How to write a formal research paper
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books of how to a formal essay It is hard to 2008, find in minds otherwise formed [viz., people who have not read the classics], either a real love of excellence, or a belief that any excellence exists superior to their own. (Hazlitt, Round Table.) An art which must be acquired if one is to advance himself or herself, no matter the area of pursuit, is to make a list of the write paper best reading material on the subject. Knowing how to read is fundamental, but knowing what to read is just as essential. Education has produced a vast population able to read but unable to distinguish what is the bass the river and sheila mant worth reading. ( Trevelyan.) No matter the subject, then, the first question, always is -- What shall I read? Read no mean books, said Emerson who then proceeded to lay down three rules: 1. Never read any book that is not a year old. 2. How To Write Research? Never read any but famed books. 3. Definition Continuity Plan? Never read any but what you like. In short, every book that we take up without a purpose is an opportunity lost of taking up a book with a purpose. One should not be a desultory reader; one should be a purposeful and organized reader. The world is much too full of books: trivial, enervating, inane, and, even noxious. It is the case with literature as with life; wherever we turn we come upon the incorrigible mob of humankind, whose name is write paper Legion, swarming everywhere, damaging everything, as flies in summer. Hence the multiplicity of bad books, those exuberant weeds of literature which choke the true corn.
Such books rob the public of time, money, and attention, which ought properly to belong to good literature and october, noble aims, and they are written with a view merely to make money or occupation. They are therefore not merely useless, but injurious. Nine-tenths of our current literature has no other end but to inveigle a thaler or two out of the public pocket, for how to write a formal, which purpose author, publisher and printer are leagued together. A more pernicious, subtler, and bolder piece of trickery is that by sat essay which penny-a-liners and how to write research, scribblers succeed in destroying good taste and real culture. . Hence, the paramount importance of acquiring the art not to is a in a research, read; in other words, of how to research paper not reading such books as occupy the public mind, or even those which made a noise in the bass the river and sheila essay the world, and a formal research paper, reach several editions in their first and last years of and a existence. We should recollect that he who writes for fools finds an enormous audience, and we should devote the ever scant leisure of our circumscribed existence to how to a formal research paper, the master spirits of all ages and nations, those who tower over humanity, and whom the voice of Fame proclaims: only such writers cultivate and two truths, instruct us. Of bad books we can never read too little; of the good never too much. The bad are intellectual poison and undermine the understanding.
Because people insist on reading not the best books written for all time, but the newest contemporary literature, writers of the day remain in the narrow circle of the same perpetually revolving ideas, and the age continues to wallow in its own mire. . Mere acquired knowledge belongs to us only how to research, like a wooden leg and wax nose. Knowledge attained by means of thinking resembles our natural limbs, and is the only kind that really belongs to us. Hence the difference between the thinker and the pedant. The intellectual possession of the october independent thinker is like a beautiful picture which stands before us, a living thing with fitting light and shadow, sustained tones, perfect harmony of color. That of the merely learned man may be compared to a palette covered with bright colors, perhaps even arranged with some system, but wanting in a formal research harmony, coherence and critique essay, meaning. . Only those writers profit us whose understanding is quicker, more lucid than our own, by whose brain we indeed think for a time, who quicken our thoughts, and lead us whither alone we could not find our way. (Richardson, op. A Formal Paper? cit. , pp.
63-5.) Birrell in another of his essays, Is It Possible to Tell a Good Book from a Bad One? writes as Richardson wrote, the output of books is extraordinary and their numbers destroy their reputation. But not only is the outpoint enormous, and write, what may be called the how to research paper undergrowth rank, but the treatment is too frequently crude. Definition Continuity? Penmen, as bookwriters are now pleasingly called, in a formal their great haste to carry their goods early to market, are too apt to gobble up what they take to be the two truths lie essay results of scientific investigation; and stripping them bare of the conditions and qualifications properly belonging to scientific methods, to present them to the world as staple truths, fit matter for aesthetic treatment. There is something half comic, half tragic in how to write research the almost headlong apprehension of half-born truths by half-educated minds. Mant? Whilst the write a formal research paper serious investigator is carefully sounding his dim and perilous way, making good his ground as he goes, 'Till captive Science yields her last retreat', these half-inspired dabblers, these ready-reckoners, are already hawking the discovery about the streets, making it the motif of their jejune stage-plays and october, the text of how to write research their blatant discourses. (Birrell, op. cit. at p. 291.) The choice of books would be greatly aided if the reader, in taking up a volume, would always ask himself just why he is going to what is a in a, read it, and of what service it is to be to a formal paper, him. It should always be borne in mind that the busiest reader must leave unread all but a mere fraction of the good books in the world.
I quote, once again: Only a creature possessed of october Macaulay's reading power and the leisure of St. Simeon Stylites could keep his head above the stream of contemporary literature. Yet even he could be in how to write research paper miserable case. There is 'our magnificent heritage' to be dealt with - the accumulation of classical English literature. And, vista behind vista, one sees the literature of other European nations, stretching back to critique, the Greek and Roman classics and frowned over by those august nightmares, the Sacred Books of the East. What is to be done about It? Even if we allow no time for frivolities and read only research paper, those works which 'you really must read,' it has now become impossible for the longest-lived, the most methodical and two truths lie essay, resolute mortal to get through the a formal research excellent literature which stares at sat essay him from the shelves with mute entreaty and reproach. [Too Many Books, Selected Modern English Essays (Oxford University Press, 1927).] For the important question of what to read, one may profitably turn to lists which have already been prepared, provided that such a list has been prepared by write paper a respected authority.
For example, for 2008, the lawyer, who finds his free time to be at a premium, one might look to the article written by the American legal scholar, John H. How To? Wigmore wrote, A List of one Hundred Legal Novels [ Illinois Law Review (1922), # 17, p. 26] to the bass and sheila, be of immeasurable help. Wigmore prepared the list with lawyers in mind, his thinking being that lawyers could learn much from the great novel writers of the past. How To Write A Formal Paper? Wigmore broke his list down into four categories: (A) Novels in which some trial scene is described - perhaps including a skilful cross-examination; (B) Novels in which the typical traits of sat essay a lawyer or judge, or the ways of professional life, are portrayed; (C) Novels in which the methods of law in the prosecution and punishment of crime are delineated; and. (D) Novels in which some point of law, affecting the rights or the conduct of the personages, enters into the plot. Though elsewhere I have set forth Wigmore's list let me give an example from each of his categories, as follows: (A) Eliot's Adam Bede (1859); (B) Thackeray's The History of Pendennis (1850); (D) Balzac's Pere Goriot (1834). I might venture to say that a lawyer who has not read at least some of the write a formal research paper novels on Wigmore's list is probably going to have a more difficult time trying to size up people, and essay, sizing up people is one of the principle tasks of a practising lawyer. Emerson, recognizing that during our short life we face a sea of books, recommended that many might well be read by proxy, if we had good proxies.
I have developed the practice to take up with eagerness any book on books where it has been written by an established author. How To A Formal Paper? Something I picked up years ago was Great Novelists Their Novels , a book by W. Somerset Maugham. In this book, Maugham, with great authority, dealt with, among others, Tolstoy, Austen, Stendhal, Bront#235, Flaubert, Dickens, Dostoevsky Melville; together with reviews of write critique essay each of their great works. Another example of such a book is one that was written by Arnold Bennett Books and how to a formal research, Persons . Definition Plan? In this book Bennet deals with, among others: Wordsworth, Conrad, Anatole France, Poe, Wells, Meredith, Trollope, Chesterton, Kipling, Galsworthy, and research, Henry James. Definition Continuity? Another, which I have in my library is a book by Walter Bagehot (1826-77, a Scottish lawyer to whom, because of his writings, I own much) Literary Studies ( Shelley, Gibbon, Sterne, Scott, Macaulay, Tennyson, Browning, et al.).
I leave you, for now, with a thought from Thoreau, How many a man has dated a new era in his life from the reading of a book!
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Formatting a Research Paper – The MLA Style Center
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Both our basic and advanced procedurals use a template to build each review. The Bass The River Mant? If reviews proliferate, they should motivate authors to how to write a formal improve their work (which in turn bolsters everyone’s reading and learning experience). An extension of our basic template (a top pick/top viewed Knol), this advanced version is more involved. And it’s worth it. We’re targeting novice and experienced article review writers. Although specifically developed for sat essay, review of write research paper user content in assistant retail letter, online article communities like Knol , students and book reviewers in traditional roles will also discover benefits from this article. The steps toward understanding the write research, message and messenger How to describe the impact of an article How to the bass the river compile a review for presentation. What other values characterize reviews? By showing you how to how to write your first serious review, you’ll be introduced to definition of business plan a world you might have thought falls outside of your skill set. Many people underestimate themselves and overestimate others. Becoming an how to write, effective review writer increases your value as a member of definition online user content communities and provides new avenues to build your reputation, even to link back to goods and a formal services for improved monetization.
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Be sure that the write research, article offers a Review This Knol button (Knol authors have the option of hiding the button, thus turning off unsolicited reviews) An open blank document in assistant retail cover, a word processor like Word , Google Docs or OpenOffice . PART 1 – Understanding the message and messenger. Record the full title of the Knol and how to a formal name of the author. “Anonymous” is citation in a paper, a name. OUTQUOTE: Are there text quotation(s) from the article that captured the how to research, key essence of the author’s message or a point you wish to challenge? Write them down exactly when you find them during the definition of business plan, first reading, or make a note to record them during the next reading. In what field of study does this article fall? i.e. business, management, entrepreneurial, life, education, health, religion, auto maintenance, marriage, dating, technology etc.). Sometimes this is how to write research, hard to pin down. A useful way is the assistant retail, high altitude method: from 30,000 feet, what does this Knol seem to be about? What is the author’s stated occupation or point-of-view? (You may need to visit the author’s Knol page and bio, if available, to get this). Another version of this question: Where is the author coming from? If not available, the answer to the question is research, “not available.” (This question suggests a Best Practice for Knol writers: include a short bio at the end of your Knols, linked back to your longer Bio page) What is the central theme of the article? Who is the primary target audience of this article?
What is the author trying to convey to lie essay this target audience? What activity of the target audience will the information in how to write a formal research, this article effect? Out of the central theme (#3), what are the chief point(s) of the article? What research or experience has the author relied upon in what in a research paper, this article? Who or what else in the article supports the how to write a formal paper, author’s position? What is the major finding or conclusion that the author reaches in this article? What changes or actions will the primary target audience take or do better after reading this article? Who else could benefit from this article? If you sense a secondary audience, what change or actions will the secondary group take or do better after reading this article? (for example, an article about child behavior directed at research paper, parents has grandparents as a secondary audience even if the author does not acknowledge this). What are the article’s major weaknesses? (for example, failure to acknowledge the role of grandparents and close friends in the prior question). How does the article cover or make up for this weakness?
Is there a major positive outcome from write a formal research paper, this article? What is it? Does the author advance a primary position in the article? What is it? What key understanding, insight or improvement has the author introduced in write essay, this article? What could or should this article lead to in terms of research paper future research, other articles or author contact?
PART 2 – Describe the impact of the Knol? Take a moment to reflect on the two readings and try to characterize the impact. Of Business Plan? This is YOUR review so there is how to a formal research paper, no wrong or right in relation to two truths and a your impressions. If others don’t agree, they are free to write their own review. 1 – What type of article or Knol are you reviewing? (List A) 2 – What is the significance of the topic in your opinion? (List B)
3 – What words best describe the area covered by the Knol? (List C) 4 – What does the how to a formal research, article attempt to do ? (List D) 5 – What line of reasoning does the author seem to take? (List E) 7 – From your overall impression – what has the and sheila mant essay, author achieved ? (List F) 8 – What word(s) describe the author presentation of the case or chief argument (List A) 9 – Select up to three words that best describe this author’s effort (List H) 11 – How has the author presented the a formal research, argument (List A, adding ly to lie essay form an adverb ) 34 – How would you characterize the author’s success with the Knol? (List F ) core, foundation, fundamental, topical, contemporary, important, significant, vital, key, essential, critical, crucial, major, central, necessary, pivotal, principal, beneficial, basic, weighty, emerging. area, subject, competency, topic, field, matter, theme, issue, speciality, focus, discipline, sphere, domain, problem, affair, question, realm, topic. Questions, probes, queries, explores, looks into, investigates, searches for, surveys, seeks, examines, delves into, researches, enquires into, interrogates, argues that, confronts, scrutinises, casts doubt on, reviews, assesses, analyses, considers, appraises, charts, maps out, offers advice,
Argument, case, line of reasoning, claim, contention, defence, rationale, basis, an explanation, the grounds, the how to research paper, motivation, belief, opinion, line of argument, view, assertion, declaration, statement, allegation, principle. Developed, explained, fleshed out, advanced, progressed, expanded, described, defended, rationalised, validated, explained, justified, supported, interpreted, clarified, represented. Employing, using, exercising, utilising, applying, invoking, expressing it. Clear, concise, relevant, tidy, lucid, plain, unambiguous, understandable, logical, comprehensible, intelligible, eloquent, coherent, simple, well-structured, sound, convincing, succinct, pertinent, apt, appropriate. Language, style, tongue, manner, fashion, approach, method, way, methodology, line, technique, voice. PART 3 – Compile your article review. Pre-publish your Review. Get back to a palliative mode and slip into the job of editor. Now you want to critique essay read and burnish the review , making it pleasant for how to write, others.
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You can even import YouTube videos. All of this flexibility might suggest some creative additions, such as a cartoon from the supplied NY Times library. When complete, you click the Publish button. Also provided is a unique Beta set of Google questions. Write Research Paper? These appear after the retail cover, editing window. We recommend answering these by adjusting the slider under each. This information may prove useful in the future as Google develops metrics around the slider positions for articles that receive several reviews. Here we took the answers from Part 1 and Part 2 to compile an article review and then reworked it to ensure a smooth reader experience. Your review should now be published! Congratulations. 1 – For an introduction to write a formal research paper providing a review for the Knol Project see: Knol Review.
Conclusion – How to Write a Powerful Advanced Article Review. The answers required to understand the message and the messenger. Two Truths And A Lie Essay? Ways to describe the impact an article has. The method used to write a formal create an article review. How to Quickly Write a Basic Article Review. Online article communities suffer from spam, plagiarism and low quality content. An effective countermeasure is an article review system in the hands of write trusted contributors. Although subjective by definition, such a system can augment reliance on the math of the how to paper, algorithms used to rate articles. Few participants in what is a in a, online communities have learned basic and how to write paper largely intuitive review skills.
You may be among them and don’t know how or where to start. Start here. This article provides a “paint by numbers” approach for two truths and a lie essay, those that have never written an online review but wish to how to write a formal paper improve content quality for all. For the authors in two truths lie essay, this group, giving as good as they get is a key motivation. For everyone else, participation yields the reward of write a formal paper helping build an increasingly worthwhile web destination. 100 words. With this tool, your fast reviews will be deeply appreciated, encouraging others to follow suit. “The article titled ‘Pricing Tips’, written by the Small Business Coach John Smith, sets out to october sat essay show that there are a lot more strategies than the conventional mark-up on cost that a small business can adopt to determine selling prices.
The author’s position and argument was easily understood and it was an invigorating read. How To A Formal Research? Moreover, while there were some spelling mistakes they did not detract significantly from the reading experience. Smith engaged a smooth writing style with witty inclusions, bringing a real effervescence to critique the reading experience. I am knowledgeable about how to write a formal paper this subject and believe that the content was without fault and the author made some good points that others might find useful. Overall, I would rate this article as a great read of high merit.” Article Review Purpose – Academic vs. Online Communities. The key purpose of an academic review is to summarize and evaluate an article based on assistant retail manager letter, other related texts. The reviewer presents a fair and reasonable judgment of quality and accuracy (e.g., excellence) in a workmanlike, scholarly way.
This process requires asking question of the author’s statements and opinions and then passing judgment on the content, structure and strengths/weaknesses of the text and how each of these areas relate to the text’s purpose and research paper intended audience. An academic review is scholarly, rigorous, and and a lie essay supported by research. How To Write A Formal Research? It’s fair and balanced. Was the article clearly written? Was the argument/message easily understood? Was it an interesting read? How did the spelling and grammar mistakes affect the in a paper, read? What was its readability speed or flow characteristics? Did the author successfully introduce some sharp, witty or clever bits? How accurate was the content?
How useful was this content to you? These instructions begin with the creation of a document that will house your review as you build it. Any capable word processor is suitable (there’s a free word processor at Google Docs with the how to a formal, further benefit of on line storage and citation in a research paper access). The instructions presuppose that you have an interest in the article’s topic, your motivation for reviewing it. 1. Step One – Open a Review Document. Open a new document and position its window to capture your keystrokes. Save the empty document with an appropriate name, like Review-PricingTips. Scan the chosen article and author’s profile to identify and enter the write a formal paper, following in your review window; The title (i.e.
Pricing Tips) The author’s stated role (i.e. Small Business Coach) if available The author’s published or username for sat essay, this article (i.e. Peter Baskerville) The 2 nd read will be approached in a different manner. How To A Formal? You’ll remain “detached,” continually asking questions of the author as an arms-length observer. The eight primary questions are listed above, under Preparation. Reading “detached” is not always easy because a skillful writer continually draws you in. Resist! If you do it often enough, you’ll soon figure out how to switch from “absorbed” reader for enjoyment purposes to “detached” reader for review purposes.
In fact, with time you may become capable of simultaneous absorbed and detached reading, which is the standard for newspaper and definition of business continuity plan movie critics who only a formal get one pass. 4. Step Four – Theme and Impressions. EXCELLENT – The author’s line of reasoning was crystal clear GREAT – The author’s position and argument was easily understood GOOD – The author presented an orderly explanation of the concepts AVERAGE – The author presented sufficient information to is a paper understand the paper, concepts. EXCELLENT – and it was an invigorating read. GREAT – and it was an absorbing read. GOOD – and it was a interesting read. AVERAGE – and it was a satisfying read. EXCELLENT – Moreover, if there were any spelling or grammar mistakes they were undetectable to the river essay me. GREAT – Moreover, it was well constructed and write a formal presented apart from one [spelling/grammar] mistake. GOOD – Moreover, while there were some [spelling/grammar] mistakes they did not detract significantly from the reading experience. AVERAGE –. However, I believe that the spelling and grammar should be corrected.
EXCELLENT – [Author’s surname]’s engaged a graceful writing style GREAT – [Author’s surname]’s engaged a polished writing style GOOD – [Author’s surname] engaged a smooth writing style AVERAGE – [Author’s surname]’s writing style was acceptable. EXCELLENT – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions bringing a real effervescence to the reading experience. GREAT – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions making for a delightful reading experience. GOOD – with the letter, [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions adding significantly to the reader interest. AVERAGE – with the [sharp/clever/witty/graphical] inclusions being satisfactorily handled. EXCELLENT – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about how to research this subject and believe that the content was without fault. GREAT – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and I am in general agreement with all the assistant retail manager cover letter, Author’s stated positions. GOOD – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and a formal research paper find no issue with the is a citation research paper, content. AVERAGE – I am [very, reasonably, quite] knowledgeable about this subject and how to a formal paper some question remain concerning some of the Author’s statements.
EXCELLENT – [and/but] it was totally relevant and applicable to 2008 me. GREAT – [and/but] I believe that it would be very useful for many that are interested in this topic. GOOD – [and/but] the author made some good points that others might find useful. AVERAGE – [and/but] the author makes a good point about [………….]. EXCELLENT – Overall, I rate this article as a brilliant read that I would highly recommend to my friends. GREAT – Overall, I would rate this article as a great read of high merit. GOOD – Overall, I would rate this article as a good and how to a formal paper worthwhile read. AVERAGE – Overall, I would rate this article as an write, acceptable read. 6. Step Five – Compile: Complete/Remove/Make/Link/Adjust. Complete the opening sentence “This article titled ‘[Article Title], written by the [Author’s stated role] [Author’s published name or username], sets out to write a formal paper show [Central theme, argument or message] Remove the NUMBER and GRADE from the october sat essay, front of the ‘standard phrase’ Make the applicable choice in the [square brackets] when asked Link the ‘standard phrases together to form sentences and then complete the paragraph Adjust the write paper, grammar and definition of business phrasing to suit your style of expression (if required) Now copy and paper paste (CTRL-C and CTRL-V) from the review document into the comment or article review section provided at the online writing community.
At sites like Scribd.com and Hubpages.com , reviews may be published in an article’s Comments section (usually at the very end of the article), Complete any other ratings or selections as required. The Bass And Sheila? Save and research paper take pride in october 2008 sat essay, the fact that you have just lifted the content quality of your online writing community by reviewing a quality article. This article titled “Review of How to how to write paper Write a Great First CV (Resume)”, written by research the Lecturer in Computing Norman Creaney, sets out to detail the steps you will need in how to, order to write an effective CV in and a lie essay, the most efficient way. The author’s line of reasoning was crystal clear and how to write paper it was a interesting read. The Bass The River Mant Essay? Moreover, if there were any spelling or grammar mistakes they were undetectable to me. Norman engaged a smooth writing style with the clever inclusions making for a delightful reading experience. I am reasonably knowledgeable about this subject and how to a formal research I am in general agreement with all the Author’s stated positions. Is A Citation In A Research Paper? I believe that this article would be very useful for many people that are interested in paper, this topic and overall, I would rate it as a great read of high merit. Another article worth reading How to Write an Article Review – Advanced University of Maine System, 2007, How to the river and sheila mant write a critical article review, uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://www.learn.maine.edu/ocls/criticalreview.php Student Learning Services, Concordia University, Writing an Article Review, uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://cdev.concordia.ca/CnD/studentlearn/Help/handouts/WritingHO/articleReview.html University of Nevada, Reno, How to Write a Critical Review (HE-270), uploaded 1 February, 2009 from http://hhs.unr.edu/ihc/docs/how_review_article.pdf.
Your authors have benefited from a dose of creative juice in the preparation of this article. One of the ideas — a genuine light bulb of an how to research, idea — is to make the Impressions Table into the river and sheila, an article quality value generator. By assigning numbers to each box in write a formal paper, the table’s matrix, an article can receive a numerical rating normalized to assistant manager letter global education systems (where 100 = A+). If you love, like or hate the idea, please chime in with a comment.
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Formatting a Research Paper – The MLA Style Center
A Comprehensive Guide to APA Citations and Format. This page will provide you with an overview of how to write a formal research paper, APA citation format. Included is information about APA referencing, various citation formats and examples for each source type, and other helpful information related to and sheila mant APA. How To! If you’re looking for two truths and a lie essay, MLA format, check out Citation Machine’s MLA Guide. Also, visit Citation Machine’s homepage to use the APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator. See more across the site. Being Responsible While Researching.
When you’re writing a research paper or creating a research project, you will probably use another individual’s work to help develop your own project. A good researcher or scholar uses another individual’s work in a responsible way. This involves indicating that the how to research, work of other individuals is included in your project, which is one way to write critique essay prevent plagiarism. The word plagiarism is derived from the latin word, plagiare, which means to write kidnap. The term has evolved over the years to now mean the act of taking another individual’s work and using it as your own, without acknowledging the original author. Be careful of plagiarism! Plagiarism is illegal and there are many serious ramifications for plagiarizing someone else’s work. Thankfully, plagiarism can be prevented. One way it can be prevented is by including APA format citations in your research project.
Want to definition continuity make these citations quickly and easily? Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage. Citations are included in research projects anytime you use another individual’s work in how to write a formal paper, your own assignment. When including a quote, paraphrased information, images, or any other piece of information from another’s work, you need to show where you found it by sat essay, including a citation. This APA format guide explains how to how to a formal paper make citations in APA style. There are two types of and a, APA citations. The first type of citation, which is called in-text, or parenthetical citations, are included when you’re adding text, word for word, from another individual’s work into your own project. If you don’t use the information from how to write, another source word for word in two truths lie essay, your assignment, but you paraphrase it in your own words, you also need to add an in-text citation. The other type of APA format citations, which are called reference citations, are found at the end of your research project, usually on the last page.
Included on this reference list page are the full citations for any in-text citations found in the body of the project, as well as full citations for any other sources you used to help develop your research. These citations are listed in alphabetical order, one after the how to research paper, other. The two types of citations, in-text and reference citations, look very different. In-text citations include three items: the last name(s) of the definition continuity plan, author, the year the source was published, and the page or location of the information. Reference citations include more information such as the name of the author(s), the year the source was published, the title of the source, and the URL or page range. Why is it Important to Include APA Citations? Including APA citations into your research projects is a very important component of the research process.
When you include citations, you’re being a responsible researcher. You’re showing readers that you were able to find valuable, high-quality information from other sources, place them into your project where appropriate, all while acknowledging those original authors. How To Write Research Paper! The American Psychological Association, also called APA, is an organization created for individuals in the psychology field. Definition Continuity Plan! With close to 116,000 members, they provide education opportunities, funding, guidance, and research information for everything psychology related. APA also has numerous high-quality databases, peer-reviewed journals, and books that revolve around mental health. The American Psychological Association is also credited with creating APA Style, which is a popular way to a formal create citations.
This citation format is used by critique essay, individuals not only in how to write, the psychology field, but many other subject areas as well. Education, economics, business, and social sciences also use APA style quite frequently. Click here for the bass the river and sheila essay, more information. APA created APA style format in 1929 in order to form a standard way for researchers in the science fields to document their sources. How To Research Paper! Prior to the inception of these standards, individuals were most likely including various pieces of retail manager cover, information about a source, in a random order. You can probably imagine how difficult it would be to look at how to a formal research a few different pieces of research and determine the types of sources that were used to develop the research project! Having a standard format for citing sources allows readers to glance at an APA citation and easily locate the title, author, year published, and other critical pieces of retail manager cover, information needed to understand a source. Click here to how to write learn more about why the American Psychological Association created APA.
APA Style is currently in its 6th edition, which was released in 2009. In previous versions of APA format, researchers and scholars were required to include the date that an electronic resource was accessed. In addition, names of databases were included, and only the name of the city was included for publication information. Now, it is no longer required to include the date of access as well as the name of the two truths and a, database in an APA citation. How To Research! The full location, including the city AND state, or the city and country if it’s an international publisher, is included in the citation. What In A! In 2013, APA released a revised manual just for electronic resources. This was released due to the increase in the amount of technology advances and resources.
There are two types of citations in APA Style - there are in-text, or parenthetical citations, and complete reference APA citations. In-text, also called parenthetical citations, are found in the body, or text, of a research project. They’re included after a direct quote or paraphrase. See the next section below to learn more about write a formal, how to write essay format and include in-text citations in your project. Complete reference citations are found at the end of a research project. These reference citations are longer, complete citations for all of the sources used in a project. So, full citations for all of the in-text citations are found here. How To A Formal Paper! The format for APA reference citations varies, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Researchers and scholars must look up the definition, proper APA citation format for the source that they’re using. How To Write Paper! Books have a certain APA format, websites have a different format, periodicals have a different format, and so on. Scroll down to find the definition, proper format for the source you’re trying to cite. If you would like to how to write research paper cite your sources automatically, Citation Machine’s APA generator is two truths and a a helpful APA reference generator that will make the citation process easier for you. In-text, or parenthetical citations, are included in how to write, research projects in three instances: When using a direct quote, paraphrasing information, or simply referring to a piece of information from another source. Quite often, researchers and scholars use a small amount of text, word for word, from assistant retail manager cover, another source and include it in their own research projects. How To Write A Formal! This is done for many reasons.
Sometimes, another author’s words are so eloquently written that there isn’t a better way to rephrase it yourself. Other times, the author’s words can help prove a point or establish an understanding for october, something in your research project. When using another author’s exact words in your research project, include an in-text citation directly following it. In addition to using the how to write a formal research paper, exact words from another source and placing them into your project, in-text citations are also added anytime you paraphrase information. Paraphrasing is when you take information from another source and rephrase it, in of business, your own words.
When simply referring to how to write a formal another piece of information from another source, also include an write critique essay, in-text citation directly following it. In text APA citations are found after a direct quote, paraphrased information, or reference. They are formatted like this: Exact text, paraphrased information, or reference (Author’s Last Name, Year published, page number or paragraph number * ) * Only include the page or paragraph number when using a direct quote or paraphrase. This information is included in order to help the reader locate the exact text themselves. How To Write Research! It is not necessary to include this information when you’re simply referring to another source. Here’s are some examples of in-text APA citations: “Well, you’re about to enter the land of the free and the brave. And I don’t know how you got that stamp on your passport.
The priest must know someone” (Toibi?n, 2009, p. 52). Student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers (Kent Giles, 2017). If including the author’s names in the sentence, only definition of business continuity plan include the year in the in-text APA citation. According to a study done by Kent and Giles (2017), student teachers who use technology in their lessons tend to continue using technology tools throughout their teaching careers. The full references, or citations, for these sources can be found on the last part of a research project, the “Reference List.” While this guide’s intent is to help you understand and develop citations on your own, there are many APA formatter tools, including a free APA citation generator, available on how to paper Citation Machine. 2008 Sat Essay! Try our APA citation machine which is found on our homepage.
Click here to learn more about crediting work. APA Reference List Citation Components. As stated above, reference list citations are the full citations for all of the write, in-text citations found in the body of write essay, a research project. These full citations are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last names. They have a hanging indent, meaning that the how to write research paper, second line of text is indented in half an inch. See examples below to see what a hanging indent looks like. Assistant Retail Cover! The format for APA reference citations varies based on write a formal research paper the source type, but some APA citations use this general format: Author’s Last name, First initial. (Date published).
Title . Retrieved from URL. Learn more about citation research, each component of the reference citation and how to format it in the sections that follow. The names of write research paper, authors are written in reverse order. Include the what is a research, initials for paper, the first and and a, middle names. End this information with a period. When two or more authors work together on how to write a formal paper a source, write them in the order in which they appear on the source, using this format: Last name, F. M., Last name, F. And A Lie Essay! M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M., Last name, F. M. Kent, A. G., Giles, R. M.
Thorpe, A., Lukes, R., Bever, D. J, He, Y. If there are 8 or more authors listed on a source, only include the first 6 authors, add three ellipses, and then add the last author’s name. Roberts, A., Johnson, M. C., Klein, J., Cheng, E. V., Sherman, A., Levin, K. K. , . Lopez, G. S. If you plan on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, which is an APA citation generator, the names of the authors will format properly for you. Directly after the author’s name is the date the source was published. How To! Include the full date for newspapers, the the river essay, month and year for magazine articles, and only the how to write, year for journals and all other sources. If no date is found on what is a citation paper the source, include the initials, n.d. for “no date.” Narducci, M. (2017, May 19). City renames part of research paper, 11th Street Ed Snider Way to honor Flyers founder. The Philadelphia Inquirer . Two Truths And A! If using our APA citation maker, Citation Machine’s APA generator will add the correct date format for you automatically. When writing out titles for books, articles, chapters, or other nonperiodical sources, only capitalize the a formal research, first word of the title and the first word of the subtitle.
Names of people, places, organizations, and other proper nouns also have the first letter capitalized. For books and reports, italicize the title in an APA citation. Strange case of Dr. Cover Letter! Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
Roots: The saga of an American family. For articles and chapters in APA referencing, do not italicize the title. Wake up the a formal research, nation: Public libraries, policy making, and two truths and a lie essay, political discourse. For newspapers, magazines, journals, newsletters, and other periodicals, capitalize the first letter in each word and italicize the title. The Seattle Times. A common question is whether to underline your title or place it in italics or quotation marks. In APA, titles are never underlined or placed in quotation marks. They are either placed in italics or not.
Here’s a good general rule for APA: When a source sits alone and is not part of a larger whole, place the write a formal, title in essay, italics. If the source does not sit alone and is part of a larger whole, do not place it in italics. Books, movies, journals, and how to write a formal paper, television shows are placed in italics since they stand alone. Songs on an album, episodes of television shows, chapters in books, and articles in journals are not placed in italics since they are smaller pieces of what is a research, larger wholes. Citation Machine’s APA citation generator formats the how to write a formal research, title in your citations automatically by following proper APA bibliography guidelines. Additional Information about the Title. If you feel as though it would be helpful to the reader to assistant manager cover letter include additional information about the source type, include this information in brackets immediately following the title. Use a brief descriptive term and capitalize the write paper, first letter. Kennedy, K., Molen, G. R. (Producer), Spielberg, S. (Director). (1993).
Jurassic Park [Motion picture]. USA: Universal. Besides [Motion picture], other common notations include: [Letter to the editor] [Television series episode] If you are using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, additional information about the title is automatically added for you. The APA citation generator will add this information based on the source form that you choose. Information About the Publication. For books and reports, include the city and state, or the write critique, city and country, of the publisher’s location. Instead of typing out the entire state name, use the proper two-letter abbreviation from the a formal research paper, United States Postal Service. Type out the entire country name when including areas outside of the United States.
After typing the location, add a colon, and continue with the name of the publisher. It is the river mant essay not necessary to how to write a formal research paper include the entire name of the publisher. It is citation in a research paper acceptable to use a brief, intelligible form. However, if Books or Press are part of the publisher’s names, keep these words in the citation. Other common terms, such as Inc., Co., Publishers, and others can be omitted.
For newspapers, journals, magazines, and other periodicals, include the volume and issue number after the a formal paper, title in an APA citation. The volume number is listed first, by itself, in italics. The issue number is in october 2008 sat essay, parentheses immediately after it, not italicized. Giannoukos, G., Besas, G., Hictour, V., Georgas, T. (2016, May). A study on the role of computers in adult education. Educational Research and Reviews, 11 (9), 907-923. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.5897/ERR2016.2688. If the publisher is write a college or university, and the location name matches part of the school’s information, exclude the publisher information from the citation. After including the location and publisher information, end this section of the citation with a period. London, England: Pearson.
New York, NY: Perseus Books. Our APA generator is an APA reference generator that will automatically format your publication information in your citations for you. October! Visit Citation Machine’s homepage to learn more. For online sources, the URL or DOI (Direct Object Identifier) are included at the end of a citation. DOI numbers are often created by publishers for journal articles and a formal paper, other periodical sources. They were created in response to the problem of broken or outdated links and URLs. When a journal article is assigned a DOI number, it is static, and will never change. Because of its permanent characteristic, DOIs are the and a lie essay, preferred type of electronic information to include in APA citations. When a DOI number is not available, include the source’s URL. For DOIs, include the number in this format: For URLs, only include the information about the homepage and write it in this format: Retrieved from http:// Other APA referencing information about write a formal research paper, electronic sources: - If the URL is longer than a line, break it up before a punctuation mark. - Do not place a period at the end of the citation. - It is october 2008 sat essay not necessary to include retrieval dates, unless the source changes often over time. - It is not necessary to include the names of databases.
When using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, if your source was found online, the online publication information will be replaced by the DOI. Our APA citation machine will properly cite your online sources for you, automatically. Click here for more information about the basics of APA. APA Citation Examples for Sources. Author Last name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . Location: Publisher. How To A Formal Research Paper! Dickens, C. (1942). Great expectations . October 2008 Sat Essay! New York, NY: Dodd, Mead. Print Books with Two or More Authors. Last name, First initial., Last name, First initial, Last name, First initial. (Date).
Title . Location: Publisher. Goldin, C. D., Katz, L. F. (2008). The race between education and technology . How To Write A Formal Research! Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press. Assistant Cover Letter! Matthews, G., Smith, Y., Knowles, G. (2009). Disaster management in archives, libraries and museums . How To A Formal Research! Farnham, England: Ashgate. October 2008 Sat Essay! When citing a chapter in an edited book, use the following format: Structure for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: Last name of write a formal research, chapter author, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). What Is A Research! Chapter title. In First initial. How To Write Research Paper! Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book Title (pp. xx-xx).
Publishing City, State: Publisher. APA reference Example for Chapters in Edited Books in Print: De Abreu, B.S. (2001). The role of media literacy education within social networking and the library. In D.E. Agosto J. Abbas (Eds.), Teens, libraries, and social networking (pp. 39-48). Write Critique! Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. APA reference Structure for Chapters in how to a formal research paper, Edited Books, found Online: Last name of chapter author, First initial. (Year published). Chapter title. In First initial. Last name of Editor (Ed.), Book title [E-reader version, if used] (pp. xx-xx). http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx.
Example for Chapters in Edited Books, found Online: Lobo, R. F. (2003). Introduction to assistant the structural chemistry of how to research paper, zeolites. In S. Auerbach, K. Carrado, P. The River And Sheila! Dutta (Eds.), Handbook of zeolite science and technology (pp. 65-89). Retrieved from https://books.google.com.
If you’re still unsure about how to cite a chapter in a book, use Citation Machine’s APA formatter. Your citations will automatically format properly when using the generator. Author Last Name, F. I. A Formal Research! (Year Published). Title of work [E-reader Version]. http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Auster, P. (2007).
The Brooklyn follies [Nook version]. Retrieved from http://www.barnesandnoble.com/ Only the in a research paper, first letter of the first word and any proper nouns in the title should be capitalized in an APA citation. How To A Formal Research Paper! A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, it’s very important to include it in two truths and a lie essay, your APA referencing citation. Author Last Name, F. I. (Year Published). Title of work . http://dx.doi.org/xxxx or Retrieved from http://xxxx. Baloh, P., Burke, M. E. (2007). Attaining organizational innovations. To cite your e-books automatically, use the “Book” form on Citation Machine’s APA generator, click on “Manual entry mode,” and click the “E-book” tab.
Our APA citation maker will format your citation properly following APA bibliography guidelines. How To Write A Formal! Author Last name, F. I. October 2008 Sat Essay! (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range. Gleditsch, N. P., Pinker, S., Thayer, B. A., Levy, J. S., Thompson, W. Write Research Paper! R. 2008 Sat Essay! (2013).
The forum: The decline of war. International Studies Review , 15 (3), 396-419. If your source is found online, but there is no DOI provided, you can include the URL instead. A DOI (digital object identifier) is basically a number that links a source to its location on the Internet. This number isn’t always provided, but if it is, you should include it in how to a formal research, your citation rather than including a URL. Unlike previous editions of APA, the 6th edition does not require including a retrieval date or date accessed for online sources. A retrieval date is only necessary if the source is likely to change (ex.
Wikipedia). Of Business! Instead, ‘Retrieved from’ is used. Author Last name, F. I. How To A Formal Research Paper! (Year Published). Title of article. Title of Periodical, Volume (Issue), page range.
Sahin, N. T., Pinker, S., Cash, S. S., Schomer, D., Halgren, E. Is A Citation Research! (2009). Sequential processing of lexical, grammatical, and phonological information within Broca’s area. Science, 326 (5951), 445-449. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx. If you need additional help citing your journal articles, our APA reference generator is an APA citation maker that will cite your sources automatically for write a formal research, you. Page numbers: If article is only one page long, use ‘p.’ For any article longer than one page, use ‘pp.’ If an article appears is on non-sequential pages, separate each page number with a comma. Example: pp. D4, D5, D7-D8 APA referencing does NOT require you to what citation in a research paper include the date of access for write a formal, electronic sources. Author, F. Of Business Continuity Plan! I. (Year, Month Day Published). Title of article.
Title of how to a formal paper, Newspaper , page range. Frost, L. (2006, September 14). First passengers ride monster jet. The Salt Lake Tribune , A2. You may be wondering what to do if you find your newspaper article on a database. Definition Of Business Continuity! Author, F. I. (Year, Month Date Published). Write A Formal Paper! Title of article . Title of Newspaper. Retrieved from newspaper homepage URL. Whiteside, K. (2004, August 31).
College athletes want cut of action. USA Today . Retrieved http://www.usatoday.com. Author Last Name, F. The River And Sheila Mant Essay! I. (Year, Month Published). Title of article. Title of Magazine, Volume (Issue), page range. Quammen, D. How To Write A Formal! (2008, December). The man who wasn’t Darwin. National Geographic Magazine, 214 (6), 106.
Author Last Name, F. October Sat Essay! I. (Year, Month Date Published). Article title. Retrieved from URL. Example of an how to research, APA format website: Austerlitz, S. (2015, March 3). How long can a spinoff like ‘Better Call Saul’ last? Retrieved from http://fivethirtyeight.com/features/how-long-can-a-spinoff-like-better-call-saul-last/ Last name, First initial. (Year, Month, Date of blog post).
Title of blog post [Blog post]. Retrieved from URL of blog post. Retail Letter! McClintock Miller, S. (2014, January 28). Write A Formal Research! EasyBib joins the definition continuity, Rainbow Loom project as we dive into research with the write paper, third graders [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://vanmeterlibraryvoice.blogspot.com. On our APA citation machine form for blogs, you have the option to choose from standard, audio, and video blogs. Citation Machine’s APA generator will automatically cite your blog sources for you.
Writer Last Name, F. I. (Writer), Director Last Name, F. Is A! I. (Director). (Year aired). Title of episode [Television or Radio series episode]. In Producer Last Name, F. I. (Executive producer), TV or Radio series name . City, State of original channel: Channel. Lin, K. (Writer), Coles, J. D. (Director). (2014). Chapter 18 [Television series episode].
In Bays, C. (Executive producer), House of cards . Washington, D.C.: Netflix. A Formal! If using Citation Machine’s APA generator,television and radio broadcasts use the same form. Producer Last Name, F. I. (Producer), Director Last Name, F. I. And Sheila Mant! (Director). (Year Released). Title of film [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio. Bender, L. (Producer), Tarantino, Q. (Director). (1994). Pulp fiction [Motion Picture]. Research! United States: Miramax. There is the option to automatically cite films found online, in film, and on a database when using Citation Machine’s APA citation builder. It is highly recommended not to use personal (unpublished) interviews in your reference list. Instead, this type of source should be formatted as an in-text or parenthetical citation.
However, here is an critique, example of an in-text citation for a personal interview in write a formal research, APA: Structure: (Interviewee F .I., Last Name, personal communication, Date Interviewed) Example: (D. Halsey, personal communication, December 12, 2011) Published Interviews should be cited accordingly if they appear as journal articles, newspaper articles, television programs, radio programs, or films. If your instructor requires a citation in the reference list, use the following structure: Author Last Name, F. I. (Year, Month Date Interviewed). Interview type [email, phone, personal interview, personal interview with [third party FI Last Name]. Halsey, D. (2011, December 12). Personal Interview. If you are planning on using Citation Machine’s APA formatter, a note is displayed above the form stating that personal interviews are not typically cited in text. Our APA format generator creates in-text citations and october 2008 sat essay, full reference citations for you.
Songs Musical Recordings found Online. *Note: If the name of the songwriter is the same as the name of the recording artist, leave out the bracketed information located after the how to write paper, name of the song. Last name, First initial. Middle initial. of october sat essay, songwriter. (Year created). Song title [Recorded by write a formal research paper, First initial. Middle initial. 2008 Sat Essay! Last name of the performer’s name or the name of the band]. On Album Title [Medium].
Retrieved from how to write paper, URL. Hedfors, A., Ingrosso, S., Angello, S. (2012). Greyhound [Recorded by Swedish House Mafia]. On Until Now [Audio file]. Retrieved from https://open.spotify.com/track/0VffaI2jwQknRrxpECYHsF. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Music/Audio,” to automatically cite your songs and musical recordings.
Our APA citation maker is an APA format generator that is free and easy to use. Doctoral Dissertations found on a Database: Last name, First initial. Middle initial. (Year published). Cover Letter! Title of dissertation or thesis (Doctoral dissertation or Master’s thesis). Write A Formal! Retrieved from Name of database. (Accession or Order No. xxxxxxx). English, L. S. (2014). The influences of community college library characteristics on institutional graduation rates: A national study (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from American Doctoral Dissertations. (37CDD15DF659E63F).
On our APA citation machine, there is a form for dissertations that will cite this source type for write essay, you. Last name, First initial. (Producer). (Year, Month Day). Title of podcast [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from URL. Goodwin, G. How To Research! (Producer). (2016, February 11). What Citation In A Paper! History extra [Audio podcast]. Retrieved from http://www.historyextra.com/podcasts.
If using Citation Machine’s APA format generator, choose the “Blog/Podcast,” form to cite your podcasts automatically. Last name, First initial. [YouTube username]. (Year, Month, Day of posting). Title of YouTube video [Video file]. Retrieved from URL. A Formal Paper! Damien, M. [Marcelo Damien]. 2008! (2014, April 10). Tiesto @ Ultra Buenos Aires 2014 (full set) [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/mr4TDnR0ScM. If using our APA citation machine, choose the form titled, “Film” to automatically cite your YouTube videos.
Looking for a source type that is not on this guide? Here is another useful link to paper follow. An APA annotated bibliography is a bibliography that includes the full reference citations in assistant retail, addition to a small paragraph containing your evaluation about each source. When creating your citations, there is how to a formal research paper a field at is a research paper the bottom of each form to add your own annotations. Looking to create an APA format title page? Head to how to write paper Citation Machine’s homepage and the bass essay, choose “Title Page” at the top of the screen. A written work or composition found in print, or digitally as an e-book. Can be non-fiction or fiction.
A popular work published periodically (weekly, monthly etc.) focusing on a specific interest or subject. A periodical publication containing current events, news, interviews and opinion articles. A collection of pages that provides information about a certain topic. A scholarly work published periodically, containing highly specified research. A motion picture or movie. Can be a fictional movie, documentary or even YouTube videos.
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The Great Barrier Reef in a formal all its glory. Tiny brainless animals, mostly the size of a rice grain, have formed colonies, lived, died, and formed a massive, self-perpetuating undersea cemetery of their calcium carbonate skeletons. It may be the world's largest reef system, but it actually consists of over 2900 individual reefs, and 900 islands from Cape York in the north to Bundaberg in the south. That's around 2600 kilometres. Peter Gash, owner and manager of the Lady Elliot Island Eco Resort, snorkels during an what is a paper, inspection of the reef#039;s condition. As for how to a formal paper the brown, earthy colours of most of the coral here on the reef, that's how healthy coral should look (more of which later). Yet there's no doubt the definition reef is facing unprecedented challenges – all linked to human activity. The coral bleaching is a reaction to write, higher water temperatures, caused by global warming. What Is A Citation In A? Devastating cyclones such as Yasi in 2011 and Debbie in March have become more frequent and more intense, another consequence of global warming. Vlasoff Cay, Queensland.
The Great Barrier Reef has dozens of tiny specks on the map. Finally, the Great Barrier Reef is how to write paper, subject to an infestation of coral-devouring crown-of-thorns starfish and the less well-known Drupella snail, which is more of a problem on Western Australian reefs. Two Truths And A Lie Essay? Scientists say the starfish have reached plague proportions because of the how to write a formal research paper nutrients from agricultural fertilisers being washed into the ocean. So if you're just as anxious to save the two truths and a reef as you are to see it before it disappears, what can you do? EXPERT WITNESS 1: RICHARD FITZPATRICK. Apart from paper, its sheer size at roughly 345,000 square metres, no other reef has so much biodiversity. Marine biologist at James Cook University. Two Truths And A? Multi-award winning documentary director and underwater cameraman. How To Write? He's worked for the BBC, National Geographic and Discovery. And shot the animal sequences in assistant manager letter Sir David Attenborough's final documentary series, David Attenborough's Great Barrier Reef broadcast on ABC in 2016.
I've just started shooting my first 3D documentary, Fitzpatrick explains. It's for IMAX. A Formal Paper? The market now wants Great Barrier Reef films desperately. A view of the Great Barrier Reef from the air. He's already shown me the swimming pool-sized coral aquarium he built for the Attenborough series and the purpose-built mangrove filter pumping system that ensures the water quality in of business continuity plan the aquarium is as perfect as possible (See that baby crocodile among the how to a formal research mangrove roots? He's here for of business continuity some footage I need to shoot next week.) Nearby are the tanks where he captured the first slo-mo sequences of Nemo and friends hatching (and Mantis shrimps mating) for the Attenborough series. I've been snorkelling on write research the reef since I was six, says the and a lie essay Cairns local. Snorkeling is one of the more popular ways to get a close look at the Great Barrier Reef. We've definitely seen the death of our inner reefs. As a kid I'd snorkel on the inshore reefs.
They were great, but they're all under mud now because of dredging, agriculture and urban development. The outer reef has survived, but it is being assaulted on so many fronts. Cyclones, crown-of-thorns starfish, and write research paper now global warning which is causing these unprecedented bleaching events. David thought he was coming to the end of his career, and two truths lie essay wanted to finish where he'd started – on the reef. Diving the how to write a formal Great Barrier Reef. But he was also determined to spell out the threats to the reef. He's been very active in the past few years filling in the background to his documentaries. The BBC didn't address environmental issues in the locations where he filmed until recently. But David has realised those documentaries suggest to viewers that nature is doing fine. So he's insisting now that his films have a healthy dose of reality.
Fitzpatrick says while the most recent bleaching has been described as the second in two years it has just been one long coral bleaching event for 18 months. We didn't have a winter, so the water temperature hardly dipped below 25C in winter and what is a in a below 30C in summer which meant the coral didn't have any respite. People don't realise that when corals are bleaching, they're still alive. Corals get their colour, energy and food from a form of photosynthetic plant called zooxanthellae, which is why so many corals are autumnal colours – browns and greens. But when the water temperature stays too hot for too long, the corals expel the zooxanthellae.
So the how to research corals start to two truths and a, starve to death. There are four stages of coral bleaching. Amazingly the second stage is when the corals are at their most colourful and vibrant. Sadly, the third stage is the how to write a formal paper forced evacuation of all the zooxanthellae, leaving the corals devoid of colour, with only their transparent skeletons showing brilliant white in 2008 sat essay the underwater depths. And the fourth stage? After a week or two, death.
TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Not everyone can afford a trip to a formal, Cairns, but Fitzpatrick recommends signing on for a new initiative, Citizens of the Great Barrier Reef, which will launch in July. Headed by october 2008 sat essay, Andy Ridley (the founder of write a formal paper, Earth Hour) and backed by what is a, the federal government, Queensland government, GBRMPA and how to write research James Cook University, the new body will co-ordinate an two truths lie essay, array of how to a formal research, ways people across the globe can take action to what is a, protect the how to a formal research paper reef. See citizensgbr.org. EXPERT WITNESS 2: SIMON UREN. Dive master on SilverSwift (owned by Quicksilver Cruises) which employs an october, on-board marine biologist to write a formal research paper, brief guests, plus a diver dedicated to collecting crown-of-thorns starfish and Drupella snails. Admittedly Uren is at a disadvantage because we're conversing underwater, and I am so pre-occupied with filling in critique my REEFSearch chart I sometimes fail to how to a formal research paper, spot his diving checks. You don't need to be a diver: snorkellers and reef walkers can also take part in REEFSearch. So let's keep it simple.
When you enrol online as a REEFSearcher, you'll be sent a pack containing a cool underwater identification chart and continuity plan a REEFSearch field guide. The field guide makes fascinating reading. There are six categories of organism a REEFSearcher needs to identify: anemone fish; fish larger than 20 centimetres long; giant clams; sea cucumbers; sea urchins and a formal research crown-of-thorns starfish. Who knew Nemos are endangered because they are harvested outside Australia for the aquarium trade, and that the anemones they hide in are one of the first indicators of coral bleaching? Or that giant clams are so sensitive to changes in water quality that they're an of business continuity plan, ideal indicator of reef health. As for sea cucumbers?
Apparently they are a delicacy in many countries, but taste of fish poo – because that's the core diet of these vacuum cleaners of the ocean. Uren also points out other environmental challenges on our three dives. Look, there's our first Drupella snail. Write A Formal Paper? It's Shaun's job to citation in a, collect these, but it's his day off. Write Research Paper? In a normal day he could collect 1000. And that triggerfish tearing away at that plate coral? He's a parrot fish, a big beak with crushing plates behind.
He's a natural predator of Drupella snails. Yet, in two truths searching for the snails, he's destroying the write coral. TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Sign up as a REEFSearcher, run by Reef Check Australia. A 10-minute video explains how it works (reefcheckaustralia.org).
The registered charity also offers full or part-time (heavily subsidised) courses in Cairns, Townsville, Port Douglas, the Sunshine Coast and two truths and a Brisbane for both snorkellers and how to write scuba divers who want to take their commitment a stage further. Plus an the bass the river essay, EcoDiver course that is internationally recognised. EXPERT WITNESS 3: GARETH PHILLIPS. South African-born Phillips runs ReefTeach in the Cairns CBD. Write Research? Another marine biologist with a Masters degree, his primary service is critique essay, a passionate, two-hour illustrated and highly entertaining presentation explaining the intricacies of the reef (A$23 per adult, A$60 per family). He also offers an Underwater Naturalist Program with private marine biologist guide (A$450 per day, plus the cost of the reef excursion). See reefteach.com.au/ Saturday evening in Cairns and I'm the only Australian who has signed on how to write for the ReefTeach information show whose motto is With learning comes appreciation.
The other 25 in the audience vary in age, scientific knowledge and nationality. Most are backpackers or honeymooners, though a retired Canadian couple and an older Dutch woman ask Phillips the write critique essay most insightful questions. He goes on a formal to describe the bad science in the Finding Nemo movie. Once Nemo's mum died, his hermaphrodite dad, Marlin, would have turned female – one of what research paper, eccentricities of clown fish. Some of these ReefTeach guests will never venture out to the reef itself because they get sea-sick or can't swim. Others want to learn more about the reef before they choose which of many reef adventures to book out of how to a formal research, Cairns. I'm doing his Underwater Naturalist Program so we meet at 8.45am on Sunday at the bass essay, the Cairns Esplanade Reef Fleet Terminal. As we walk along the pier towards our vessel, he quizzes me on what I remember from the lecture. Sure, I now know a coral polyp is a living animal – an upside-down jelly fish that can vary from the size of an angel on a pinhead to a saucer-sized mushroom.
Yes, I recall there are no great white sharks this far north as the write research water temperature is too balmy (as it was even before global warming). And yes, I remember that those tiny cleaner wrasse keep the fish on the reef healthy by eating all the essay parasites on fish, big and small. Once our boat reaches Paradise reef off Michaelmas Cay, we start donning our snorkel gear. My job as a marine biologist is to show my clients what I am looking for, and share those insights with them, Phillips says. It's high tide when we start snorkelling, with a strong wind blowing. It can reach up to 30km/h – worse in a cyclone. Phillips prefers to write a formal research paper, guide snorkelling trips rather than diving trips because it's easier to bob to the surface and exchange information.
So what do we see? The depth of the coral bleaching is alarming me now. Critique? Last year it was confined to research, the top six metres, Phillips says. This year, it is already deeper. Yet there's so much to see.
That fire coral? I now know not to touch it after the assistant manager cover letter lecture last night: It's like sticking your hand into a roaring fire. That unicorn fish? I didn't notice it until Phillips pointed it out. That coral war – with three different types of coral communities competing for the same patch of territory? Who knew coral could be so belligerent? ReefTeach is also launching its first Great Barrier Reef Marine Discovery Program for volunteers who want to work with professional marine biologists to how to write a formal, conduct science on the reef. See reefteach.com.au. TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Phillips recommends you choose a company which displays the Eco Certified Advanced Ecotourism logo (not just Eco Certified logo).
See ecotourism.org. October 2008 Sat Essay? You might have to pay A$30 more than the cheapest Great Barrier Reef trips, but you'll learn so much more. EXPERT WITNESS 4: RUSSELL HOSP. Denver, Colorado, is how to research paper, about as far as you can get from the two truths ocean in how to write the US, but he's lived in Australia for the past 11 years and october now has a Masters in how to Public Relations and Sustainable Tourism. He's also the Environmental Sustainability Manager aboard Passions of Paradise, a catamaran. Write Essay? passions.com.au/ Hosp is giving me an introductory course into the Eye On The Reef checklist – the underwater citizen science program run by the GBR Marine Park Authority (a similar checklist to REEFSearch, but more intensive). Gobies are the write research paper Tim-Tams of the Reef, Hosp tells me before we snorkel off the bird sanctuary that is Michaelmas Cay. And A Lie Essay? They're a quick snack.
The bottom of the food chain. Write A Formal Research Paper? They have three functions in life: eat, make more little gobies, and avoid being eaten. Hosp is making the point that visitors to the reef are often disappointed they don't see bigger, more colourful fish. But without gobies, there would be no bigger species. We go through the checklist again before we venture into the water. Since I've passed the online volunteer test, I'm already up to write critique essay, the second level of the Eye On The Reef qualification. (Of course, Hosp is much higher on the EOTR food chain – he's often sent out on special missions to a formal research, check out the results of the data non-scientists like me are recording). But this afternoon we have two missions to october 2008, complete.
Our first joint exercise is to snorkel for 10 minutes and record what we witness. Then Hosp points out a giant clam, a sign of how good the water quality is, those grazing butterfly fish, the kangaroos of the sea, keeping the write a formal research paper plant life under control, and that Maori wrasse, the manager biggest reef fish in write paper the world. Ten minutes later, we're doing the Eye On The Reef 360 degree test. Essentially, this means picking an area roughly the two truths and a size of a tennis court and checking the condition of the coral. It's a lot more complicated to how to research, describe than it is to do it. TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Join the what in a Eye On The Reef program. See gbrmpa.gov.au. EXPERT WITNESS 5: STEVE MOON. Project manager for the crown-of-thorns-starfish control program run by the Association of write a formal paper, Marine Park Tourism Operators which has culled 460,000 of the pests since 2012.
Commercial dive and what citation in a snorkelling operators are responsible for culling crown-of-thorns starfish and Drupella snails on the reefs they visit. But they are reinforced by a full-time dedicated team, run by the association and funded by the Department of the Environment which go out onto the reef for 10 days at write, a time aboard two ships, Hero and Venus. Divers target infestations on and a reefs visited by tourists, priority reefs which propagate coral larvae, and known breeding areas for the starfish. The biggest of research paper, these starfish we've found was 1.3 metre across – that's the size of a truck tyre, Moon explains. And each one can eat its own body size in coral every day.
Unlike, say, the cane toad which is an introduced species, these jellyfish occur naturally in the GBR. But their numbers have swollen hugely due to heavy nutrients in the ocean caused by run-off from fertilised agricultural properties. The crown-of-thorns infestation is now just off the Cairns coast, but they are moving south towards Townsville. They'll eventually reach the 2008 sat essay Whitsundays. Our mission is to cull as many as we can to suppress their numbers before the coral spawning event in October/November. TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Tourism contributes around A$10 million to a formal research, the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority via the environmental management charge which is collected by write essay, every reef operator as part of the how to write paper ticket price.
Indirectly, that goes towards conservation projects such as the crown-of-thorns-starfish control program. The Bass The River Essay? So just by taking a trip to the reef, you're helping. EXPERT WITNESS 6: MIKE BALL. Owner of Mike Ball Dive Expeditions in Cairns, Queensland's longest-running dive operator and an inductee into the International Scuba Diving Hall of Fame. Ball has run shark feeding dive trips in the Coral Sea since 1981 when he became the a formal research paper first operator in october 2008 Cairns to have a live-aboard dive boat (his current vessel is the luxurious Spoilsport). Shark feeding isn't allowed within the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, so Ball offers four and seven-day trips to Osprey Reef, one of the most spectacular dive sites in the world with spectacular wall drop-offs teeming with sharks – white-tips, grey whalers, hammerheads and oceanic silver tips. There are three types of shark interaction.
For the passive experience, a bait crate (containing tuna heads) is lowered to a depth of around 15 metres surrounded by divers, but the food is a formal, not released. The sharks are attracted by the food, but are just cruising, Ball explains. The second experience is more frenetic. Once the food is retail manager letter, released, the sharks literally go into a feeding frenzy. And if you're really committed you can opt for the Shark Shooter option, when keen underwater photographers really get up close and personal with scores of different sharks getting to within a couple of metres of the submarine snappers. Why does this count as eco-tourism? And how does this help the reef? Because sharks are pelagic fish which cruise the oceans (and the GBR) – unlike reef fish which stay within their coral confines. They're top of the research paper food chain in the reef – apart from humans, obviously. So the more we know about them, the better for write the long-term sustainability of the reef.
The value of sharks to tourism in how to Australia is worth far more per kilo than the price they reach down at the fish markets where they're sold as flake for fish and chips, says Ball. Each diver commits to paying A$5 a day for the time they're on Spoilsport to marine research, and the data we collect when we're diving is sent back to marine biologists at of business plan, James Cook University. If sharks aren't appealing, what about Antarctic minke whales? These wonderful mammals – the second smallest species of baleen whales – gather off Ribbon Reef, between Steve's Bombe and Cod Hole, for six weeks every June and July. These are Ball's most popular dive trips of the year, with scientists now successfully tagging the minkes to how to a formal paper, discover their annual migration patterns. You'd prefer something more unusual? What about the mant essay company's Nautilus Expeditions, run in conjunction with researchers from Central Queensland University? Nautilus are deep sea creatures, the size of a wheel on a kid's cycle, and deeply mysterious – related to a formal research, the octopus and squid.
Or perhaps you want cute? Raine Island (named because it apparently looks like a single drop of rain) is recognised as the largest rookery of green sea turtles in the world. There are other places on manager the reef to see turtles hatch and waddle to the sea, braving the birds who feed on them. So do yourself a favour. Write Paper? Make your own video and pretend you're David Attenborough. TIP ON HOW YOU CAN HELP THE REEF. Plastic bags affect many creatures, but none more than the turtle. Because they feed on jellyfish, they often mistake plastic bags for a decent meal. The lucky ones die quickly. Most die slowly of starvation, their stomachs unable to digest the essay real food they've eaten. The Port Douglas-based Tangaroa Blue Foundation (founded in 2004) is write research, part of the Australian Marine Debris Initiative, organising beach and wetland clean-ups around the nation.
There's also a citizen science aspect to the river and sheila mant essay, the rubbish removal: with the how to write research paper data being used by Tangaroa Blue researchers to work out where the rubbish comes from, to address the problem at its source.