loi (S. Psychology. 3861) de l’administration fut presentee au Senat le 7 septembre, elle inclut la provision suivante : « L’autorite du president d’etablir des commissions militaires resulte de ce que la Constitution a investi le president du pouvoir executif et du pouvoir de commandant en chef des forces armees » [23] [23] Congressional Record, vol.

152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Costa. . Being. C’etait la la position que l’administration avait adoptee dans ses briefs legaux et ses arguments, et c’est la meme la position que la Cour repudia de facon claire et significative. Michael Essay. La Cour identifia l’autorite d’etablir des commissions militaires non pas comme etant attribuee au president aux termes de l’article II, mais plutot comme etant du ressort du Congres aux termes de l’article I, et tel que ce pouvoir etait traduit dans les articles 21 et 36 de l’UCMJ. Core Comparison. Si la declaration faite par l’administration dans la proposition avait ete correcte, la Cour aurait decide en faveur du president, non pas du Congres, et il n’y aurait pas eu besoin pour le president Bush de rechercher une autorite legislative statutaire aupres du Congres. Essay. Cette provision dans la proposition de loi de l’administration fut eliminee lorsque la proposition de loi fut adoptee. Comme les negociations continuaient, il apparut que plusieurs senateurs republicains s’opposeraient au projet de loi que l’administration souhaitait voir adopter.

Le president Bush mit en garde les senateurs republicains recalcitrants John Warner (Virginie), John McCain (Arizona), et Lindsey Graham (Caroline du sud) de ce qu’il mettrait fin a un programme d’interrogation de la CIA s’ils reussissaient a passer leur propre version d’une proposition de loi visant a reglementer la detention d’ennemis combattants [24] [24] Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on chief Detainees Intensifies”. Michael Essay. . Analysis. D’autres senateurs republicains, dont Olympia Snowe (Maine), annoncerent leur intention de se joindre a cette opposition a l’administration. Michael Costa. Les articles de journaux et les revues de presse mirent en evidence ce mouvement de rebellion au sein des rangs republicains [25] [25] “How 3 G.O.P. Thesis. Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”. Michael. . Being. Au cours de cette periode, l’administration avait a peine suffisamment de votes pour gagner le soutien de la commission judiciaire de la Chambre afin d’adopter une proposition de loi soutenue par la Maison-Blanche [26] [26] Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan. Michael Essay. . Thesis. L’attention de la presse etait focalisee sur les dissidents republicains au Senat [27] [27] John M. Michael Costa Essay. Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP. Bromden Essay. . Costa Essay. Dans les jours qui s’ensuivirent, la resistance des senateurs republicains sembla faiblir et la Maison-Blanche reprit le dessus. By Sulfur Bacteria. Les journaux affichaient maintenant des titres tels que “ Congress Clears Detainee Bill: Critics Question Constitutionality: Habeas Corpus Rights Are Denied; Coerced Confessions, Hearsay Evidence Are Allowed ” [28] [28] Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report, 2 octobre 2006. Michael Costa Essay. . Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. Un editorial dans le Washington Post , intitule “ Profiles in michael costa essay Cowardice ”, decrivait les desseins politiques du president Bush comme pressant ses opposants a « se soumettre a sa volonte, allant ainsi a l’encontre de ce qu’ils jugeaient bon, ou de soulever une controverse qui permettrait a son parti de reprocher a l’opposition d’etre par trop faible ou laxiste a l’encontre du terrorisme. Thesis. Grace en partie a l’abdication des democrates, il avait en l’occurrence realise les deux buts a la fois » [29] [29] “Profiles in michael essay Cowardice”, The Washington Post, 1er octobre. Psychology Thesis. . Le Military Commissions Act de 2006 cree un chapitre a part dans le Title 10 du U.S. Michael Costa Essay. Code qui regit la structure et les procedures des commissions militaires.

Il definit un ennemi combattant comme etant toute personne qui « s’engage dans des hostilites ou qui a a dessein et concretement soutenu des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou ses allies », et toute personne qui « a ete designee comme etant un ennemi combattant par un Combatant Status Review Tribunal ou tout autre tribunal competent avant, apres, ou le jour meme de l’adoption du Military Commissions Act de 2006, ou par tout autre tribunal competent etabli sous l’autorite du president ou du secretaire de la Defense. Thesis. Un ennemi combattant legitime est une personne qui est membre des forces regulieres de l’une des parties contractantes, qui se trouve engage dans des hostilites contre les Etats-Unis ou qui porte un embleme distinctif reconnaissable a distance, qui porte ouvertement les armes et qui respecte le droit de la guerre. Costa. Une commission militaire etablie aux termes de ce chapitre est un tribunal regulierement constitue, reconnaissant toutes les garanties judiciaires necessaires qui sont reconnues comme etant indispensables aux peuples civilises pour les besoins de l’article 3 commun aux Conventions de Geneve. Essay. Plus loin dans le statut, dans la Section 5, il est enonce : « Aucune personne ne peut invoquer les Conventions de Geneve ou l’un quelconque de ses protocoles comme source de droits ou privileges dans des proces ayant trait a une demande de privilege d’ habeas corpus ou tout autre proces civil auquel les Etats-Unis, ou l’un de ses officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes actuels ou ex-officiers, fonctionnaires, ou membres de ses services armes ou autre agent des Etats-Unis sont parties prenantes dans l’un quelconque des tribunaux des Etats-Unis, de ses Etats ou de ses territoires. Michael Costa. Les personnes sujettes a etre jugees devant des commissions militaires sont tout ennemi combattant illegitime etranger ». Quant aux procedures, cette loi prevoit que l’incrimination forcee de soi est interdite ( compulsory self-incrimination) . Thesis. Cependant, la loi entreprend ensuite de decrire les differents types de depositions obtenues par le biais de techniques coercitives.

Une deposition obtenue avant le 30 decembre 2005 (date du Detainee Treatment Act ) et dans l’obtention de laquelle le role de la coercition est en cause peut etre admise comme preuve seulement si le juge militaire determine que (1) les « circonstances dans leur ensemble rendent la deposition fiable et presentant une valeur suffisante en tant que preuve », et que (2) « les interets de la justice sont mieux servis par l’admission des depositions en question comme preuves recevables ». Michael Costa Essay. On est en droit de se demander, cependant, comment des preuves obtenues par la coercition peuvent etre considerees comme « fiables » et comme ayant valeur de preuve. Essay. Quant aux preuves obtenues apres l’adoption du Detainee Treatment Act , si le degre de recours a la coercition est en cause, les declarations peuvent etre admises seulement si le juge militaire determine les elements (1) et (2) susmentionnes, et constate que les methodes d’interrogation utilisees pour obtenir ces declarations ne s’apparentent pas au « traitement cruel, inhumain, ou degradant interdit aux termes de la section 1003 du Detainee Treatment Act de 2005 ». D’autres procedures qui sont egalement sujet a controverse ont trait a l’acces des accuses aux temoins et aux preuves avancees contre eux. Essay. L’accuse aura le droit de presenter des preuves pour assurer sa defense, de contre-interroger les temoins a charge, et d’examiner les preuves admises contre lui ou qui contribuent a determiner la sentence. Nyu Stern 3 Mail. Ces garanties sont rendues plus complexes par le recours a des informations classees secretes ou confidentielles. Afin de proteger des informations confidentielles, le juge miliaire, sur la demande de l’administration, peut « permettre autant que faire se peut, (1) que certains elements des informations confidentielles soient effaces des documents qui doivent etre presentes comme preuves devant la commission militaire ; (2) la substitution d’une partie ou d’un resume de l’information emanant de ce document classe confidentiel ; ou (3) la substitution d’un enonce de faits pertinents que ces informations confidentielles seraient a meme de prouver ». Costa Essay. Mais supposons que le gouvernement supprime le nom de l’informateur ? Dans ce cas, l’accuse n’a ni le droit de confrontation, ni celui d’examiner les preuves presentees contre lui ou d’y repondre.

Il n’est pas tout a fait clair, dans le statut, si l’avocat de l’accuse pourra avoir acces a ce genre d’informations classees secretes. Core Comparison. L’avocat de la defense « aura une opportunite raisonnable d’obtenir des temoins et autres preuves en conformite avec les reglements prescrits par le secretaire de la Defense ». Michael Costa Essay. L’etendue de ces opportunites sera decidee par la suite, par la branche executive du gouvernement. Essay. En ce qui concerne l’obligation d’enquete qui incombe au procureur, le juge militaire, sur la demande du conseil du gouvernement, « autorisera, autant que faire se peut, la suppression de certains elements specifiques dans les informations classees confidentielles qui doivent etre rendues disponibles a l’accuse, peut substituer une portion ou un resume des informations contenues dans des documents classes secrets, ou peut substituer/inclure une declaration admettant des faits pertinents que l’information classee secrete aurait pu prouver ». En ce qui concerne l’interpretation de traites et des obligations qui en resultent, le statut autorise le president a interpreter le sens et l’application des Conventions de Geneve « et de promulguer des criteres et des reglements administratifs plus rigoureux pour la violation d’obligations resultant de traites qui ne constituent pas des infractions graves aux Conventions de Geneve ». Michael Essay. Le president emettra de telles interpretations par Executive Order et les fera publier dans le Federal Register . Psychology Thesis Autism. Tout Executive Order qui sera ainsi publie aura autorite de loi (excepte en ce qui concerne des violations graves de l’article 3 commun) en tant que faisant partie des lois americaines au meme titre que les autres reglements administratifs. Michael Costa Essay. Bien que ces Executive Orders fassent autorite, ils ne sont pas necessairement executoires et exclusifs. Submitted. Le statut prevoit que « rien dans cette section ne sera interprete de maniere a affecter les fonctions constitutionnelles et les responsabilites du Congres et de la branche judiciaire des Etats-Unis ». Le statut inclut une section qui tente de definir la responsabilite legale des officiers americains qui interrogent les detenus. Costa. Quand sont-ils susceptibles d’etre soumis a des poursuites judiciaires aux termes du War Crimes Act ? Le terme « violation serieuse de l’article 3 commun » signifie toute conduite definie aux termes de neuf sous-titres, mais le langage dans chaque cas exige qu’il y ait une intention. Core 3 Coursework. Ainsi, l’interdiction de la torture est definie de cette maniere : « L’acte d’une personne qui commet, ou conspire en vue de commettre, ou tente de commettre, une action specifiquement intentionnee afin d’infliger des douleurs ou des souffrances physiques ou mentales severes (autres que les peines et souffrances resultant de sanctions legales) sur toute autre personne sous sa garde dans le but d’obtenir une information ou une confession, une punition, intimidation, coercition, ou autre raison fondee sur une discrimination de quelque sorte que ce soit ». Michael Essay. Qu’en est-il si « l’intention specifique » est d’obtenir une information et la peine physique ou mentale est corollaire et non intentionnelle ? Y a-t-il dans ces conditions une responsabilite aux termes du War Crimes Act ? La Cour Supreme rejeta dans Hamdan c. Essay. Rumsfeld l’argument de l’administration selon lequel le president a le pouvoir, aux termes de l’article II, de creer des commissions militaires et de determiner leurs structures et leurs procedures.

La Cour exigea que le president Bush obtienne une autorisation statutaire du Congres aux termes de l’article I de la Constitution. Costa Essay. « Sans doute l’effet le plus significatif de la decision, longue de 185 pages, est, comme le souligne le Washington Post , qu’elle rejeta la these du president Bush selon laquelle la necessite de mener une guerre globale contre le terrorisme lui donnait des pouvoirs extraordinaires qui se situaient au-dela de la juridiction des tribunaux. Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. La decision rappelle le « devoir de la Cour en temps de guerre comme en temps de paix de preserver les sauvegardes constitutionnelles de la liberte civile » [30] [30] Eugene Robinson, “Checking the costa essay, Decider”, The Washington. Thesis. . Michael. Cependant, bien qu’il y ait eu une resistance substantielle de la part du Congres au cours des premiers stades des negociations entre les branches executive et legislative concernant la redaction de la proposition de loi, la resistance du corps legislatif s’affaiblit petit a petit et la Maison-Blanche sembla l’emporter sur les points essentiels du debat. Psychology Autism. Les membres du Congres n’avaient pas affirme leur pouvoir sur l’etablissement de commissions militaires tout au long des cinq annees qui s’ecoulerent depuis les attaques du 11 septembre 2001. Costa Essay. Lorsqu’il leur fut demande de ce faire par la Haute cour, ils montrerent tres peu d’interet ou de confiance en leurs capacites institutionnelles en exercant un role constitutionnel independant et en insufflant une vie nouvelle au systeme de freins et de contrepoids. Chemosynthesis. L’on peut esperer qu’a la suite des prononces de la Cour dans Hamdan c. Essay. Rumsfeld , et des recentes elections legislatives, le Congres se montrera plus determine a agir de nouveau de maniere plus affirmee et a retablir l’equilibre des pouvoirs entre l’Executif et le Legislatif. Les elections legislatives de 2006 donnent aux democrates l’occasion de reorienter la direction generale de la politique de l’administration americaine. Thesis Faculty. A travers ces elections, le public a clairement repudie la politique de l’administration actuelle, que ce soit en ce qui concerne la guerre en Irak ou pour ce qui est de la reponse qu’elle a apportee a des desastres naturels tels que l’ouragan Katrina . Essay. Du temps d’un Congres controle par une majorite de republicains, les enquetes du Congres etaient relativement limitees et contraintes.

Desormais, avec une majorite de Democrates au sein du Senat et de la Chambre des representants, les commissions du Congres sont en mesure de mener des enquetes approfondies. Chemosynthesis. Et la question de savoir a quel point ces commissions d’enquete seront efficaces dependra en grande mesure du choix de leurs objectifs et de l’objet ou du sujet de ces enquetes. Michael Essay. L’opinion publique se montrera certainement favorable a des enquetes qu’elle jugera legitimes, telles que celles qui porteraient par exemple sur la corruption potentielle de certaines entreprises de construction avec lesquelles l’administration a traite en Irak. Thesis Autism. Afin d’eviter l’embarras potentiel et de serieux dommages politiques, l’administration pourrait bien sur decider d’opposer une resistance a de telles enquetes – mais elle ne pourrait le faire qu’au risque de paraitre s’engager deliberement dans une obstruction a la justice et de se livrer a un camouflage de verites auquel le public a droit. Costa Essay. Le Congres a a sa disposition des moyens considerables pour obtenir l’acces aux dossiers et aux temoignages de hauts fonctionnaires de l’Executif. Thesis Faculty. En effet, les commissions d’enquetes du Congres peuvent emettre des subpoenas (citations a comparaitre), declarer des fonctionnaires en outrage, et invoquer d’autres mesures. Essay. Au cours des six dernieres annees, les democrates ont mene leurs propres enquetes au sujet d’eventuelles mauvaises conduites au sein de la branche executive. Bromden. Cependant, etant desormais le parti majoritaire au sein des deux chambres du Congres, il peuvent demander de facon officielle que les departements concernes soumettent tout document requis par le biais de subpoenas , et que les fonctionnaires de l’Executif comparaissent pour temoigner sous serment. Michael Costa. Le Congres a non seulement le pouvoir constitutionnel mais egalement le devoir de calibrer la politique nationale lorsque cela s’avere necessaire. Core. En consequence, le public americain devrait bientot etre en mesure de mieux comprendre ce qui a ete accompli au nom de pouvoirs inherents tels que ceux invoques dans les briefs presentes au nom de l’administration dans Hamdan c. Michael Costa. Rumsfeld . Louis Fisher est specialiste pres la Bibliotheque du Congres charge de la bibliotheque juridique. Nyu Stern Essay. Il a ete specialiste senior dans le chapitre Separation des Pouvoirs au sein du Service de recherche du Congres.

Auteur de plus de 15 ouvrages, dont American Constitutional Law , et plus de 300 articles, Louis Fisher fut a deux reprises recipiendaire du prix Louis Brownlow de l’Academie nationale d’administration publique, pour Presidential Spending Power (1975) et Constitutional Dialogues (1988). Michael. En 2000, les presses de la State University of being New York ont edite Politics and michael Constitutionalism: The Louis Fisher Connection , collection de huit essais qui analysent l’ensemble de son ?uvre. Nada Mourtada-Sabbah est professeur invitee de droit public a l’universite Paris II et directrice du departement de relations internationales de l’universite americaine de Sharjah (AUS). Jane Mayer, “The Hidden Power”, The New Yorker , 3 juillet 2006, vol. Chief Bromden Analysis Essay. 82, N° 20, pp.

44-45 ; Peter Baker et Michael Abramowitz, “A Governing Philosophy Rebuffed”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, p. Essay. A 01. Core Comparison. Les conseillers juridiques de la C.I.A., et les conseillers juridiques des differents services militaires furent eux aussi surpris a l’annonce du decret militaire. Essay. Aucun d’entre eux n’avait ete consulte. Nyu Stern Essay. John Bellinger III, le conseiller juridique du Conseil de securite nationale et conseiller juridique adjoint de la Maison-Blanche, a qui l’on avait formellement confie la tache de creer une procedure legale pour le jugement de personnes etrangeres soupconnees d’actions terroristes, n’etait pas non plus informe de ce decret qui aurait ete redige dans le secret par David Addington et certains de ses collaborateurs. Michael. Sur John Bellinger, voir « Le droit international, nouvel ecueil aux relations transatlantiques ? », Politique americaine , N° 4, Printemps 2006, pp. Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. 41-51. Brief for michael essay, Respondents, Hamdan c. 3 Coursework Comparison. Rumsfeld , N° 05-184, Cour Supreme des Etats-Unis, fevrier 2006, p. Michael Costa. 21. Voir Jane Mayer, art. Chief Bromden. cit. Michael Essay. , pp. Chief Bromden Analysis. 44-45. Hamdan c. Michael Essay. Rumsfeld , 126 S.Ct.

2749, 2006. L’article 3 commun aux quatre Conventions de Geneve est applicable aux conflits armes non internationaux et enonce en quoi consiste un minimum de traitement humain. En cas de conflit arme ne presentant pas un caractere international et surgissant sur le territoire de l’une des hautes parties contractantes, chacune des Parties au conflit sera tenue d’appliquer au moins les dispositions suivantes : 1. Being Systematic. Les personnes qui ne participent pas directement aux hostilites, y compris les membres de forces armees qui ont depose les armes et les personnes qui ont ete mises hors de combat par maladie, blessure, detention, ou pour toute autre cause, seront, en toutes circonstances, traitees avec humanite, sans aucune distinction de caractere defavorable basee sur la race, la couleur, la religion ou la croyance, le sexe, la naissance ou la fortune, ou tout autre critere analogue. A cet effet, sont et demeurent prohibes, en tout temps et en tout lieu, a l’egard des personnes mentionnees ci-dessus : les atteintes portees a la vie et a l’integrite corporelle, notamment le meurtre sous toutes ses formes, les mutilations, les traitements cruels, tortures et supplices ; les prises d’otages ; les atteintes a la dignite des personnes, notamment les traitements humiliants et degradants ; les condamnations prononcees et les executions effectuees sans un jugement prealable, rendu par un tribunal regulierement constitue, assorti des garanties judiciaires reconnues comme indispensables par les peuples civilises. Voir Hamdan c. Essay. Rumsfeld , 548 U.S., p. Being. 73. Jonathan Weisman, “Battle Looms in costa essay Congress Over Military Tribunals”, The Washington Post , 13 juillet 2006, p. Nyu Stern Essay 3 Mail. A6. Jonathan Weisman, “Senators Gain Momentum to michael costa essay Change Military Tribunal System”, The Washington Post , 15 juillet 2006, p. Chemosynthesis By Sulfur Bacteria. A6. R. Michael. Jeffrey Smith, “Top Military Lawyers Oppose Plan for thesis autism, Special Courts”, The Washington Post , 3 aout 2006, p. Costa Essay. A11. R. Core Comparison. Jeffrey Smith, “White House Proposal Would Expand Authority of michael costa Military Courts”, The Washington Post , 2 aout 2006, p. Thesis Submitted To The. A4. Voir aussi Louis Fisher, In the costa, Name of chief analysis essay National Security: Unchecked Presidential Power and michael costa the Reynolds Case , 2006, pp. Being Essay. 230-240.

Congressional Record , vol. Michael Costa Essay. 152, 7 septembre 2006, p. Chief Bromden Essay. S9113. Peter Baker, “GOP Infighting on costa essay Detainees Intensifies”, The Washington Post , 16 septembre 2006, p. Core 3 Coursework Comparison. A1. “How 3 G.O.P. Michael. Veterans Stalled Bush Detainee Bill”, The New York Times , 17 septembre 2006, p. Psychology Thesis Autism. 1. Charles Babington, “House Panel Supports Tribunal Plan, 20 to michael 19”, The Washington Post , 21 septembre 2006, p. Comparison. A6. John M. Michael Essay. Donnelly, “Detainee Treatment Fractures GOP: Influential senators’ challenge to being Bush proposal on michael costa terrorist suspects keeps issue at chemosynthesis by sulfur cutting edge of michael essay security debate”, Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 18 septembre 2006, p. Essay. 2458. Congressional Quarterly Weekly Report , 2 octobre 2006, p. Michael Costa. 2624. “Profiles in 3 coursework comparison Cowardice”, The Washington Post , 1 er octobre 2006, p. Costa. B6. Eugene Robinson, “Checking the thesis, Decider”, The Washington Post , 30 juin 2006, Editorial, p. Essay. A27.

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President Obama’s Farewell Address: Full Video and Text. President Obama delivered his farewell address in Chicago on Tuesday. Essay. The following is the complete transcript, as provided by the Federal News Service. It’s good to be home! Thank you, everybody! Thank you so much, thank you. Thank you. Thank you. It’s good to be home.

We’re on chief analysis essay live TV here, I’ve got to move. You can tell that I’m a lame duck, because nobody is michael costa essay following instructions. Everybody have a seat. My fellow Americans, Michelle and I have been so touched by systematic, all the well-wishes that we’ve received over michael, the past few weeks. Chief Bromden. But tonight it’s my turn to essay, say thanks. Interactive Feature | Get the Morning Briefing by Email What you need to bacteria, know to start your day, delivered to your inbox Monday through Friday. Whether we have seen eye-to-eye or rarely agreed at all, my conversations with you, the American people — in living rooms and in schools; at farms and on factory floors; at diners and on distant military outposts — those conversations are what have kept me honest, and kept me inspired, and kept me going. Costa Essay. And every day, I have learned from thesis to the, you. Michael Essay. You made me a better president, and you made me a better man. So I first came to Chicago when I was in my early twenties, and analysis essay I was still trying to figure out who I was; still searching for a purpose to my life. And it was a neighborhood not far from here where I began working with church groups in the shadows of closed steel mills.

It was on these streets where I witnessed the power of faith, and the quiet dignity of working people in costa the face of struggle and loss. (CROWD CHANTING “FOUR MORE YEARS”) Now this is where I learned that change only happens when ordinary people get involved, and they get engaged, and chemosynthesis they come together to demand it. After eight years as your president, I still believe that. Michael Costa Essay. And it’s not just my belief. It’s the beating heart of our American idea — our bold experiment in self-government. It’s the conviction that we are all created equal, endowed by our creator with certain unalienable rights, among them life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. It’s the insistence that these rights, while self-evident, have never been self-executing; that We, the People, through the instrument of our democracy, can form a more perfect union. What a radical idea, the great gift that our Founders gave to core, us. Michael. The freedom to chase our individual dreams through our sweat, and toil, and imagination — and the imperative to bromden analysis, strive together as well, to achieve a common good, a greater good. For 240 years, our nation’s call to citizenship has given work and purpose to each new generation.

It’s what led patriots to michael essay, choose republic over tyranny, pioneers to trek west, slaves to brave that makeshift railroad to freedom. It’s what pulled immigrants and refugees across oceans and the Rio Grande. Autism. It’s what pushed women to michael essay, reach for the ballot. Psychology Thesis Autism. It’s what powered workers to organize. It’s why GIs gave their lives at michael, Omaha Beach and Iwo Jima; Iraq and Afghanistan — and analysis why men and women from Selma to Stonewall were prepared to give theirs as well. So that’s what we mean when we say America is exceptional. Michael Costa Essay. Not that our nation has been flawless from the start, but that we have shown the core 3 coursework comparison capacity to change, and michael costa make life better for comparison those who follow. Yes, our progress has been uneven. The work of democracy has always been hard. It has been contentious. Sometimes it has been bloody.

For every two steps forward, it often feels we take one step back. But the long sweep of essay, America has been defined by forward motion, a constant widening of our founding creed to 3 mail, embrace all, and michael costa essay not just some. If I had told you eight years ago that America would reverse a great recession, reboot our auto industry, and unleash the longest stretch of chief bromden analysis, job creation in our history — if I had told you that we would open up a new chapter with the Cuban people, shut down Iran’s nuclear weapons program without firing a shot, take out the mastermind of 9-11 — if I had told you that we would win marriage equality and secure the right to health insurance for another 20 million of our fellow citizens — if I had told you all that, you might have said our sights were set a little too high. But that’s what we did. Michael Essay. That’s what you did. You were the change. The answer to core comparison, people’s hopes and, because of you, by almost every measure, America is a better, stronger place than it was when we started. In 10 days the world will witness a hallmark of our democracy. No, no, no, no, no.

The peaceful transfer of power from one freely-elected President to michael costa, the next. I committed to core 3 coursework comparison, President-Elect Trump that my administration would ensure the smoothest possible transition, just as President Bush did for me. Because it’s up to all of us to make sure our government can help us meet the many challenges we still face. Michael. We have what we need to autism, do so. We have everything we need to michael costa essay, meet those challenges. After all, we remain the wealthiest, most powerful, and most respected nation on earth. Our youth, our drive, our diversity and openness, our boundless capacity for risk and reinvention means that the future should be ours. Essay. But that potential will only costa essay, be realized if our democracy works. Core 3 Coursework. Only if our politics better reflects the decency of our people. Only if all of michael costa essay, us, regardless of party affiliation or particular interests help restore the sense of common purpose that we so badly need right now. And that’s what I want to focus on autism tonight, the state of our democracy.

Understand democracy does not require uniformity. Our founders argued, they quarreled, and eventually they compromised. They expected us to costa, do the same. But they knew that democracy does require a basic sense of solidarity. Thesis To The Faculty. The idea that, for all our outward differences, we’re all in this together, that we rise or fall as one.

There have been moments throughout our history that threatened that solidarity. And the michael essay beginning of this century has been one of those times. A shrinking world, growing inequality, demographic change, and the specter of terrorism. These forces haven’t just tested our security and our prosperity, but are testing our democracy as well. And how we meet these challenges to our democracy will determine our ability to educate our kids and nyu stern 3 mail create good jobs and michael costa protect our homeland. In other words, it will determine our future. To begin with, our democracy won’t work without a sense that everyone has economic opportunity.

And the good news is that today the nyu stern economy is growing again. Wages, incomes, home values and retirement accounts are all rising again. Poverty is falling again. The wealthy are paying a fair share of michael essay, taxes. Even as the stock market shatters records, the unemployment rate is near a 10-year low. The uninsured rate has never, ever been lower. Interactive Feature | The Obama Era Articles in this series will explore the sweeping change that President Obama has brought to the nation, and how the presidency has changed him. Health care costs are rising at the slowest rate in 50 years. And I’ve said, and chief analysis I mean it, anyone can put together a plan that is demonstrably better than the improvements we’ve made to michael costa essay, our health care system, that covers as many people at less cost, I will publicly support it. Because that, after all, is why we serve. Not to score points or take credit.

But to make people’s lives better. But, for all the real progress that we’ve made, we know it’s not enough. By Sulfur. Our economy doesn’t work as well or grow as fast when a few prosper at the expense of michael costa, a growing middle class, and ladders for folks who want to get into the middle class. That’s the economic argument. But stark inequality is essay also corrosive to michael, our democratic idea.

While the top 1 percent has amassed a bigger share of essay, wealth and income, too many of costa essay, our families in inner cities and in rural counties have been left behind. The laid off factory worker, the waitress or health care worker who’s just barely getting by and struggling to submitted, pay the bills. Convinced that the michael costa essay game is fixed against them. That their government only faculty, serves the interest of the powerful. That’s a recipe for more cynicism and polarization in our politics. Now there’re no quick fixes to this long-term trend. I agree, our trade should be fair and not just free. But the next wave of economic dislocations won’t come from overseas. It will come from the essay relentless pace of automation that makes a lot of good middle class jobs obsolete. And so we’re going to have to forge a new social compact to guarantee all our kids the education they need.

To give workers the power. . to unionize for thesis submitted to the faculty better wages. To update the social safety net to reflect the way we live now. And make more reforms to the tax code so corporations and costa essay the individuals who reap the submitted faculty most from this new economy don’t avoid their obligations to the country that’s made their very success possible. We can argue about how to best achieve these goals. But we can’t be complacent about the goals themselves.

For if we don’t create opportunity for all people, the disaffection and division that has stalled our progress will only sharpen in costa essay years to chemosynthesis by sulfur, come. There’s a second threat to our democracy. And this one is as old as our nation itself. After my election there was talk of michael, a post-racial America. And such a vision, however well intended, was never realistic. Race remains a potent. . and often divisive force in our society. Now I’ve lived long enough to nyu stern essay, know that race relations are better than they were 10 or 20 or 30 years ago, no matter what some folks say. You can see it not just in statistics. You see it in michael essay the attitudes of young Americans across the thesis autism political spectrum.

But we’re not where we need to be. And all of us have more work to do. If every economic issue is framed as a struggle between a hardworking white middle class and michael costa essay an undeserving minority, then workers of core comparison, all shades are going to be left fighting for scraps while the costa wealthy withdraw further into their private enclaves. If we’re unwilling to invest in the children of 3 coursework comparison, immigrants, just because they don’t look like us, we will diminish the prospects of our own children — because those brown kids will represent a larger and larger share of America’s workforce. And we have shown that our economy doesn’t have to michael, be a zero-sum game.

Last year, incomes rose for all races, all age groups, for essay men and for women. So if we’re going to be serious about race going forward, we need to uphold laws against discrimination — in hiring, and in costa essay housing, and in education, and in the criminal justice system. That is what our Constitution and highest ideals require. But laws alone won’t be enough. Hearts must change. It won’t change overnight. Social attitudes oftentimes take generations to 3 coursework, change. But if our democracy is to work the way it should in this increasingly diverse nation, then each one of us need to try to heed the advice of a great character in American fiction, Atticus Finch, who said “You never really understand a person until you consider things from his point of view, until you climb into his skin and walk around in it.”

For blacks and other minority groups, that means tying our own very real struggles for costa essay justice to psychology, the challenges that a lot of michael costa essay, people in this country face. Not only the refugee or the immigrant or the rural poor or the transgender American, but also the middle-aged white guy who from the outside may seem like he’s got all the advantages, but has seen his world upended by economic, and cultural, and technological change. We have to pay attention and listen. For white Americans, it means acknowledging that the effects of slavery and Jim Crow didn’t suddenly vanish in psychology thesis the ’60s; that when minority groups voice discontent, they’re not just engaging in reverse racism or practicing political correctness; when they wage peaceful protest, they’re not demanding special treatment, but the equal treatment that our founders promised. For native-born Americans, it means reminding ourselves that the michael costa stereotypes about immigrants today were said, almost word for word, about the Irish, and Italians, and Poles, who it was said were going to destroy the bromden essay fundamental character of America. And as it turned out, America wasn’t weakened by the presence of these newcomers; these newcomers embraced this nation’s creed, and michael costa this nation was strengthened. So regardless of the station we occupy; we all have to try harder; we all have to start with the premise that each of our fellow citizens loves this country just as much as we do; that they value hard work and family just like we do; that their children are just as curious and thesis submitted hopeful and worthy of love as our own.

And that’s not easy to do. Costa. For too many of us it’s become safer to retreat into our own bubbles, whether in our neighborhoods, or on college campuses, or places of worship, or especially our social media feeds, surrounded by people who look like us and share the same political outlook and never challenge our assumptions. In the rise of psychology, naked partisanship and increasing economic and regional stratification, the splintering of our media into essay, a channel for every taste, all this makes this great sorting seem natural, even inevitable. And increasingly we become so secure in our bubbles that we start accepting only chemosynthesis by sulfur, information, whether it’s true or not, that fits our opinions, instead of basing our opinions on michael costa the evidence that is out there. And this trend represents a third threat to our democracy. Look, politics is a battle of bromden, ideas.

That’s how our democracy was designed. In the course of costa, a healthy debate, we prioritize different goals, and the different means of reaching them. By Sulfur. But without some common baseline of facts, without a willingness to admit new information and concede that your opponent might be making a fair point, and that science and reason matter, then we’re going to keep talking past each other. And we’ll make common ground and compromise impossible. And isn’t that part of what so often makes politics dispiriting? How can elected officials rage about deficits when we propose to spend money on pre-school for kids, but not when we’re cutting taxes for corporations? How do we excuse ethical lapses in our own party, but pounce when the other party does the same thing? It’s not just dishonest, it’s selective sorting of the facts. It’s self-defeating because, as my mom used to tell me, reality has a way of catching up with you. Take the challenge of climate change.

In just eight years we’ve halved our dependence on foreign oil, we’ve doubled our renewable energy, we’ve led the world to michael costa essay, an agreement that (at) the promise to core 3 coursework comparison, save this planet. But without bolder action, our children won’t have time to michael essay, debate the chief analysis essay existence of climate change. Michael. They’ll be busy dealing with its effects. More environmental disasters, more economic disruptions, waves of climate refugees seeking sanctuary. Now we can and should argue about the best approach to solve the problem. But to simply deny the problem not only 3 coursework comparison, betrays future generations, it betrays the essential spirit of michael, this country, the essential spirit of innovation and practical problem-solving that guided our founders. It is that spirit — it is that spirit born of the enlightenment that made us an economic powerhouse.

The spirit that took flight at to the, Kitty Hawk and michael costa Cape Canaveral, the spirit that cures disease and put a computer in every pocket, it’s that spirit. A faith in reason and analysis essay enterprise, and the primacy of right over might, that allowed us to resist the lure of fascism and tyranny during the essay Great Depression, that allowed us to build a post-World War II order with other democracies. An order based not just on military power or national affiliations, but built on principles, the rule of law, human rights, freedom of religion and speech and assembly and an independent press. That order is chemosynthesis by sulfur now being challenged. First by violent fanatics who claim to speak for costa Islam. More recently by autocrats in foreign capitals who seek free markets in systematic open democracies and civil society itself as a threat to their power.

The peril each poses to our democracy is more far reaching than a car bomb or a missile. They represent the fear of change. The fear of people who look or speak or pray differently. A contempt for the rule of costa, law that holds leaders accountable. Chemosynthesis. An intolerance of dissent and costa free thought. A belief that the sword or the gun or the bomb or the propaganda machine is the ultimate arbiter of what’s true and what’s right. Because of the extraordinary courage of our men and women in nyu stern essay 3 mail uniform. Because of our intelligence officers and michael essay law enforcement and diplomats who support our troops. . no foreign terrorist organization has successfully planned and nyu stern 3 mail executed an attack on our homeland these past eight years. . Boston and Orlando and costa San Bernardino and Fort Hood remind us of how dangerous radicalization can be, our law enforcement agencies are more effective and vigilant than ever.

We have taken out tens of thousands of terrorists, including Bin Laden. The global coalition we’re leading against ISIL has taken out their leaders and taken away about half their territory. ISIL will be destroyed. And no one who threatens America will ever be safe. And all who serve or have served — it has been the honor of my lifetime to be your commander-in-chief. And we all owe you a deep debt of gratitude. But, protecting our way of life, that’s not just the job of our military. Democracy can buckle when it gives into fear. So just as we as citizens must remain vigilant against thesis submitted to the faculty, external aggression, we must guard against a weakening of the values that make us who we are. And that’s why for the past eight years I’ve worked to put the fight against terrorism on michael essay a firmer legal footing. That’s why we’ve ended torture, worked to close Gitmo, reformed our laws governing surveillance to being systematic essay, protect privacy and civil liberties.

That’s why I reject discrimination against Muslim Americans. . who are just as patriotic as we are. That’s why we cannot withdraw. That’s why we cannot withdraw from big global fights to expand democracy and human rights and women’s rights and michael costa LGBT rights. No matter how imperfect our efforts, no matter how expedient ignoring such values may seem, that’s part of defending America. For the chemosynthesis fight against extremism and intolerance and sectarianism and chauvinism are of a piece with the fight against authoritarianism and michael costa nationalist aggression. If the core scope of freedom and respect for the rule of law shrinks around the world, the likelihood of michael costa essay, war within and 3 coursework between nations increases, and our own freedoms will eventually be threatened. So let’s be vigilant, but not afraid. ISIL will try to kill innocent people. But they cannot defeat America unless we betray our Constitution and michael costa essay our principles in the fight.

Rivals like Russia or China cannot match our influence around the world — unless we give up what we stand for, and turn ourselves into just another big country that bullies smaller neighbors. Which brings me to my final point — our democracy is threatened whenever we take it for granted. All of us, regardless of party, should be throwing ourselves into the task of rebuilding our democratic institutions. When voting rates in America are some of the lowest among advanced democracies, we should be making it easier, not harder, to vote. When trust in our institutions is core comparison low, we should reduce the corrosive influence of money in our politics, and insist on the principles of transparency and ethics in public service. When Congress is dysfunctional, we should draw our districts to encourage politicians to essay, cater to common sense and not rigid extremes. But remember, none of this happens on its own. All of this depends on our participation; on each of being systematic, us accepting the responsibility of citizenship, regardless of which way the michael essay pendulum of power happens to be swinging. Our Constitution is core 3 coursework comparison a remarkable, beautiful gift. Costa Essay. But it’s really just a piece of parchment. It has no power on its own.

We, the people, give it power. We, the people, give it meaning — with our participation, and with the choices that we make and thesis submitted the alliances that we forge. Whether or not we stand up for our freedoms. Michael. Whether or not we respect and enforce the rule of law, that’s up to us. America is no fragile thing. But the gains of our long journey to freedom are not assured. In his own farewell address, George Washington wrote that self-government is the 3 coursework comparison underpinning of our safety, prosperity, and liberty, but “from different causes and from different quarters much pains will be taken. to weaken in your minds the conviction of this truth.” And so we have to preserve this truth with “jealous anxiety;” that we should reject “the first dawning of every attempt to michael, alienate any portion of our country from the rest or to enfeeble the sacred ties” that make us one. America, we weaken those ties when we allow our political dialogue to become so corrosive that people of good character aren’t even willing to enter into public service.

So coarse with rancor that Americans with whom we disagree are seen, not just as misguided, but as malevolent. We weaken those ties when we define some of us as more American than others. When we write off the psychology thesis whole system as inevitably corrupt. And when we sit back and blame the leaders we elect without examining our own role in electing them. It falls to each of us to be those anxious, jealous guardians of our democracy. Embrace the joyous task we have been given to continually try to improve this great nation of ours because, for all our outward differences, we in fact all share the same proud type, the most important office in michael costa a democracy, citizen. Citizen. So, you see, that’s what our democracy demands. It needs you. Not just when there’s an election, not just when you own narrow interest is at stake, but over the full span of chemosynthesis by sulfur, a lifetime. If you’re tired of michael essay, arguing with strangers on the Internet, try talking with one of faculty, them in michael costa essay real life.

If something needs fixing, then lace up your shoes and do some organizing. If you’re disappointed by your elected officials, grab a clip board, get some signatures, and bacteria run for office yourself. Show up, dive in, stay at it. Sometimes you’ll win, sometimes you’ll lose. Michael. Presuming a reservoir in goodness, that can be a risk. And there will be times when the process will disappoint you. Psychology Autism. But for those of us fortunate enough to have been part of this one and to see it up close, let me tell you, it can energize and inspire. And more often than not, your faith in America and in Americans will be confirmed. Mine sure has been.

Over the course of these eight years, I’ve seen the hopeful faces of young graduates and our newest military officers. I have mourned with grieving families searching for answers, and michael essay found grace in a Charleston church. Psychology Thesis Autism. I’ve seen our scientists help a paralyzed man regain his sense of touch. Michael Essay. I’ve seen Wounded Warriors who at essay, points were given up for dead walk again. I’ve seen our doctors and volunteers rebuild after earthquakes and stop pandemics in their tracks. I’ve seen the michael essay youngest of children remind us through their actions and through their generosity of our obligations to care for refugees or work for peace and, above all, to look out for each other. So that faith that I placed all those years ago, not far from here, in the power of ordinary Americans to bring about change, that faith has been rewarded in ways I could not have possibly imagined. And I hope your faith has too.

Some of you here tonight or watching at home, you were there with us in 2004 and 2008, 2012. Maybe you still can’t believe we pulled this whole thing off. Let me tell you, you’re not the only ones. Michelle LaVaughn Robinson of the South Side. . for the past 25 years you have not only been my wife and mother of my children, you have been my best friend.

You took on a role you didn’t ask for. And you made it your own with grace and with grit and with style, and psychology good humor. You made the White House a place that belongs to costa essay, everybody. And a new generation sets its sights higher because it has you as a role model. You have made me proud, and you have made the country proud. Malia and chemosynthesis bacteria Sasha.

. under the strangest of costa, circumstances you have become two amazing young women. You are smart and you are beautiful. But more importantly, you are kind and you are thoughtful and you are full of passion. . you wore the burden of years in the spotlight so easily. Of all that I have done in my life, I am most proud to thesis to the faculty, be your dad. . the scrappy kid from Scranton. . who became Delaware’s favorite son. You were the first decision I made as a nominee, and it was the best. Not just because you have been a great vice president, but because in the bargain I gained a brother.

And we love you and Jill like family. And your friendship has been one of the great joys of essay, our lives. To my remarkable staff, for eight years, and for some of you a whole lot more, I have drawn from analysis, your energy. And every day I try to reflect back what you displayed. Heart and character. And idealism. I’ve watched you grow up, get married, have kids, start incredible new journeys of your own.

Even when times got tough and michael frustrating, you never let Washington get the better of you. You guarded against cynicism. Being. And the michael costa only thing that makes me prouder than all the good that we’ve done is the thought of comparison, all the amazing things that you are going to essay, achieve from here. And to all of you out there — every organizer who moved to nyu stern, an unfamiliar town, every kind family who welcomed them in, every volunteer who knocked on doors, every young person who cast a ballot for costa essay the first time, every American who lived and breathed the hard work of change — you are the best supporters and organizers anybody could ever hope for, and I will forever be grateful. Because you did change the thesis submitted faculty world.

And that’s why I leave this stage tonight even more optimistic about this country than when we started. Because I know our work has not only helped so many Americans; it has inspired so many Americans — especially so many young people out there — to believe that you can make a difference; to hitch your wagon to michael, something bigger than yourselves. Let me tell you, this generation coming up — unselfish, altruistic, creative, patriotic — I’ve seen you in every corner of the country. You believe in a fair, and comparison just, and michael inclusive America; you know that constant change has been America’s hallmark, that it’s not something to fear but something to embrace, you are willing to carry this hard work of democracy forward. You’ll soon outnumber any of us, and I believe as a result the future is in good hands.

My fellow Americans, it has been the honor of my life to serve you. I won’t stop; in fact, I will be right there with you, as a citizen, for all my remaining days. But for now, whether you are young or whether you’re young at chemosynthesis bacteria, heart, I do have one final ask of you as your president — the same thing I asked when you took a chance on me eight years ago. I am asking you to believe. Michael Costa Essay. Not in thesis to the my ability to bring about change — but in yours. I am asking you to hold fast to michael, that faith written into our founding documents; that idea whispered by slaves and abolitionists; that spirit sung by immigrants and homesteaders and those who marched for justice; that creed reaffirmed by those who planted flags from foreign battlefields to systematic essay, the surface of the michael costa moon; a creed at the core of every American whose story is not yet written: Thank you. Thesis Submitted To The. God bless you. And may God continue to bless the United States of America.

Thank you. Follow The New York Times’s politics and michael costa essay Washington coverage on Facebook and Twitter, and sign up for the First Draft politics newsletter. More In PoliticsMore In U.S. Politics. Democrats, Seeking to Disavow Weinstein, Plan to being systematic, Give His Donations to Charity. Senators Patrick J. Leahy, Richard Blumenthal, Martin Heinrich and Elizabeth Warren each said on Thursday they would transfer money they had received from Mr. Weinstein to charity.

Even if he stays, the secretary of state has become a wounded figure, his credibility diminished by michael, his rift with the president. After resisting any gun legislation for decades, Republican lawmakers say they will examine the kits used in Las Vegas to turn rifles into thesis to the faculty, rapid-firing weapons.

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13 Colonies Essays and Research Papers. Virginia Founding Date: 1607 Region: Southern Colony Founders: John Smith, John Rolfe Thomas Dale Reason for founding: Search for gold, . Michael? English outpost against Spain Characteristics/laws: Jamestown was the main town that was establish because of England’s desire for wealth and converting the Natives to systematic essay Christianity. Majority of the population was English. Environment: Very warm climate, which was beneficial to the colonists because they didn’t have to worry about the harsh winters. Michael? Contrary. Colony , Faith , Freedom of nyu stern essay religion 1075 Words | 6 Pages. com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi. ? ? ? ? 1 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the Bitcoin . exchange market – and costa essay how a “Disc. http://www.247btc.com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi. ? ? ? ? … … 2 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the chief analysis essay Bitcoin exchange market – and michael costa essay how a “Disc. http://www.247btc.com/bitcoins/134/how-i-would-manipulate-the-bitcoi.

3 of 14 18-Apr- 13 12:58 AM How I would manipulate the Bitcoin exchange. 13 , Stock market 463 Words | 4 Pages. ?New Colonies in chemosynthesis by sulfur bacteria New England ¶1 New England started as one large colony settled by two different religious groups. In 1620, the . Pilgrims came from costa essay, England on the Mayflower and started a colony in Plymouth Bay. The Puritans arrived in systematic essay 1629 and essay started the Massachusetts Bay Colony . Chief Essay? ¶2 The Pilgrims had a charter promising them land in Virginia, but on the trip across, their ship blew off course. Unfortunately, they were unprepared for life in the North. They arrived just before winter. There was not. Essay? Former British colonies , Massachusetts , Massachusetts Bay Colony 995 Words | 3 Pages.

13 Original Colonies Introduction Your expertise is needed immediately! 500 people are scheduled to set sail from England to . the colonies next month. They are still undecided which colony would be the best to settle and build their new homes. Your colony has hired you to create a newsletter, pamphlet or brochure to entice these people to settle in your colony . Psychology Autism? The information you provide will be used to help the new colonists pick the best colony that will suit their needs. You will need. Connecticut , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 789 Words | 5 Pages. Michael Costa? 13 COLONIES REPORT INTRODUCTION This is a report about the thesis autism 13 colonies . First I will be talking . about all the 13 colonies . Then I will be talking about one specific colony , Virginia.

When I talk about Virginia, I will tell you about their migration, reason for migration, Native Americans, and essay more. So get ready for a report about the thesis autism 13 colonies . 13 COLONIES There are 3 sets of England colonies with 13 colonies in michael essay them. The first colony is the New England colony which consists of Massachusetts. Colonial Williamsburg , Former British colonies , Jamestown, Virginia 1389 Words | 4 Pages. Do you know how and for what reasons the first 13 colonies of being North America were found? Many of us today don’t know why these . Costa? colonies were established, but we should because it’s an extremely important event in to the history. Many of the first settlers in essay the North America came from England, they came for reasons such as these: wanted land to plant on, religious freedom, wanted to become rich or famous, needed a new beginning, wanted to escape paying debts and nyu stern others.

The first successful settlement was. Michael Costa? British North America , Former British colonies , Middle Colonies 1170 Words | 3 Pages. Religious Freedom in the 13 Colonies. freedom existed in 3 mail the British North American colonies prior to 1700. Religion, one of the costa essay main reasons America is what it is now. Ever since . the beginning of Jamestown, Europeans came to the Americas for 3 mail a common reason; they sought religious freedom. The Middle Colonies were mostly Quakers with a mixture of michael costa essay Catholics and Jews. Essay? The Southern Colonies were similar to the Middle Colonies , but they were mostly Catholics.

However, the michael essay New England colonies were mostly Puritans which led to strict laws. British North America , Christianity , Freedom of religion 773 Words | 3 Pages. The Fear of the Number 13-Triskaidekaphobia. Chief? Specific Purpose: To inform my audience about the superstition of the fear of the michael costa essay number 13 Introduction I. Attention Getter: Have you ever . wondered why school multiplication tables stop at 12x12 or why if you go to most hotels they do not have a 13th floor but instead a 12A? No one knows seems to know why but the fear of the thesis number 13 has been around for costa as long as we can remember. II. Credentials: I have intensively researched this superstition so I am well informed to educate you about this. Bromden Analysis? 13 , Common year starting on michael Thursday , Friday 1119 Words | 3 Pages.

Factors of Rebellion in the 13 American Colonies. In the chemosynthesis late 1700s, tensions ran high between Britain and the 13 American colonies , which led to events such as the Boston . Massacre, and the Boston Tea Party. Britain's angry response to these events furthered the indignation of the colonials against costa essay, the British, which ultimately led to the Revolutionary War in the colonies . Among the factors for rebellion the resentment of being systematic parliamentary taxation, restriction of civil liberty, British military measures, and the legacy of American religious. Michael? American Revolution , Boston , Boston Tea Party 826 Words | 5 Pages. Differneces and Similiarities of 13 colonies. Climate Differences New England: The New England Colonies were in analysis essay the northern part of the territory, therefor this region had the michael essay . longer winters of all and short summers that were mild. The climate was a benefit since it prevented deadly diseases from bromden, spreading but it has a negative side as well: the harsh winters killed lots of costa people. The Middle Colonies : They had a milder climate, this area was even called the Melting Pot. Their climate was perfect for farming, it was even called. Colonialism , Connecticut , Former British colonies 754 Words | 4 Pages.

1607-1732 13 Colonies Now that England is settling in North America more, we have thirteen colonies . The . colonies are all set up for different purposes. To The? They are divided into the New England, middle, and southern colonies . The Puritans control Parliament. They have formed the Massachusetts Bay Company, and michael costa have come to America. They’ve settled in a city called Boston, and the colony is Massachusetts. Massachusetts is the bacteria first New England colony . Now that we’re in michael costa the 1630’s, over 15,000 Puritans. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , New Jersey 677 Words | 3 Pages. Psychology Autism? Analyze the Ways Democratic Ideals(Ideas) Developed in the 13 Colonies. Michael Costa? Analyze the ways democratic ideals(ideas) developed in nyu stern essay 3 mail the 13 colonies . Democratic ideals were developed in our country long . before individuals clearly understood what they signified.

Colonists through out the 13 colonies are the costa essay makers of the America we live in today. They began to practice democratic ideals not present in their colony , such as: freedom of 3 coursework religion, voting, and michael equality. The sense of freedom these colonies had led them to corporate these democratic ideals into their lives. Colony , Democracy , Human rights 956 Words | 3 Pages. Systematic? ?Establishing the Colonies Name _____ Motives for settling in the New World: Spread Christianity Find a short cut to Asia Better job . opportunities Roanoke Island With the permission of Queen Elizabeth, Sir Walter Raleigh raised money to establish a colony , and in 1585 a small group of men sailed for the Americas. Michael? What did Raleigh find when he returned to the Lost Colony of Roanoke in 1589? The people had vanished and psychology thesis they found the costa word, “Croatian” carved in core 3 coursework comparison a tree. Jamestown What. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , New Jersey 765 Words | 5 Pages. In the movie Apollo 13 three astronauts go up to space in the space craft odyssey and encounter many problems.

The astronauts, Jim Lovell, . Jack Swigert and Fred Haise were on a rushed mission to go to the moon when Jack went to go stir the oxygen tanks and michael costa one of psychology thesis autism them exploded. Essay? The explosion led to a whole host of problems. Submitted? The astronauts had to abort the mission and focus on a safe return home. Michael Costa Essay? A monomyth plotline is chief bromden analysis essay, when a person leaves a place, encounters obstacles and essay comes back a different. Being Systematic Essay? Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Carbon dioxide 1334 Words | 3 Pages. ?The Thirteen Colonies 16th century England was not interested in exploration and michael costa essay colonization, but for the most part, English . colonies in North America were more for bussiness and in search of gold . It did provide extra land for Englands growing population and for those who seeked more religious freedom.

Englands colonization in the new world led to the Thirteen Colonies made up of the psychology autism New England Colonies , The Middle Colonies , and the Southern Colonies each having seperate religious beliefs. British America , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 494 Words | 2 Pages. English colonies and costa Colonial Power. occurring between, France, Britain, Spain, and their colonial possessions ( Era Introduction). Of course in the end Britain came out on top which put them in . a position of high power, but they did not do it by themselves though. How did the English colonies become the most successful colonial power in North America by comparison, 1763? It was because many settlers were drawn to their political systems which encouraged cultural diversity, economic growth, representative government, and religious toleration (Colonial. Colonialism , Colony , Culture 706 Words | 5 Pages. 13 Colonies Research Essay The 13 colonies were founded by England during the 1600’s -1700’s. The . 13 colonies lived different lives from one another. The people in the 13 colonies had their own religious and moral beliefs. The colonists all came to the 13 colonies for there own reasons.

Even though the 13 original American colonies were all formed by England, differences existed in the reasons they were formed, the bases of their economies, the types of people who settled, and the role played by. New Jersey , New York , Pennsylvania 561 Words | 2 Pages. dropped 13 . rescued possessions 14. What were the conditions with work, housing, family and friends each month for one year? Survivor . Michael? (record occupation and nyu stern character descriptions) Objective details (facts) Subjective details (opinions) 1.Miss Toshiko Sasaki 2. 20 Years Old. 3. Michael? 4. Clerk in the personnel department in the East Asia Tin Works.

5. High school student 6. 7. 8. At work 9. 11 month old brother, Akio. 10. 11. 12. About to speak to the girl at the next desk. Being Essay? 13 . 14. 12 , 13 , 22 530 Words | 4 Pages. Michael Essay? 13 12 this is the chief analysis naive forecast; used as forecast . Costa? start only April 16 12 May - ? = 0.2 Ft = ? (At-1) + (1 – ?) (Ft – 1) FApril = 0.2 ( 13 ) + (. 13 , Data analysis , Equals sign 331 Words | 3 Pages. Live Love Laugh Lesson 2 Poetic Devices. Rhyme scheme is thesis submitted faculty, described through the use of letters? for example, abba would indicate that . the michael costa first and fourth lines rhyme with each other and the second and third lines rhyme with each other. ? Example: I must confess My room is a mess 13 . Rhythm—The flow or beat of a poem or a passage? it can be slow, fast, or alternating, and it helps to create a mood. ? Example: I must confess, My room is a mess.

Parents and friends Would be aghast If they saw how fast I can shove my shirts . 13 , 14 667 Words | 3 Pages. Years before the start of the series, the thirteen districts attempted to start a revolution against the Capitol. The Capitol won, District 13 . was destroyed and, as punishment, an annual televised death match called The Hunger Games was created by the Capitol. Two participants, one male and submitted to the faculty one female, known as tributes, between the ages of costa 12 and 18 are chosen randomly in a reaping from each district. Children may volunteer as a tribute instead of selection by ballot. They are taken to an arena. 13 , 2000 Summer Olympics , Female 1265 Words | 4 Pages.

The 13 colonies: Graphic Organizer (Northern, Middle, South) Tina Van History 146 October 12, 2014 Week 3: Graphic Organizer Northern 1. Massachusetts: Divided into the Plymouth colony the . Bromden Analysis Essay? Massachusetts Bay colony . ? Plymouth: Founded by William Bradford populated by the Pilgrims who were separatists from Anglican Church. ? Massachusetts Bay: Founded by John Winthrop strictly populated by michael, Puritans who wanted to “purify” the Anglican Church. Comparison? 2. Connecticut: Founded by costa essay, Thomas Hooker, creator of the Fundamental Orders of Connecticut. Massachusetts , New England , New York 400 Words | 2 Pages. 9. Business houses should take greater social responsibility. 10. Are Gandhian values irrelevant for society today? 11. . Should Nehru's temples of learning remain elitist? 12. Should Indian Education be thrown open to the Foreign Universities 13 . Our Governance and Political System share a deep mistrust for Entrepreneurship 14.

Information Technology is a mixed blessing 15. Global Warming is a fictitious devil created by scientists 16. Core 3 Coursework Comparison? Chandrayaan ? showcasing India's technological prowess or wasting scarce resources. Essay? 1 , 12 , 13 1401 Words | 4 Pages. Life in the Chesapeake Colonies The first successful British colonization of the Americas was in the Chesapeake area and anchored by . Chief Bromden Essay? Jamestown which was founded in costa essay 1607. The original colonists nearly didn’t make it, as it was a very difficult life for them. Moreover, the colonists founded many relationships that were both good and bad with various other groups so that they could make it through those first years. With great will and sheer luck the area has thrived, becoming the heart of the. Thesis Autism? Colonialism , Colony , Jamestown Settlement 1689 Words | 6 Pages.

Crips And Bloods Made In America Questions. How did the economic and real estate opportunities play a role in the development of minority neighborhoods and gangs in major cities throughout the U.S.? . 10. What opportunities are available today to people living in minority neighborhoods 11. 12. 13 . Michael Costa? 14. 15. (think about education, consumer goods, jobs)? Explain. How did the faculty use of “Crack” affect the essay communities discussed in the film?

How have governments (local, state, federal) and media in the United States used techniques of neutralization in dealing with the gang problem. Essay 3 Mail? 1 , 13 , 14 417 Words | 3 Pages. the concentration camp? 12. Many of michael us may not experience the same depth of inhuman treatment . as Guido, his family and the other prisoners of this concentration camp, but what insight does it give us into being essay, our own reactions to situations we face? 13 . Guido is in a situation which is almost without hope, but despite the efforts of his captors to strip him of his humanity, it is costa, exactly what he retains.

In what sense is this a triumph for him? 14. Guido appears to abandon the external reality of comparison his situation to try . Michael Costa? 13 , 14 , Prime number 555 Words | 3 Pages. British Imperial Policy Of The 13 North American Colonies In The 17th And 18th Centuries. ? British Imperial Policy of the 13 North American Colonies in the 17th and 18th Centuries John Liu Between the submitted years of essay . 1607 and 1763, Great Britain sent over many of core its people to the new world, establishing the thirteen colonies . To keep these colonies in line and exploit the advantages that they gave to Britain, many imperial policies passed. Several aspects from the costa essay policies stand out as particularly important, such as the hierarchical order, virtual representation, and sudden changes in. American Revolution , British Empire , Massachusetts 832 Words | 5 Pages. Northern Colonies vs.

Southern Colonies. Beginning From the first settlement founded in the 1600’s, the British colonies were a varied mix of communities that grew to distinct . civilizations in the 17th and 18th centuries. Queen Elizabeth helped drive the psychology autism colonization of Jamestown in 1607 and ultimately the michael creation of other Southern colonies to help Britain's economy flourish. In contrast, James I, Elizabeth’s successor, spurred the psychology autism settlement of the Northern colonies for essay religious reasons when he “vowed to purge England of all radical Protestant. Core? Colonialism , Colony , Economics 1427 Words | 4 Pages. 13 Colonies Questions and Answers. The thirteen colonies were ruled by what country? 2. Which of the michael following states were one if the original 13 . colonies ? Mississippi, Alaska, Kentucky, New Jersey, or Ohio?

3. If many people came to autism New England for freedom of religion, what can you infer about life in the 17th century Europe? 4. What was a major difference between Middle and New England colonies ? 5. What did the essay settlers of the 13 colonies have in common? 6. If you wanted to go to a bustling plantation, which colony would you visit. Connecticut , Former British colonies , Massachusetts 440 Words | 2 Pages. Essay? Thesis: The 13 original colonies in the US is important in the American history because of the essay culture, historical events and bromden analysis the . war of independence/ declaration of independence.

Introduction: History is the beginning of the present and the future, without the costa 13 original colonies , America would not be the same. Psychology Thesis Autism? The 13 original colonies are important part of the American History because of the costa culture, historical events and the declaration of independence. Historical Events: 1619. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Boston Tea Party 536 Words | 2 Pages. Virginia: Colony Report “He that will not work shall not eat.” (Captain John Smith). Virginia was the beginning of colonization in America. . In 1578, after colonists in England were driven to find new land, Sir Humphrey Gilbert received a charter to establish a new British Colony . On May 13th, 1607, the core Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery ships arrived at michael costa essay what soon became the Jamestown peninsula. This discovery led to a series of important events that made the United States. After the. Agriculture , Colonialism , Colony 1111 Words | 3 Pages.

Read at this website? then answer the following questions in a different color: http://www.euroclubschools.org/page37.htm 12.? ? . What additional information did you learn about autism processions (in addition to what you learned on essay the first site) on this site? 13 .? ? What is “una saeta”?? an easter song 14.? ? Name THREE foods typically eaten during “la semana santa”. ? fish, vegetables, and rice 15.? ? What is core comparison, “mona de Pascua”? ? A popular cake eaten on easter 16.? ? Who generally gives “mona de Pascua”. Michael Essay? 13 , 14 466 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 The Apollo 13 mission was a significant historical event, because of the dangerous repercussions that followed the . explosion of the oxygen tank on Apollo 13 . The story in which the core 3 coursework astronauts Lovell, Swigert, and Haise surviving these errors during the flight is truly incredible. In the movie Apollo 13 , the creators depicted most of the michael costa events involving the crew’s adventure to and from space quite accurately. Although creating most events successfully the creators of Apollo 13 failed. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1386 Words | 4 Pages. • The original 13 colonies were divided into three geographic areas consisting of the New England, Middle and Southern . colonies . The Georgia Colony was classified as one of the Southern Colonies . • James Oglethorpe was a British general, Member of Parliament, philanthropist, humanitarian, was the founder of the colony of chief bromden essay Georgia in America in 1733. • He was a social reformer in England founding Georgia, after a grant from King George II, to resettle Britain's poor, especially those in michael costa debtors'. Apalachee , Cherokee , Georgia 1306 Words | 4 Pages. 3 Coursework Comparison? did Spanish success in michael costa essay the New World influence the being systematic essay English colonial efforts? How did England’s earlier experience in Ireland influence its colonial efforts . in the New World?

How did different events in costa essay England (and Europe) affect England’s southern colonies in the New World? 10. Were the nyu stern essay 3 mail English colonizers crueler or more tolerant than the Spanish conquistadores? Why did the Spanish tend to settle and intermarry with the michael Indian population whereas the English either killed. Americas , Canada , Caribbean 960 Words | 4 Pages. direct contact with the crew of Apollo 13 during their space flight. Psychology Thesis Autism? In 1966, NASA signed 19 experienced astronauts including me and made me an . assistant to the Apollo 9, 10, and 13 missions (Jack Robert Lousma). NASA thought astronauts communicated better with one another than scientists that had not been trained within the program; therefore they found it essential for michael costa essay the support crews to be comprised of experienced astronauts. I vividly remember the Apollo 13 -launch day like it was yesterday. . Nyu Stern Essay? Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1840 Words | 9 Pages. The American Colonies . Erik Martinez U.S. History, 2nd semester, 3rd block Coach Chatham March 12, 2013 Since the discovery of the . “New World” many European super powers looked to colonize and expand their riches and trading powers throughout this new found continent.

The British took great advantage of this with controlling everything on the east of the michael essay Appalachian Mountains and sea routes across the Atlantic. Upon their arrival the British had to nyu stern encounter with many endeavors from the. Former British colonies , Massachusetts , Middle Colonies 1275 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 “Houston We've Got A Problem” 12/1/11 Apollo 13 was supposed to be the third mission by NASA to land a space . Michael? shuttle onto the moon. The crew aboard the ship consisted of systematic James A. Lovell, Jr., John L. Swigert, Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. (KSC). The launch date for Apollo 13 was set for April 11, 1970 at 13 : 13 Houston time (James A. Lovell). The Smithsonian National Air and michael costa Space Museum summarizes the events of the 3 coursework comparison Apollo 13 incident as “An explosion in one of the essay oxygen tanks crippled. Chief? Apollo 10 , Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 2317 Words | 6 Pages. “Houston we have a problem” (Lovell). These are the michael essay words Commander Jim Lovell shared with mission control when terror struck the by sulfur spacecraft two hundred . thousand miles into its journey to the Moon. On board Apollo 13 , along with Commander Jim Lovell, were Command Module Pilot Jack Swigert, and Lunar Module Pilot Fred Haise (Kluger). After given a command from essay, Houston to turn on the hydrogen and oxygen tank stirring fans, the spacecraft’s Service Module exploded followed by loss of electrical power.

Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 966 Words | 3 Pages. The Growth of the Chesapeake and Barbadian Colonies. Angela Young Professor Kelly Hopkins History 1377 June 18, 2012 The Growth the Chesapeake and Barbadian Colonies Many great examples of . how pioneers blazed trails and discovered unchartered territories outline the fabric of American history. We put a man on the moon in the sixties and discovered cures for some of our modern diseases. These are valuable accomplishments, but there is nyu stern, another that is just as significant in the course of michael costa essay American history; the colonization of our nation. Detailed. Colony , Distribution of wealth , Maryland 1863 Words | 5 Pages. Different Types of American Colonies There are different types of English colonies , including Royal, proprietary, and psychology autism private . as the costa essay most common types.

These are three very different types of colonies and chief analysis essay had different rules associated with them. Each colony was a part of one of michael costa these types, but some even switched between the three types of colonies . These switches came from nyu stern 3 mail, changes in power and needing different types of government to michael costa make this happen. Royal colonies were the most common form. Autocracy , British Empire , Colonialism 782 Words | 3 Pages. Apollo 13 By starring Tom Hanks, Apollo 13 is a American drama film based on the book of Last Moon by Jim Lovell and . Jeffrey Kluger.

At the begining, Jim (Tom Hanks), Fred Haise (Bill Paxton) and Ken Mattingly (Gary Sinise) are the thesis autism crew assigned to the Appllo 13 spacecraft. Their vision is to walk on michael costa essay the moon. However, few days before launching, Ken was informed that he could not fly because he had in exposed to the measles a week before. 3 Coursework? Jack Swigert took his place only with three days of. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 16 1035 Words | 3 Pages. the Apollo 13 Lunar Mission launched from the costa Kennedy Space Center in Florida. Aboard Apollo 13 , 3 astronauts—Jim Lovell, Jack . Swigert and Fred Haise—were seeking to be the third mission to land on chemosynthesis by sulfur the moon. 56 hours into costa essay, the flight the being members of the michael ground crew of core 3 coursework comparison Mission Control in Houston, Texas listened as the michael 5 words NASA never wants to 3 coursework hear resonated through the speakers: “Houston we have a problem.” These words were immortalized during the apprehensive days of the Apollo 13 lunar mission. Apollo 1 , Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 1090 Words | 3 Pages. Similar Cultures in 13 American Colonies.

Essay Question: Although the 13 American colonies were founded at different times by people with different motives and with . different form of colonial charters and michael costa political organization, and the 13 colonies had become remarkably similar. Assess the validity of this statement. As time was coming to the start of the American Revolution, the thirteen American colonies that had at first started out with differences in all aspects appeared to autism be astonishingly similar in several cultural ways. Mainly. American Revolution , Colonialism , Massachusetts 430 Words | 2 Pages. Eighteenth Century British Colonies.

Eighteenth Century British Colonies In the eighteenth century, the British Colonies in North America experienced many . changes that helped form the identity of America. The demographic, ethnic, and social characters of Britain’s colonies were some of the major characteristics to michael be altered in faculty the 1700s. The demographic character of michael costa essay Colonial America resulted in core 3 coursework a swing in the balance of power between the colonies and England. Michael Costa? In the beginning of the 1700s, a population that was initially less. British Empire , Canada , Connecticut 801 Words | 3 Pages. By Sulfur? The movie Apollo 13 stared, Tom Hanks (Jim Lovell) Bill Paxton (Fred Haise), Gary Sinise (Ken Mattingly) and michael essay Kevin Bacon (Jack Sivigert) . . The movie was directed by Ron Howard and by sulfur is based on the book “Lost Moon” by Jim Lovell and michael costa Jeffrey Kluger. This was America third trip to the moon and 3 coursework Apollo 13 mission was to land in essay the Fra Mauro area of the moon. Submitted Faculty? Two day before launch Mattingly was scrubbed from the mission after being exposed to measles.

He was replaced by Jack Swigert (kevin Bacon). Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo program 1076 Words | 3 Pages. Unity among the michael costa 13 colonies Any American knows the details about the American Revolution, but how much do they know about the . status of the colonies leading up to the war? What did it mean to be a colonist in America and how were they different from the comparison British? The Americans developed their own sense of michael essay identity that was completely different from any other country and the colonists became united. One can see the sense of unity becomes greater and 3 coursework comparison greater as the revolution gets closer. Unity. American Revolution , Benjamin Franklin , Canada 840 Words | 3 Pages. Green Team Apollo 13 Case Analysis The primary questions and issues you debated and discussed (i.e., what did your team think was most . relevant about the case?). First, the green team discussed the success of the mission. We had a split jury on essay whether or not we thought the mission was successful.

Both sides of the argument were well supported and psychology thesis we agreed to disagree with the following conclusions: one side took the stance that the mission was not successful because they did not make it to. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1584 Words | 4 Pages. Costa Essay? Leadership Theories Analysis using the movie Apollo 13 Vision and Value Apollo 13 demonstrates the richness of leadership . principles and values, especially focusing on team solidity. The movie illustrates how the leaders can develop a vision and analysis essay values, and how the teams can collaborate under high stress situation. In the beginning of the movie the vision of the Apollo 13 project was to land the astronaut’s on the surface of moon. But the unexpected explosion in the service module created a. Apollo 13 , Decision making , Eugene F. Essay? Kranz 2348 Words | 6 Pages. Essay? Leadership in the Movie Apollo 13. Apollo 13 The film, Apollo 13 , is based on the real-life crisis that occurred April 13 , 1970 on board the Apollo . spacecraft. The two main characters, Gene Kranz (Ed Harris) and michael costa Jim Lovell (Tom Hanks) are the key players who will address how a leader is able to survive and thrive in a world in which unexpected events occur on a regular basis.

They portray the effective styles of leadership in balance with their ever changing surroundings, as well as their ability to maintain their interpersonal. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Decision making 1149 Words | 3 Pages. Case Study 9/ 13 /2011 Zach Newcomb “Leadership in Apollo 13 ” There are certain events in to the faculty our lifetime that change who we are . as a person and how we view life. Costa Essay? During the movie Apollo 13 , Jim Lovell has a dream that he will walk on the moon. Psychology? His dream becomes a reality when is essay, promoted to commander of the Apollo 13 mission to the moon. After a series of dangerous events, the crew finds themselves in a struggle to stay alive.

Jim and Houston control works around the clock to find a solution to. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1788 Words | 5 Pages. 3 Mail? Apollo 13 and Leadership On April 10th James “Jim” Lovell, John L. Swigert, and michael Fred W. Haise embarked on one of the being most historic missions in . NASA history. Michael Essay? Three days later on April 13th, while performing a routine stir on the O2 tanks, the Apollo 13 mission suffered a terrible electrical malfunction and was forced to make an emergency return mission. The movie has forever contributed two phrases to our everyday cultural vocabulary, “Houston we have a problem”, communicated by Jim Lovell, and “Failure. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo program 836 Words | 3 Pages. Roanoke The Lost Colony What happened to the Roanoak Colony This is the question asked by nyu stern essay 3 mail, John White when he found the essay . colony abandoned in 1590, and this is the questions asked by historians ever since.

There are many theories as to what happened to the colony and are backed by differing facts that dont match each other so that when looking at the situation as a whole there was no one answer. A new study, however, sheds some new light on nyu stern the subject and shows that the costa colonists at Roanoak Island. Fort Raleigh National Historic Site , Lost Colony , North Carolina 1531 Words | 2 Pages. economies of the northern and southern colonies were affected due to many different factors. Because of the different climates and psychology autism geography of . their land, the northern colonies and southern colonies had different resources available to them, which shaped their societies into what they are today. The resources available to the northern colonies were completely different from the resources that were available to the southern colonies . In the northern colonies , due to the climate and geography of. Michael Costa Essay? Agriculture , Caribbean , Climate 545 Words | 2 Pages. On April 11, 1970, three men were scheduled to fly to and land on the moon. The mission labeled Apollo 13 . Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and . Edgar Mitchell made-up the 3 coursework original crew members of Apollo 13 , but because of an inner-ear surgery, Alan Shepard felt unprepared to costa essay fly Apollo13. Jim Lovell, the commander of nyu stern 3 mail Apollo 14, was then approached and asked if he would mind switching flights with Shepard. Jim did not think there would be a great difference between the two flights and wanted to get back. Michael Costa? Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 2672 Words | 7 Pages.

Apollo 13 Apollo 13 was launched on April 11, 1970 from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The crewmembers on the space . Systematic? shuttle were: James A. Lovell Jr., John L. Swigert Jr., and Fred W. Haise, Jr. Right before the launch, there had been a few problems. Thomas K. Mattingly was supposed to fly on the Apollo 13 but he got the measles and unfortunately could not embark on this journey due to the fact that he did not have anything such and an antibiotic or antibodies to fight off the essay disease. Apollo 11 , Apollo 13 , Apollo 14 1138 Words | 3 Pages. in superstitions, and psychology autism my friends store just proved it that no such thing exists. Even though some people, religion strongly believe in it, everyone has . different opinions. Works Cited Melina, Remy. The Numbers Speak: Is 13 Really Unlucky?

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essay about kojiki Professor of the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO) Lecture The Kojiki , a long forgotten Aeneid ?--A hypothesis from a French researcher by Professor Francois Mace of INALCO at the Maison Franco-Japonaise on October 11, 2012, in Tokyo. Why compare the Kojiki with the Aeneid , the epic poem of costa essay ancient Rome? I am sure the first question that springs to mind is why I should refer to the Aeneid , the nyu stern 3 mail epic poem by the Roman poet Virgil, to talk about the Kojiki (Record of essay Ancient Matters). The Kojiki and chief bromden analysis essay the Aeneid seem so far apart with nothing in common. The idea for this comparative study came to michael costa essay, me as I was reading Rome, la ville sans origine by Florence Dupont. In the book, the bromden author ponders the question why the epic poem Aeneid was born despite the plentiful and costa varied lore on the founding of essay Rome. The Romans also had another means to convey the Roman history besides the epic poem.

Livy (59BC-AD17), a contemporary of the costa essay Aeneid 's author Virgil (70BC-19BC), left us a monumental account of the history of submitted to the Rome in 142 books, covering from its foundation until the year 9BC. This coexistence of a literary work and michael historical work in the same period seemed familiar to me. It was the Kojiki (compiled in 712) and Nihon Shoki (compiled in 720), the two contemporary texts that deal with the to the subject of the ancient history of Japan. They shared the same purpose of legitimizing the ruling family, but are fundamentally different in nature. The Nihon Shoki is a chronicle of the history of Japan based on the Chinese model of historical writing. Costa! With the core exception of the first two books, the 28 others are written in the form of michael essay chronicles, documenting important events with dates.

Meanwhile, the comparison Kojiki supplies little detail in terms of michael years and being systematic essay dates. There are only about 15 such entries, regarding the deaths of certain emperors. The Kojiki does not even mention important events after the reign of the 24th sovereign, Emperor Ninken (449-498), onwards. Then, why did historical events go undocumented in the Kojiki ? In my opinion, it was not because they were not recognized as major events, but probably because they did not fit the principles of the narrative of the ancient times, of furugoto or ancient matters, suggested by the title of the work. The answer to the question may rest in the fact that a large part of the Kojiki is comprised of myths. Japanese myths are documented in its first book which deals with the Age of the Gods.

Yet this first book had been long forgotten, even in the world of Shinto until the Edo period. Despite the fact that a third of the Kojiki is dedicated to the Age of the costa Gods, people during the ancient, medieval, and a major part of the Edo period, referred to analysis, and quoted from the first two books of the Nihon Shoki which also describes the Age of the Gods, just like the Kojiki . Thus, what is this Kojiki , which mentions the ancient times not as a historical document, and was long forgotten from the Nara period to late Edo period? Looking at the various circumstances, one can reasonably assume that there is no text that serves as the basis for michael, the Kojiki . But then again, it is not as if the Kojiki created a new genre. There are no works that have followed or have been inspired by core the Kojiki , and it exists as a singular work in the Far East. It is for this reason that I believe a comparison with the Aeneid allows us to gain a better understanding of its nature. The Kojiki may seem unusual in michael costa essay, the Japanese literary landscape, but it becomes less strange when compared to works of other cultures like the Aeneid . The literary significance of the Kojiki. The two works, the Kojiki and the Aeneid , were written soon after civil wars when memories were still fresh in peoples' minds. The victory of Octavian, the future Augustus (63BC-AD14), at the Battle of Actium against Cleopatra's fleet in 3 mail, 31BC led to the end of the civil war, subsequent to costa essay, the suicide of his biggest rival Antony. The plans for writing the Aeneid had already been undertaken in autism, 29BC. In Japan, the Jinshin War resulted in the victory of Prince Oama, later Emperor Temmu (c.631-686), over his nephew Prince Otomo (648-672) in 672, and in 681, he ordered a group of princes and government officials to transcribe genealogies and costa ancient matters. This compilation probably became the material for nyu stern, the Nihon Shoki as well as the Kojiki . The Kojiki indirectly attempted to claim the michael essay legitimacy of the new rulers by recounting their roots, as does the Aeneid . It is hardly surprising to see a description in the writings that the princely lineages are led back to divine ancestors: Venus in the case of Rome and Amaterasu in Japan.

Augustus was worshipped as a god in his lifetime in certain parts of the empire. At the same time, Emperor Temmu was probably the first Japanese sovereign to wear the title of tenno , in core 3 coursework, other words, 'son from the heavens' or 'celestial sovereign.' The use of myths for political purposes is obvious in both cases. But works produced to simply realize political objectives very rarely survive as literary work. The Aeneid is read even today because it is costa, primarily a literary work. Core 3 Coursework Comparison! I am not a specialist in Latin literature, but I believe I am not going too far to say that this epic represents one of the pinnacles of literature in terms of its scale, quality of language, finesse of michael essay descriptions, and aptness of the psychology of the characters. While the literary qualities of the Aeneid have always been deemed to be evident, the question is more complex with regards to the Kojiki . Comparison! First of all, there is the michael costa essay problem of autism language. O no Yasumaro (unknown-723), considered as the michael costa one who compiled and transcribed the Kojiki , explains in the preface that he combined phonetic transcription and use of Chinese to write down the text which was originally recited in Japanese. His method resulted in the text that is difficult to understand. If the Kojiki has literary significance, it must be perceived in elements other than its diction.

Although the Kojiki has been given the status of chemosynthesis a major literary work today, its current prestige may be based partially on misunderstandings. The Kojiki is mostly read through yomikudashi , meaning 'reading the Chinese letters phonetically', since the original text does not allow for a single, indisputable way of reading. Furthermore, we tend to read it quickly, skipping the long genealogies with endless names. Modern readers are most interested in the narratives, those of the gods, heroes, or the songs in the third book. But what hits us above all is the essay excitement of having the oldest Japanese text in our hands. The idea that it is so ancient makes a text allow us to feel we are witnessing the essay actual origin of the Japanese language and literature. But this is historically indefensible. Michael Essay! We have already discovered other works preceded the Kojiki , some by more than a hundred years. Thus, the Kojiki does not possess the plainness and simplicity which we tend to too easily expect from ancient texts.

The great scholar Motoori Norinaga (1730-1801) of the 18th century did not have literary criteria in the foreground of his studies. He was seeking the origin of the pure Japanese spirit, which had not been contaminated yet by various elements of continental civilization. Motoori Norinaga, in his monumental commentaries titled the Kojikiden, brought the Kojiki back from the shadows of history. He explicated it so intelligibly and made it into something for the Japanese to chemosynthesis by sulfur bacteria, be proud of. But he did not seek literary excitement in michael, the Kojiki . Being Essay! The model for that would always be The Tale of Genji . Neither did he seek examples of poetry in michael, the Kojiki or the Nihon Shoki in both of which rustic songs sometimes appear. Analysis Essay! His taste was rather for the sophisticated waka poems of the Shin Kokin Wakashu . For him, the Kojiki was something that spoke the language of the gods and provided the truth about the Age of the Gods and beginnings of the Human Age. His text for the Kojiki is on the level of faith. His work was of the order of mystic erudition. A comparison with the Aeneid allows us to break free from the purely Japanese or even nationalistic interpretations by Motoori Norinaga's successors. Even if the gods are very present in the Latin poem, we know the Aeneid is not a religious text.

It was conceived as a literary text in a specific political and religious context. My hypothesis is that it could be probably the same for michael essay, the Kojiki . There are no grounds that should lead us to think that the Kojiki played a direct religious role. We find no testimony of its recitation during rites. Compared with the Aeneid , the Kojiki certainly covers a much longer span of time, but the important matter is the question of its roots, as with the Roman epic. If the Kojiki does not speak of the bromden analysis essay reign of Emperor Ninken, and the Aeneid also ends with the victory of Aeneas, it is because essential matters have already been noted and all else is unnecessary.

They are not simply chronicles of past events, but they deal with the original age preceding all the facts of the foundation of the country. To think about the michael costa present by psychology thesis autism reaffirming the beginnings. With regards to literary form, I believe that the Kojiki is an epic poem written by an intellectual, as with the costa work of psychology Virgil. The Aeneid has motifs that are repeated in costa essay, both the Age of essay Gods and Human Age, and similarly the michael costa Kojiki also has many elements that are set up to be in contrast with or echo each other. It is essay, doubtless that there lies the costa richness of the thesis submitted Kojiki , but that is costa essay, probably why it had also been overlooked for such a long period. I believe the Kojiki has a structure comparable to systematic essay, a fixed-form poem.

It consists of costa sophisticated contrasts between water and fire, things open and closed, distant and thesis submitted close, and this might have been a familiar form for the people of the courts in the 7th century to the early 8th century. But this form must have already begun to be perceived as old-fashioned at that time. For the elite who were rapidly leaning towards Chinese culture, this should have already become incomprehensible. Michael! They had begun to to the faculty, see and understand the world through the theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements that came to Japan from the continent. This process was already seen in the Nihon Shoki . It did not hesitate to michael essay, use the terms of yin and yang in describing the gods Izanagi and Izanami, the couple who created the world.

In this way, the theory of Yin-Yang and the Five Elements would be used to interpret the narratives of the bromden analysis essay Age of Gods, as with the Nihon Shoki , until the works of michael costa essay kokugaku , meaning national studies in the Edo period. Thus, the Kojiki was doubly depreciated. Firstly, its language was not clear enough to gain the prestige as the Aeneid did. Furthermore, O no Yasumaro was a middle-class government official unlike Virgil, who was already an esteemed poet to his contemporaries. What if the Kojiki had been written by thesis to the faculty Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (660-720) who is praised for his literary talent even today? What kind of work would it have become? Kakinomoto no Hitomaro wrote a long elegy for the funeral of michael Prince Kusakabe, husband of Empress Gemmei. This elegy begins, as with the Kojiki , with the thesis to the creation of heaven and earth and the descent of the celestial grandson, as whom Kakinomoto no Hitonomaro identifies the Emperor Temmu, the father of Prince Kusakabe. In these verses, he presents the same program shown in the Kojiki . But this long and magnificent elegy consists of 76 verses and essay two envois, and is therefore far from an epic poem. Japan did not have a tradition of long epic poems at the end of the 7th century. Thus, the furugoto or ancient matters must have been passed on in narratives in prose.

But when reading the Kojiki , it partially refers to core, furugoto that can be described only as mythological references. When the Kojiki was put down in michael costa essay, writing, the bacteria furugoto that was referred to probably belonged to a world which was disappearing in michael costa, the oncoming waves of Chinese thought, nevertheless the furugoto were being revived in the Temmu reforms which attempted to restore ancient things. The Aeneid participated in and benefited from Augustus' religious revolution and restoration. The Kojiki also implies the core comparison existence of a plan that was not quite successful. Costa Essay! During the Temmu era, the rites of core emperors succession and rituals of Ise Shrine were adopted in forms following ancient ways.

The regular reconstruction of the michael costa buildings of the Ise Shrine also began under the reign of Empress Jito (645-703), the widow of Temmu. The construction style with thatched roofs and posts that are built directly into the ground, has been still maintained today. It may be said they are in striking contrast with Chinese architecture. Furthermore, the Ise Shrine constructed a pavilion for the rites of the Daijosai, one of the being systematic major ceremonies for the emperors succession, and this pavilion is also built in an ancient style. But these kinds of movements to restore ancient ways did not last. They did not find resonance in a culture dominated by Chinese thought and Buddhism. The vision of making history from past events that had come to Japan from China prompted the costa elite to place importance on history in the form of official stories, and chief bromden analysis essay the Nihon Shoki and Zoku Nihon Shoki followed that flow of history based on this form. Therefore, Motoori Norinaga was not entirely mistaken in seeking the authentic Japanese soul in the Kojiki . But objectively speaking, it must be stated that what he considered to be the essential truth of the Age of the Gods beyond history was actually a literary work that was deliberately created in an archaic manner.

Even so, it is certain that Motoori Norinaga had perceived this unique book in Japanese literature as the work having an intention to michael essay, present the beginnings of heaven and earth in a literary form of an epic and beautiful narrative. But, just as the Aeneid will never teach us anything about the psychology factual truth of the foundation of Rome, neither will the Kojiki tell us anything about the events that happened in Japan before the 6th century. This is not the role of myths or literature. The two texts that are seemingly different fulfill the same role, each at its own level: to think of the present by reaffirming the beginnings. Essay! The reason why this work still continues to move us today is this song praising of the beginnings, thanks to an internal coherence which we do not always need to be aware of for it to be effective. Lecture photos: Kenichi Aikawa. Other photos: Courtesy of INALCO. Born in 1947, Professor of the Department of Japanese Language and Civilization at the National Institute of Oriental Languages and Civilizations (INALCO) since 1989.

Served as Dean of the faculty department from 1990 to 1997. Mainly teaches history of thought and religion before the Meiji era. Major publications include La mort et les funerailles dans le Japon ancient (POF, 1986), Kojiki shinwa no kozo (Chuokoron-sha, 1989), and Le Japon d'Edo (co-authored with Mieko Mace, Belles Lettres, 2006). The first Japanese-language course in France opened in 1862. This marked the beginning of costa Japanese-language education in France and chief essay the department which is now one of the largest institutions in michael, Europe. Over the years, the department has produced many translators, teachers of Japanese-language, diplomats and distinguished scholars in the broad field of Japanese studies. It plays an essential role in chief bromden, the French-Japanese relationship. The Japan Foundation and INALCO. INALCO and the Japan Foundation has been working together to promote Japanese Studies and Japanese language education in France and other part of Europe. The two institutions have held conferences and symposia to promote Japanese culture and literature in France. (ex.

La cithare japonaise dans le Roman du Genji (2012), L'essor de la photographie au Japon, 1900-1945 (2009)) Some of the researchers of costa INALCO were awarded Japanese Studies Fellowships from the Foundation. The Foundation has donated various books related to systematic, Japanese Studies and materials for learning Japanese language to INALCO.