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GCSE Coursework Assignment 3 - TV Advert Example


This is a TV Advert to advertise the groups AppleBerry juice drink; as part of the Advertising/Marketing third media coursework

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Gcse assignment coursework help

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arisg resume Parent’s / Guardian’s Name. Reading Books, Magazines, Table Tennis, Astrology, Music. To achieve a Software career wherein I can use my skills to the best of gcse assignment my abilities and proprietary versus papers, be an assignment, useful asset to the organization. A Essay? Karnataka Municipal Data Society,Government of Karnataka, Bangalore, Karnataka. Softwares Used: Java, J2EE, Oracle, JBOSS, Tomcat, SVN. Assistant Project Manager. Nov 2009 to Till Date. Mediateck Solutions Pvt Ltd, Bangalore, Karnataka. Softwares Used: Visual Basic, Dotnet, ASP, MySql, IIS, Microsoft Project, VSS. July 2006 to Nov 2009.

SysArris Software Pvt Ltd, . Bangalore, Karnataka. A CMMI level 3 certified company. Softwares Used:Java, J2EE, Oracle, Websphere, Weblogic, JRun, Struts, VSS. Sr. Software Engineer. Jun 2002 to gcse assignment help, Jun 2006. Metalogic Technologies Pvt.

Ltd. Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh. (A group company of Infopike,Inc. NC, USA and Linkwell Electronics Ltd, Hyderabad) Softwares Used:Visual Basic, Oracle, Multimedia tools. Jun 1999 to May 2002. Year of passing. 10 th Standard / SSLC. First Class with Distinction. BACHELOR OF ENGINEERING. What? PES College of Engineering, Mandya.

PGDBA (Specializations in gcse assignment coursework help, Operations HRD. Three Of The Revolution? Symbiosis Institute, Pune. MS Dos, Windows 95, 98, XP, Unix, Linux. Adv. Java(JDK, Servlets, JDBC) , xml, xsl-Fo, Jsp, C, C++,Fortran. Help? Html, Java Script, asp, .net. Macromedia Jrun 4.0, BEA Weblogic 6.0/7.1/8.1, IBM Websphere 4.0/5.1.

Visual Basic (5.0 6.0), Developer 2000 (Forms 5.0, Reports 3.0) Oracle 8.X/9.X, MS Access, MySQL. Papers? Front Page Editor, MS Office, Visual Source Safe. Adobe Photoshop, Flash 4.0, Dream Weaver. IIS, Microsoft project. v Training on Unix, Adv. Java, C, C++, HTML, from NIIT Bangalore. v Documentation Training at Sysarris Software Pvt. Ltd. v Effective programming at SysArris Software Pvt. Ltd. v Training on Oracle, Visual Basic Developer 2000 from LCC, Mysore. v Attained BrainBench certifications in VB 5.0, VB 6.0, VB SCRIPT, ANSI SQL and RDBMS. Projects handled in Karnataka Municipal Data Society : 1)Public Grievance and Redressal System(PGR) 2)Birth and Death Online application(BND) 3)Fund based accounting system(FBAS) 4)Asha Kirana Mahithi(AKM) 5)100 crore project. 6)Chief minister small and medium town development programme(CMSMTDP) 7)State level reports and coursework, user management. 10)Bangalore metropolitan land transport authority(BMLTA) 1)Project planning,translate needs into ateneo features and then into detailed requirements. 2)Dealing with clients and keeping them updated about the progress of the release.

3)Prepare weekly and monthly reports. 4)Review the code,Helping the technical team,ensuring project objectives are met. 5)Effectively communicate with Senior/Lead Engineer in gcse coursework, order to understand design and functional specifications, 6)To achieve a near-zero-defect in all deliverables, Project Scheduling. 7) Project Tracking, Project Reporting , Project Resource , Resource Planning, 8)Providing Technical support on victim or villain research paper Projects. 9) Defining and Implementing Software Development Life Cycle. Gcse Coursework? 10)Prepare detailed project plans and manage to plans,Provide on-time reports on various aspects of projects underway,. 11)Develop and coach project team members, 12)Plan and support hiring and papers, train, 13)Prepare Requirement Documents based on User requirements, 14)Facilitate knowledge transfer of gcse help Customer requirements to Development Team, 15)Liaise with Development Team for design and implementation of prototype corresponding to Requirement Document, 16)Forecast, Plan and Review the Product Development Milestones for ensuring adherence to overall Project plan,

17)Liaise with all stakeholders to ensure compliance to evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, of a negative evaluation. evaluation, and how conducted objectively, fairly, defined functional requirements, 18)Possess exceptional spoken written communication skills. Project : STUDENT ADMINISTRATION. Gcse Assignment? 1)Project planning,translate needs into features and then into detailed requirements. 2)Dealing with clients and keeping them updated about the progress of the release. 3)Prepare weekly and monthly reports. 4)Review the code,Helping the technical team,ensuring project objectives are met. Ateneo? 5)Effectively communicate with Senior/Lead Engineer in order to understand design and functional specifications, 6)To achieve a near-zero-defect in all deliverables, Project Scheduling.

7) Project Tracking, Project Reporting , Project Resource , Resource Planning, 8)Providing Technical support on Projects. 9) Defining and Implementing Software Development Life Cycle. 10)Prepare detailed project plans and manage to plans,Provide on-time reports on various aspects of projects underway,. 11)Develop and coach project team members, 12)Plan and support hiring and gcse coursework help, train, 13)Prepare Requirement Documents based on User requirements, 14)Facilitate knowledge transfer of Customer requirements to victim or villain research paper, Development Team, 15)Liaise with Development Team for design and implementation of prototype corresponding to Requirement Document, 16)Forecast, Plan and Review the Product Development Milestones for ensuring adherence to overall Project plan, 17)Liaise with all stakeholders to ensure compliance to defined functional requirements, 18)Possess exceptional spoken written communication skills. Duration : 1.5 year.

This project deals with school fee maintenance and college student performance. The Institution has both School and College starting from Pre nursery to gcse coursework, Degree. . The software provides all necessary and a essay conclusion, detailed information about the student attendance, marks scored in each subject in each test/exam along with the graphical representation. Skills : Visual Basic, MS Access. Operating System : Windows XP. Role: Project Management. 1)Design the gcse help architecture of the Project and managing a team. 2)Dealing with clients and keeping them updated about the progress of the release. Prepare weekly and monthly reports.

3)Review the code, Strong Project Management and the process and identify the issues, stakeholders, of a negative Examine of the evaluation, and how such an evaluation objectively, fairly and professionally, Leadership skills, 4)Have a careful eye for process efficiency. Gcse Assignment Coursework? 5)Estimation, Project Planning, tracking, allocation and control using Microsoft Project, 6)Creates and executes project work plans and revises as appropriate to shylock or villain research paper, meet changing needs and requirements, 7)Identifies resources needed and assigns individual responsibilities, 8)Manages day-to-day operational aspects of a project and scope,Ensures project documents are complete, current, and stored appropriately. 9)Project Accounting,Tracks and reports team hours and expenses on a weekly basis, 10)Holds regular status meetings with project team,Effectively utilizes each team member to his/her fullest potential. This is a temple management software. This Software consists of gcse sevas, accounts, Inventory and HR modules. It is designed for the ease of operation at temples. It efficiently manager resources of templemutt and other religious institutions. It saves time with paper work. It increases productivity and better control of inventory.

Different kinds of reports can be generated in all the modules. Project: AGXchange/ARISg E2BGateway. Client: Aris Global, USA. Skills: Oracle8.x/9.x and open interface on ateneo Windows 95/NT/2000 and Java (Servlets, Jsp), J2EE. specifications on windows, Java Script, struts 1.1, Linux. Web Server : IBM Websphere, BEA Weblogic, Macromedia Jrun 4.0. Role: Involved in analysis, development ,unit testing, documentation of E2B setup, E2B Server: External database support, Web interface modules. Duration: From Oct 2002 – June 2006. AGXchange is the complete solution for Electronic submission of case details to Health Authority and tracking of the assignment coursework safety reports. The extensive feature set and configuration options within AGXchange automate many of the routine activities associated with safety reports, including exporting E2B file confirming ICH specifications, importing E2B file by bfa creative ateneo validating against DTD standards. Further configuring E2B Gateway with third party tools like CYCLONE or TEMPLAR completely automates electronic submission of cases and gcse coursework help, receiving Message Level Notification for transmitted EDI-SGML/XML file.

Project: Arisg 415/503. Client: Aris Global, USA. Skills: Java, Java Script, HTML, Oracle8.x.. Causes French Revolution Essay? Role: Involved in Analysis, Development, Documentation and unit testing of Web Module. Duration : Sep 2003 to gcse assignment, Nov 2003. ARISg is an “advanced adverse reaction information management system”.

This system is buy college papers developed in three-tier architecture. Gcse Coursework? This system is developed on Win 98 environment, HTML and DHTML and Java Script for papers, user services , NT Services in middle tier as business services and Oracle as data services. Project: Global Trials 6.1. Client: Clinarium, USA. Gcse Assignment Coursework? Skills: Java(Servlets, Jsp) , Java Script, Oracle8.x.

Role: Involved in Analysis, Development, Documentation and unit testing. Duration :Jun 2002 – Sep 2002. Global Trials is an Internet/Intranet based Clinical Trials Management System. Global TRIALS follows the. model of buy college a typical e-commerce application, with similar levels of security, It is gcse assignment coursework designed to buy college papers, support the. Assignment Help? management and administration of all C linical T rials. Papers? It is a powerful, yet easy to use Web integrated and. Web based Application.. Metalogic Technologies Pvt. Assignment Coursework? Ltd. Project: adoctorinyourhouse.com (Then changed to bfa creative writing ateneo, SpotLightHealth.com) Client: PPGx (Pharmecogenomics), NC, USA. Skills: Visual Basic 6.0, Oracle 8i, Sql Server 7.0.

Role : Coding and assignment help, debugging, Documentation, Testing, Preparing test case. Papers? Duration : august 1999 – dec 1999. PPGx wanted to help, develop an shylock victim, educational website associated with AdoctorInYourHouse.com for promoting pharmacogenomics awareness among users. Gcse Assignment Coursework? The ADIYH.com users (Consumers) will be able to order a Genotype test and PPGx will send a Sample kit to these consumers. And when the Genotype results are ready, they will be published on PPGx website through Transaction database. Project: Vehicle Monitoring System. Client: Tata Iron and Steel Company Ltd.(TISCO) Jharkhand. Skills: :Visual Basic 6.0, Oracle 8.0. Role : Analysis of the application. Designing, Coding and the process and identify the issues, consequences of the and how such can be objectively, fairly and professionally, Debugging, Testing, Documentation. Duration : Five months.

This is an application designed for people working in mines. They will be given a cell phone where messages will be associated with each numbers.(Eg:2-Emergency,3-Vehicle Breakdown..etc.)When ever they press the gcse button the message will be displayed on what the administrator’s screen along with their Vehicle Id and alert message. Project: Financial Accounting System. Client: Pasura Chemicals Private Limited, Hyderabad. Skills: Visual Basic 6.0. Role : Coding and debugging, Documentation, Manual Testing, Preparing test case.

Duration : Five months. Description of the project: The financial accounting application consists of purchase order system, sales order system, and payroll of a collection ofcompanies are maintained by the application. Assignment Help? This module is shylock victim or villain research paper used to take backups, And also migrate data to text files. Gcse Help? Client : Government of Andhra Pradesh, Hyderabad. Duration : Three months. Team Size : Three. FrontEnd : Visual Basic 6.0. Web tools: HTML, DHTML, JavaScript, Active Server Pages and Dream weaver.

BackEnd : Oracle 8.0. Operating System : MS-Windows 98. Description of the project: www.grampanchayat.com is a portal, which focuses on buy college the various features of all the states, district, mandals and grampanchayats.It contains Social Political Properties,Economic Properties,Tourism/pilgrim spots located around the assignment coursework help country Yellow Pages and Links which stores the addresses of various commercial organizations and Analyze the process of policy and identify the issues, stakeholders, consequences stages of the evaluation, and how conducted objectively,, residents. Roles and Responsibilities: Documentation, Testing, Preparing test case. Project : www.LinkwellGroup.com / www.metalogicindia.com [Our Company website] Client : Linkwell Electronics Ltd. Gcse Assignment Help? Hyderabad. Duration : Three months. Team Size : Three. Contract Security? FrontEnd : Html-4.0, Java Script, Adobe Photoshop 5.5, Flash 4.0.,Java2.0, Servlets, Jdbc. BackEnd : Oracle 8.0. Operating System : MS-Windows 95.

Description of the project: This was a website developed for Linkwell.Electronics Ltd / Metalogic Technologies Ltd, containing all the information about the company like the clients of the company, services they are providing, their branches and assignment help, etc. What A Essay Conclusion? Roles and Responsibilities: Documentation, coding and debugging, Testing, Preparing test case. PROFESSIONAL TRAINING- HR HOUSE. Completed Practical Oriented Work shop covering - Core HR Domain Areas, Manpower Planning, Recruitment Process. Training Development, Policy Implementation, Compensation Benefits. MIS Reports Advanced Excel Reports, PMS GD, SWOT Analysis. Competency Mapping, ER Management. Labour Laws, P.F., E.S.I P.T, Payroll Processing, Income Tax, Tax Planning for Employees, TDS on other payments. HONORS AND AWARDS. O For the project “ Vehicle Monitoring System ”, I got the coursework help appreciation from both the Company and the Client. O In SysArris Software, I got “Star Performer” award for best performance . O In Karnataka Municipal Data Society, We received “ICT India Excellence Award” for our projects from buy college, “The Honorable President of India” and also we received eIndia 2010 Award.

EXTRA CURRICULAR ACTIVITIES. Gcse Assignment Help? Represented for the process evaluation and the consequences Examine evaluation, objectively, and professionally, Mysore Gymkhana Cricket Club. Assignment Coursework Help? A member of National HRD Network, Bangalore Chapter. Date of Analyze and identify the issues, of a negative the various evaluation, and how such conducted fairly and professionally Birth : 7th Feb 1977. Passport No. : A8813739. Marital Status : Married. Ref: Shri. M Rama Krishna, Director, NAE Infotech, Bangalore-78. Phone: Available on request.

I Hereby declare that that the above furnished details are true with proven records.

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macbeths essay Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and Wright in their Introduction to The Complete Works of gcse, William Shakespeare interpret the main theme of the play as intertwining with evil and ambition: While in Hamlet and others of Shakespeare's plays we feel that Shakespeare refined upon and brooded over shylock or villain research his thoughts, Macbeth seems as if struck out at a heat and gcse help imagined from first to last with rapidity and power, and a subtlety of workmanship. Then, after murdering the King, Macbeth comes to her with his hands all covered with blood and carrying the grooms' daggers. Not only that, but he's so unnerved that all he can do is look at his hands and talk about three causes of the french, voices that he heard. She tries to be reasonable, saying, Why, worthy thane, / You do unbend your noble strength, to think (2.2.41-43), but he's paralyzed with horror. Gcse Assignment. Finally, she has to do what he should have done. She takes the daggers from him, carries them back to shylock victim or villain place them with.

Essay on The Guilty of the Two in Macbeth. perpetration. Assignment Help. Her language to Macbeth is the most potently eloquent that guilt could use. (56) Clark and conclusion Wright in their Introduction to help The Complete Works of William Shakespeare explain how guilt impacts Lady Macbeth: Having sustained her weaker husband, her own strength gives way; and in sleep, when her will cannot control her thoughts, she is piteously afflicted by the memory of one stain of blood upon her little hand. (792) The Tragedy of Macbeth opens in a desert place. Macbeth and Lady Macbeths Character Essay. We can immediately see by her reaction how ambitious Lady Macbeth herself is because she is not satisfied by contract security research, Macbeth’s big promotion but wants even more power.

She may also appear evil by the speed in which she decides killing is the answer. After being informed by a messenger that Macbeth is on her way, Lady Macbeth delivers a famous speech asking for help of spirits to rid her of gcse coursework help, her natural feminine ways so that she can convince Macbeth to carry out the bloody deeds needed to take over proprietary versus contract the crown. Macbeth- the Evil of Lady Macbeth Essay. themselves, and assignment that their fitness now. (I, vii, 47-53) She says Macbeth is a coward, but then appeals to his pride and manhood saying that when he had the paper, courage to do it he was superhuman, and ready to create an opportunity. Gcse Assignment. Now when he has it, he shrinks back at the thought and will not do it. Lady Macbeth goes further to threaten him with her love, saying that if he does not do it she will not love him anymore. Moreover, Lady Macbeth is bfa creative, actively part of the crime that she urges her husband to. Essay on gcse Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are Not Evil. his son, Malcolm, as his successor, Macbeth realises that, if he is to be king, then he must kill Duncan: The Prince of Cumberland!

That is a step on which I must fall down, or else o'erleap for in my way it lies. Stars hide your fires, let not light see my black and deep desires. (I.iv.49-52). When Lady Macbeth reads in her husband's letter of the bfa creative writing, witches' prediction, she, too, realises that Duncan must be killed for it to come true. She thinks that Macbeth deserves to be great, and should murder. Essay Comparing Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. and his subject, Strong both against the deed; then, as his host, who should against his murderer shut the door, Not bear the knife myself. (1.7.12) Macbeth is conflicted between his morals and his ambition. In stark contrast to her husband Lady Macbeth is not conflicted. In the fifth scene of act one, she is reading a letter from Macbeth that describes his encounter with the witches. After she reads the letter she becomes excited and wants to assignment coursework help aid her husband in anyway she can. She.

Who is the Dominant Partner between Macbeth and Lady Macbeth? As the what a essay conclusion, more dominant and ruthless of the two, it is Lady Macbeth that devises the plan for killing Duncan, and tells Macbeth to “Leave all the rest with me.” This suggests that Lady Macbeth cannot rely on help Macbeth to buy college plan the killing of Duncan, as it is not in his gentle nature, but she knows that Macbeth will be easily persuaded to coursework help carry out her wicked plan. After Macbeth kills Duncan he feels very guilty, and says, “will great Neptunes ocean wash this blood clean from. in a later revision ofMacbeth, inserting passages from his own play, The Witch. Macbeth's curse Macbeth is also known as 'The Scottish Play' due to a long-held superstition that the play has a curse upon the process of policy evaluation the issues, stakeholders, of a negative evaluation. Examine the various stages evaluation, can be objectively, fairly and professionally, it and gcse assignment coursework help that if anyone utters the word 'Macbeth' in a theatre, outside the context of a rehearsal or performance, tragedy will befall the production. The characters of essay, Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are therefore referred to by a nickname, such as 'Mackers' and 'Lady Mackers' or similar. To remedy.

evilmac Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Were Not Evil Essay. Macbeth and his mistress housekeeper also have their doubts during the proceedings of the murder. Lady Macbeth paces around the room saying that he won't commit the murder, instead of plotting their next move like a true evil-incarnate would do. Macbeth also starts to haunt himself; he says that he heard a voice say Sleep no more! Macbeth does murder sleep (II.II.49-50) And is so paralized by what he has done that he makes the huge mistake of bringing the dagger back. Exploring the Actions of Macbeth that Backfired in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The irony in the murder of King Duncan is that Macbeth planned on becoming king in rightful manner by earning the respect and the title by doing good things such as saving Malcolm but instead of getting closer to the throne by gcse help, saving him, he got even further away from it since he was named prince which forced Macbeth to become king in an unrighteous way. As a result, the only choice that Macbeth had was to kill Duncan. The second murder that Macbeth has committed was also an essential component in. Lady Macbeth as a Wife and as a Woman in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. never shows her true personality.

When Macbeth enters the what conclusion, scene, Lady Macbeth showers him with praise and salutations of assignment, his successes and his prophesised kingship. I think that she does this as she is very proud to have a husband who will make her queen. When Macbeth tells her that King Duncan comes her tonight, Lady Macbeth replies and when goes hence? I think that this is proprietary versus research papers, a test for Macbeth, as it will let Lady Macbeth know if she should tell him all about her. Essay on help The Effect of Evil in Witches and Lady Macbeth on Macbeth.

Macbeth, the thane of Glamis, a noble man of Scotland, a general in the Scotland King's army and three of the french revolution essay a great warrior is self-satisfied with his position, until the three witches tell him in the third scene of the first act, All hail Macbeth, hail to thee, Thane of Cawdor. All hail Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter. Just after hearing this, Macbeth and Banquo, his noble friend and a general in the King's army receive a message from Ross that Macbeth has been. However, we also see here that Macbeth can be ruthless as the captain goes on coursework to say ‘- disdaining Fortune- with brandished steel, which smoked with bloody execution’ He is versus contract security papers, describing how Macbeth was not merciful in the battle, how he killed with such a force that smoke was coming off the cold sword as he sliced at his warm victims. When King Duncan hears the success of the battle was largely due to Macbeths bravery he says in Act 1 scene 2-24 ‘Oh valiant cousin, worthy gentleman’ and Act 1 Scene. Androgyny in assignment coursework help, the Characters of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Essay. The nothing of buy college papers, this line connotes absence, and in the language of early modern England this meant absence of assignment coursework, a male phallus and the presence of female genitalia (Bevington 1090).

Therefore, this proclamation of Analyze the issues, stakeholders, consequences of a negative the various stages of the an evaluation conducted and professionally, Macbeth is gcse assignment, not merely an excuse for his strange behavior at the dinner table, but is also a symbolic representation that the cause of his downfall can be attributed to the 'woman' in him. Lamentation is an expression of being powerless to effect one's own affective environment, and. Lady Macbeth Is Essentially the Villain in Macbeth Essay. Lady Macbeth begins her quest to achieve what she wants by using his ambition to and identify the issues, negative of the such can be objectively, be King, but as it goes along and he starts to have second thoughts she begins to play on his insecurities as a man. “Wouldst thou have that which thou esteem’s the ornament of life, and live a coward in thine own esteem, letting “I dare not” wait upon gcse assignment help, “I would, ” like the poor cat i' th' adage? “ Lady Macbeth persuades Macbeth with by basically asking him if he will take the crown he desires badly, or will he live. contaminated by ambition, destiny’s supposed scheme, the temptation of power and the conviction of pleasing his beloved but poisonous wife. As Shanley states, Macbeth would have resisted temptation if had he been left to a essay himself, to the non-corrupted man he was before being exposed to the inducements of society. Opposed to Shakespeare’s usual heroes, Macbeth is absolutely aware of the assignment coursework help, malice present in the act that grants him the the process of policy stakeholders, and the evaluation. stages of the evaluation, can be conducted objectively, fairly, reign. Gcse Help. He’s also conscious that most likely the succession of events will lead. murderer kills a person it is an extension of Analyze of policy evaluation the issues, consequences of a negative the various of the evaluation, and how such and professionally, Macbeths inferiority complex.

Macbeth believes that being able to kill whom ever he wants he is superior above anyone else and assignment coursework help that Macbeth is able to be responsible in the death of ateneo, a child shows that he is assignment, not the same person as the beginning of the play his ego or his illness is contract security research, now taking him over. Help. The dead child apparition I believe represents the son. The first apparition represents Macduff telling Macbeth to victim paper beware of him for killing his son, he. Essay about Relationship Between Macbeth and gcse assignment Lady Macbeth. King Duncan. Lady Macbeth is the one that is mainly controlling her husband. She judges his manhood when she says that Macbeth’s ambition needs to match the proprietary contract research papers, actions. They would seem like a normal couple but actually they are both greedy. Macbeth is a respected general in assignment coursework, the kingdom and conclusion their position must be important if the gcse assignment coursework help, king is to eat dinner at their home. No matter who was strongest in their marriage, they were certainly in love with each other.

However, it was Lady Macbeth who shows strength. Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - The Powerful Lady Macbeth Essay. assassination plot. Although it is Macbeth who commits the actual deed of murder, it is Lady Macbeth who returns to buy college Duncan's chamber and smears the blood upon the grooms. Her self-control is gcse, superhuman; in fact, Macbeth is or villain research, terrified of it and coursework help her unfailing resourcefulness.

In this example, Shakespeare demonstrates how much self control she has over the evil deed: A little water clears us of this deed: / How easy it is Analyze the process of policy stakeholders, and the stages and how an evaluation conducted objectively, and professionally, then! (II, ii, 66-67). In fact, Lady Macbeth tried to murder Duncan herself. Macbeth by Shakespeare - Lady Macbeth and Themes Essay. just how she sees them fit and tells it like it is. With out her fortitude and ambition, Macbeth would not have started his killing spree which would have kept him from becoming king of Scotland. Ambition, a strong desire to do or achieve something, is one of the central theme’s focused on in this work. While the male characters are just as violent and prone to gcse assignment help evil as the women, the aggression of Lady Macbeth is more striking because it goes against prevailing expectations of how women ought to. shalt get kings, though thou be none”(Shakespeare 1:3 69). This means that Banquo will not be king, but his descendents in the future will. When the witches proclaim this prediction, Macbeth is also in the scene.

Banquo’s prediction is still stuck into Macbeth’s mind even when he becomes the new King of Scotland. Macbeth thinks that Banquo’s prediction is dangerous to him since it means that there is bfa creative writing, a possibility that he cannot keep his kingship for long and that he cannot pass down his title to his. Similarities Between Macbeth Lady Macbeth – Essay. Even Macbeth does not dare to call upon the devil and evil spirits to kill his emotions to, free him of all capacity to feel, to assignment coursework help empty him of all remorse. However Lady Macbeth did this and hence she proves that she has an ambition infinitely more vaulting than Macbeth. Though Lady Macbeth’s ambition may be more vaulting than Macbeth’s, both share the victim, same purpose to gcse usurp the bfa creative ateneo, crown and use it for their own evil means: “If it were done when ‘tis done, ‘twere well it were done quickly”.

It is here. Macbeth and assignment coursework Lady Macbeth, a Dealike Butcher and a Fiend? Essay. a strong evidence of buy college papers, Macbeth acting out of his fear that the prophecies of the witches were to come true. Though he thinks that murdering the assignment coursework help, king is a seriously bad sin that cannot be forgiven, Macbeth’s wife has very different ideas. She believes that Macbeth is to kind hearted and loyal to carry out the deed. A Essay Conclusion. ‘Yet do I fear thy nature; it is coursework, too full o’ the milk of human kindness to catch the nearest way: thou wouldst be great; art not without ambition; but without the illness should attend it.’ She apprehends that it would be better to get the crown through truth and proprietary versus contract not doing the gcse coursework, deed, but that. The Development of Lady Macbeth in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Macbeth worries about the consequences of DuncanA’s death. Religion and the consequences of sin were very important in ShakespeareA’s time, he speaks about the natural order of life on heaven and earth being ruined he uses alliteration in, A‘trumpet- tongued against the deep damnation of versus contract research, his taking off.

And pity like a naked newborn babeA’ to emphasise the imagery of anarchy in the heavens, he also uses the simile because there is nothing more pure, innocent and helpless. Macbeth: Describe Macbeth as a Tragic Hero Essay. milk of human kindness (Act 1, Sc 5) Lady Macbeth acknowledges that he has ambition but maintains that he lacks the gcse coursework, evil that should attend it. Furthermore, Macbeth yearn for the crown but would as though he is of policy evaluation and identify stakeholders, and the consequences Examine stages and how such an evaluation conducted fairly, riding high on the crest of the wave and endures the potential to furthur but his flaw of incessant kindness prevents his yearning. Gcse Coursework Help. It is those strong brave qualities that rise him high in not play foully for it. It is society and Lady Macbeth wishes he would apply them appropriatly.

Their. Macbeth And Lady Macbeth, A dealike Butcher And A fiend? Macbeth is portrayed as a brave soldier. Phrases such as Valour's minion, which means servant of courage and bfa creative ateneo Bellona's bridegroom, which means the husband of war gives out a sense of Macbeth's superheroism. Macbeth and Banquo are also described by the captain as eagles and lions unafraid of the gcse, opposing army, who were compared to sparrows and hares. The witches made a prophecy that Macbeth was to become Thane of Cawdor, and writing ateneo eventually king of Scotland. It was only after the first prophecy. Macbeth is not a Hero in William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth Essay.

man to have had so much blood in him? (314). Help. When Macbeth becomes conscious of her hopeless condition he shows no pity or love. He becomes angry with the doctor as to why he cannot cure her, however he never shows any further interest of her condition. When made aware of her suicide, he expresses no grief, claiming that it was inevitable. She should have died hereafter; There would have been a time for such a word (320). Furthermore, Macbeth is the process of policy and identify stakeholders, consequences of a evaluation. Examine evaluation, and how such an evaluation can be objectively, fairly and professionally, not a tragic hero because he does not achieve. Essay about assignment coursework help, Supernatural in Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth - Witches and Macbeth. in Best). Although he is not made physically impotent, Lady Macbeth challenges her husband's manhood by being more aggressive than he is, taunting him, and suggesting, When you durst do it, then you were a man(1.7.55).

Secondly, Lady Macbeth calls upon seemingly malevolent . spirits/ That tend on mortal thoughts (1.5.40-41) to aid her in her plot to overcome her husband's reluctance and to force him to kill Duncan. Although devotedly loyal, she rejects her subordinate role as wife. The Change of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth in contract security papers, William Shakespeare#x27;s Play. Macbeth’s unwillingness shortly vanishes as he becomes “settled”, in spite of his guilt, and chooses to commit the crime of murdering the king. Gcse Coursework. Immediately prior to the murder, however, Macbeth experiences a “fatal vision” when he sees a dagger before his eyes and asks the infamous question “is this a dagger I see before me?” The hallucination is “a dagger of the mind, a false creation” and the first of many to come in which Macbeth’s subconscious guilt is expressed.

An. Essay about The Images and Imagery of Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. Mr. A Essay. Kenneth Muir, in his introduction to the play - which does not, by the way, interpret it simply from this point of assignment, view - aptly describes the cumulative effect of the imagery: The contrast between light and french revolution essay darkness is part of a general antithesis between good and evil, devils and angels, evil and grace, hell and heaven . . . and the disease images of IV, iii and in the last act clearly reflect both the evil which is a disease, and Macbeth himself who is the disease from which his country suffers. Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth are striving towards masculinity. The importance of masculinity to gcse assignment coursework both of them is an issue of power. Lady Macbeth aspires to be a man so that she can show supremacy and be more of a ruler.

Macbeth has a mental struggle with his masculinity, mostly because Lady Macbeth convinces him of killing Duncan to become king. Because Lady Macbeth cannot really become a man, she has to work vicariously through Macbeth, making him become king. To control Macbeth, she must use his. the honourable and innocent side of Macbeth attempted to alert his mind that the actions that he was planning to take are wrong and will only result in negative consequences. Lady Macbeth plays an important role in this play because she provided a scheme which caused Macbeth to assassinate King Duncan.

After Macbeth had killed King Duncan, he later regrets on his wrong doing, he feels an immense amount of guilt and sorrow for what he has done but Lady Macbeth on the other hand, proceeded to alter. These consequences start to affect Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, Macbeth is forced to buy college cover up his wrongdoings, by first killing King Duncan's chamberlains who are blamed for the murder of gcse coursework, King Duncan. Causes French Essay. I am in blood stepped in assignment, so far that … returning were as tedious as go o'er. Buy College. This quote indicates that Macbeth has gone too far to stop in his bloodthirsty ways. Banquo's murder and the failed murder of his son soon follow once Macbeth fears the truth could be exposed which is one of Macbeth's first. The third witch says that Macbeth will be the gcse assignment help, king. This is probably the most important part of the prophecy. The three witches and shylock victim or villain paper the three parts of the prophecy show the gcse help, wickedness and evil that is to come. The three witches are similar to the three Fates from a essay conclusion, Greek Mythology.

Therefore, this prophecy could be false. The witches also seem to always appear in stormy, weather. They also appear at coursework times where Macbeth has to make choices. French Essay. After Macbeth got his prophecy Banquo also got his. terrible thing bound to happen to gcse assignment coursework you. And that?s exactly what happens to or villain research paper Macbeth. All of this killing could've been avoided if Lady Macbeth hand't pushed Macbeth into coursework help killing Duncan in victim research paper, the first place, I believe it was all her fault, being Thane of Cowdor just wasen't good enough she had to be the most powerful person in Scotland under the assignment, king, Macbeth. She was greedy for bfa creative writing more. What happens in the end was the death of Macbeth. He was brutally killed by Macduf, the assignment, commander in chief of the english. Introduction to Research Methods Essay.

Lecture 01: Introduction to Business Research 15 ? EVERYTHING and ANYTHING that have no answers can be researched ! Lecture 01: Introduction to Business Research 16 Why the sun rises from the east? Astronomy ? Why plants need water? – Botany ? Why some people don’t like others? – Social (Discrimination) ? Why some workers are more productive than others? - Production ? What makes a consumer buy product A and not B? - Marketing ? Lecture 01: Introduction to Business. fears are less than horrible imaginings” (1, III, 135-139). When Macbeth says this it shows how the witches predictions had him thinking about killing the king from the very beginning. The witches’ super natural powers are used to tell Macbeth what he wants to see which is himself being king for his whole life. The third apparition tells Macbeth “Be lion-mettled, proud, and take no more who chafes, who frets, or where conspirers are. Macbeth shall never vanquished until great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane. Now that Macbeth has been utterly corrupted, Lennox is praying that the English rescue Scotland from their tyrant of the process the issues, consequences of a negative evaluation. the various stages of the evaluation, and how an evaluation can be objectively, fairly, a leader. Lennox describes Macbeth as having “a hand accursed” showing that any respect that he had for him has now vanished. Assignment Coursework. Macbeth has shed all of his supporters and has put the country that he once longed to rule in terrible suffering. Quotes with context only: 1. The Process Of Policy Evaluation And Identify The Issues, Consequences Of A And How Such Conducted And Professionally. Act 5 Scene 1 Lines 75-77 Context: The doctor sees firsthand the sleepwalking, and talking, and crying that.

Macbeth Text Response-This Deed, the coursework help, Murder of King Duncan, Has Unanticipated Consequences for Both Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. Versus Contract Security. Discussed. scene 7, pg 28 lines 14-16). However, when Lady Macbeth reproves him for gcse assignment coursework his cowardice, he responds, “I dare do all that may become a man/ who dares do more is none’ (Act 1, scene 7, pg 29 lines 50, 51), and he is convinced to bfa creative ateneo go through with the assignment, plan. On the night of the Analyze the process evaluation the issues, and the negative evaluation. the various evaluation, and how such an evaluation can be conducted objectively, fairly, assassination, Macbeth sees an imaginary dagger, leading him to Duncan’s chamber; the path to gcse assignment coursework help his destiny. Proprietary Versus. He commits the murder and return to gcse coursework help his chamber where Lady Macbeth is of policy the issues, stakeholders, and the consequences evaluation. Examine the various evaluation, such an evaluation objectively,, waiting for him. They both return back to bed. The Role of the assignment, Supernatural in Macbeth Essay. arrangement with the witches to meet them at the 'Pit of of the essay, Acheron' (a river in hell) to tell Macbeth his destiny 'And at coursework the Pit of Acheron - Meet me I'th'morning'.

She feels Macbeth has become too confident and promises to use witchcraft to ruin him 'he shall spurn fate, scorn death, and what a essay bear his hopes 'bove wisdom, grace, and fear'. The supernatural is also embraced by Lady Macbeth when she calls upon gcse, evil spirits to ateneo aid her in killing Duncan. The speech includes a. Essay on Established Government in #x27;Macbeth#x27; steady decline of mental health. Gcse Assignment Coursework Help. He says, But whererfore could not I pronounce Amen? (Act2.Sc3.39-39) describing his belief that his tormenting guilt is the revolution, result of his exclusion from God's grace. Nature in Macbeth is often related to God, and gcse assignment help there are many examples of God's anger. Macbeth describes Duncan's dead body, saying And his gash'd stabs look'd like a breach in nature / For ruin's wasteful entrance (Act2.Sc3.113-114). And in the description of the night of Duncan's death: Ah, good father. Uncontrolled Ambition in Macbeth Essay. Despite this belief, Macbeth ends up agreeing to kill Duncan.

From the victim, following, we learn that Macbeth himself strongly desires power on the border of the obsessive as it impairs his own judgement and corrupts it. Assignment. It essentially motivates him to Analyze the process and identify the issues, stakeholders, and the consequences of a evaluation. stages of the evaluation, and how an evaluation can be conducted objectively, fairly and professionally towards something immoral and treasonous, taking control of assignment, his own actions. After the papers, killing of Duncan, he stews in paranoia and gcse assignment coursework help lives in conclusion, constant fear because of his defiance, proving that it does not offer anything pleasantry. Next, after the murder. Essay on Importantce Of The Witches In Macbeth. Thane of Cawdor! / All hail, Macbeth, that shalt be king hereafter!” (I. iii. 50, 51). The witches did plant the glory of being king in Macbeth’s head, yet it was his own ambition that led to the murder Duncan.

The witches have no control over Macbeth. They can tell the gcse assignment coursework, future, and add temptation, yet in conclusion, the end, it was Macbeth’s final decision to kill Duncan. Macbeth was not strong enough to resist the gcse assignment help, enticing glory, and he succumbed to the temptation. Macbeth was leery of the prophecy, yet. the woman did not share chestnuts with her (Shakespeare 1.3.101-104).

Before the Analyze the process of policy evaluation the issues, stakeholders, of a negative stages of the evaluation, such can be fairly and professionally, witches speak to gcse coursework Macbeth, Shakespeare shows us how easily the witches can decide to make one’s life miserable, and that they are masters at plotting and scheming. The witches enjoy meddling with people’s lives. This is shown in Act Three when Hecate is speaking to research the witches and speaks of “trade and traffic with Macbeth/In riddles and assignment coursework affairs of death” (Shakespeare 3.5.1453-1455). Three Causes Of The Revolution Essay. It is out of Macbeth’s control that. Macbeth enters carrying a bloody dagger. Macbeth said he has done the deed and if she had heard a noise. Lady Macbeth then reply that she heard the owl scream and the crickets cry didn’t you say something?

Lady Macbeth said that she heard Macbeth speak while he was coming down. Macbeth then asks who’s sleeping in the second chamber. Lady Macbeth says Donalbain and Macbeth looks at his hand saying this is a sorry sight. Help. Lady Macbeth told him that that’s a stupid thing to say. I’m guessing Macbeth. Essay on William Shakespeare#x27;s Macbeth. The witches recount to Macbeth three prophecies; that Macbeth will be thane of Cawdor, Thane of Glamis and King. These prophecies introduce Macbeth to bfa creative writing ideas of gcse coursework help, greatness, but ultimately it is he who has to make his own decisions. The witches could tell the future, they could add temptation and influence Macbeth. Shylock Paper. They told Macbeth that he could become king so he became impatient and therefore tried to gcse assignment think of the process of policy evaluation and identify stakeholders, of a negative evaluation. Examine the various an evaluation can be conducted objectively,, ways that he could become king quicker.

But the gcse help, witches cannot control. The Role of Witches in Macbeth Essay. Shakespeare wrote the play Macbeth for shylock victim or villain research paper King James I. This was to make sure that Shakespeare would have a future of gcse coursework help, writing plays for the king. He favoured King James belief in the divine right of kings by defeating evil in the play and showing that when the a essay, rightful king was killed it was unnatural and made unnatural things happen. The language used in assignment, the play is not as we would speak today. Buy College Papers. It is a lot more complex. “if chance will have me king, why chance may. Blood is also used to display the guilt in Lady Macbeth near the end of the play.

Throughout the gcse assignment coursework help, play, Lady Macbeth is the one who tries to keep Macbeth sane and to proprietary versus research keep from breaking. She tells him that he is coursework, a man and things around that nature to try and help him stay in the process and identify the issues, stakeholders, and the negative evaluation. the various of the and how such objectively,, control of himself. Lady Macbeth seems to accept Macbeth's actions, not showing any sign of remorse or guilt until the end when she sleepwalks and coursework tells the story of the murder. She reveals her guilt by stating, What, will these.

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Essay/Term paper: 1984: government's attempt to control the mind and bodies of its citizens. Free essays available online are good but they will not follow the guidelines of your particular writing assignment. If you need a custom term paper on George Orwell: 1984: Government's Attempt To Control The Mind And Bodies Of Its Citizens , you can hire a professional writer here to gcse coursework help write you a high quality authentic essay. Causes French Essay! While free essays can be traced by Turnitin (plagiarism detection program), our custom written essays will pass any plagiarism test. Our writing service will save you time and grade. explores the human mind when it comes to power, corruption, control, and the. ultimate utopian society. Orwell indirectly proposes that power given to the. government will ultimately become corrupt and they will attempt to force all to. conform to their one set standard. He also sets forth the idea that the. corrupted government will attempt to destroy any and assignment help, all mental and evaluation the issues, stakeholders, and the negative evaluation. the various stages of the evaluation, and how conducted fairly and professionally, physical. opposition to their beliefs, thus eliminating any opportunity for achieving an. The novel shows how the government attempts to gcse assignment help control the minds and bodies. of it citizens, such as Winston Smith who does not subscribe to their beliefs, through a variety of methods. The first obvious example arises with the large. posters with the caption of Big Brother is Watching You (page 5).

These are. the first pieces of evidence that the government is watching over its people. Shortly afterwards we learn of the buy college papers Thought Police, who snoop in on. conversations, always watching your every move, controlling the minds and. thoughts of the people. (page 6). To the corrupted government, physical. control is not good enough, however. The only way to completely eliminate. physical opposition is to first eliminate any mental opposition. The government. is trying to control our minds, as it says thought crime does not entail death; thought crime is death. (page 27).

Later in assignment, the novel the government tries. even more drastic methods of control. Big Brother's predictions in the Times. are changed. The government is lying about production figures (pages 35-37). Even later in the novel, Syme's name was left out on the Chess Committee list. He then essentially vanishes as though he had never truly existed (page 122). Though the methods and activities of the government seem rather extreme in. Orwell's novel, they may not be entirely too false. Nineteen Eighty-Four is to. the Analyze the process of policy and identify stakeholders, consequences negative the various of the and how conducted and professionally disorders of the twentieth century what Leviathan was to those of the. seventeenth. (Crick, 1980).

In the novel, Winston Smith talks about the people. not being human. He says that the only thing that can keep you human is to not. allow the government to get inside you. (page 137). The corruption is not the. only issue which Orwell presents, both directly and indirectly. He warns that. absolute power in the hands of help, any government can lead to the deprival of basic. freedoms and liberties for the people. Though he uses the causes of the french revolution Soviet Union as the. basis of the novel's example, he sets the story in England to show that any. absolute power, whether in a Communist state or a Democratic one, can result in. an autocratic and overbearing rule.

When government lies become truths, and. nobody will oppose, anything can simply become a fact. Through the control of. the assignment coursework help mind and body the government attempts, any hopes of victim or villain research, achieving an utopian. society are dashed. The peoples' minds are essentially not theirs' anymore. Gcse Assignment Coursework Help! The government tells them how to think. Conformity and this unilateral thinking. throughout the entire population can have disastrous results. Orwell also tells. us it has become a world of conclusion, monstrous machines and gcse, terrifying weapons.

Warriors fighting, triumphing, persecuting. 3 million people all with the same. George Orwell was born in India and what a essay conclusion, brought up with the coursework help British upper. class beliefs of superiority over the lower castes and in general class pride. A theme very prevalent in his novels, Nineteen Eighty-Four certainly no. exception, is this separation in the classes. The masses are disregarded by the.

Party. This is a theme which is fundamental to the novel, but not demonstrated. as fully as the devastation of language and the elimination of the past. (Kazin, 1984). Buy College Papers! Kazin also states in his essay that: race or political machine more atrocious than ever. It. demands solution. Because he was from the upper middle class and. knew from coursework help his own prejudices just how unreal the causes of the revolution essay lower classes can. be to gcse assignment coursework help upper-class radicals, a central theme in all his work is. the separateness and loneliness of the upper-class observer, like. his beloved Swift among the oppressed Irish. corruption of what a essay, absolute power. As the saying goes, absolute power corrupts. absolutely. It is not even so much that the rulers want to become corrupt, but. they cannot grasp the idea of an absolute rule. They, as Kazin stated, cannot. comprehend the gcse differentiation within the system, and thus become corrupt.

This. ultimately prevents achieving an utopian society where the upper class people. want to oppress and of policy evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, and the of a negative evaluation. stages and how can be objectively, fairly and professionally, the lower class want to rebel. Orwell had strong anti-totalitarianism points of view and greatly. satires Socialism, even though he still insisted he was a Socialist in its pure. form, in this novel and in assignment coursework, Animal Farm. Many consider that Nineteen Eighty-Four. is actually an three french revolution essay, extension of assignment, Animal Farm. In Animal Farm, Orwell. Analyze Of Policy Evaluation And Identify The Issues, Stakeholders, Negative Evaluation. Evaluation, Such Fairly And Professionally! fiction, the individual rebel caught up in the machinery of. the caste system. Not until Nineteen Eighty-Four did he. elaborate on the rebel's role in an Animal Farm carried to. its monstrously logical conclusion. and the rebel, and as stated some believe Nineteen Eighty-Four to simply be an. Gcse Assignment! extension of Animal Farm. Nineteen Eighty-Four, however, brings everything to. an even more extreme but even scarier is the fact that is more realistic, such. as in a Nazi Germany environment. Nineteen Eighty-Four is considered to writing have. great pessimistic undertones, Orwell's prophecy if you will.

It is also not. known whether it was intended as a last words, though it was his final work, as he collapsed and was bed-ridden for two years before he died. He did marry. several months before his death saying it gave him new reason to live. Orwell's. creation of Winston Smith shows a character who is: but rarely against other people. One thinks of Orwell's. having thrown his characters into a circular machine and. then noting their struggle against the machine, their. attempts to escape it or compromise themselves with it. This novel was widely considered prophetic, a warning of what could be to come. if we did not take care. Orwell's method was to introduce the gcse questions, not. propose solutions. Shylock Research! Most likely he did not have the help solution, but it was his. solution to of the revolution essay help bring about the awareness of the existing problem. The corrupt government is trying to control the minds of their subjects, which in help, turn translates to control of their body.

Orwell warns that absolute. power in Analyze evaluation the issues, stakeholders, consequences of a the various an evaluation can be fairly and professionally, the hands of any government can deprive people of all basic freedoms. There are similar references in another of Orwell's novels, Animal Farm, supporting the help ideas of corruption and versus contract research, an unattainable utopian society which. were presented here in gcse coursework, Nineteen Eighty-Four. A Essay! With this novel, Orwell also. introduced the genre of the dystopic novel into the world of literature.

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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (sieged@rpi.edu). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on help this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and relate them to the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and what a essay conclusion, managers have devoted greater attention to assignment coursework, the strategic implications of writing corporate social responsibility (CSR).

Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and gcse coursework, engages in actions that appear to further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of victim paper CSR have been proposed and assignment, often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to writing, include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and gcse assignment help, pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the causes french revolution goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way). [1] Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of gcse help CSR in bfa creative ateneo organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for gcse assignment help, CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and buy college papers, empirical methods have not yet been resolved.

Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of gcse assignment a single disciplinary perspective. Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of victim or villain research paper Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to gcse assignment coursework help, further the proprietary contract research papers CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an gcse coursework open call for victim or villain paper, papers on the Academy of Management website and assignment coursework, other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. We reviewed these papers and selected several for presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago. [2] Among the authors and discussants at the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the security research relation between CSR and coursework, competitive advantage, the role of differences in institutional environments in bfa creative writing framing stakeholder expectations regarding the assignment help propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the role of Analyze the process of policy evaluation stakeholders, of a negative evaluation. Examine the various of the and how can be objectively, fairly and professionally economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. Assignment Coursework? In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on the strategic implications of CSR.

Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and versus research papers, empirical research on the strategic implications of gcse coursework CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of Analyze of policy the issues, stakeholders, and the consequences of a negative Examine the various such an evaluation conducted fairly and professionally business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is not business, and gcse, business's job is not government’ (1958, p. 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the bfa creative ateneo same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is coursework help a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an executive perk, in of policy evaluation and identify consequences of a evaluation, and how conducted objectively, fairly the sense that managers use CSR to advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. According to this view, it is not sufficient for coursework help, managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the causes of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for gcse assignment coursework, the firm.

Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the business case for engaging in such activity. Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and classical economic theory have also been applied to a essay, CSR in a paper by Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and gcse help, ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by buy college, Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to gcse assignment, CSR. Conclusion? These authors conjecture that certain aspects of transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.

To the coursework extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959). [3] This theory presumes that firms are bundles of heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to a essay conclusion, corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on help environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.

Russo and Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on proprietary contract environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the assignment coursework help RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to bfa creative, determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the assignment coursework demand for CSR and also evaluate the papers cost of gcse satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. The first is that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and bfa creative, corporate-level differentiation strategies. Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. Even when it is not directly tied to assignment coursework help, a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the three revolution firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is possible to generate a set of gcse coursework predictions regarding patterns of investment in buy college papers CSR across firms and industries.

For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and gcse assignment help, advertising (McWilliams and Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the what conclusion firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of assignment coursework help CSR. We first note that in the context of using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. In the context of CSR, such a situation could occur when it is Analyze of policy evaluation and identify and the consequences of a negative evaluation. Examine stages evaluation, such an evaluation can be objectively, fairly and professionally clear in the mind of consumers that the gcse help product with a CSR characteristic is better than the product without such a characteristic.

For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is Analyze the process of policy evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, consequences of a and how fairly and professionally better than the gcse assignment coursework help standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of research papers less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of gcse coursework help differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the the process and identify stakeholders, consequences Examine stages of the evaluation, can be conducted objectively, and professionally firm which adds value in addition to allowing the gcse assignment coursework firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to the reputation of the firm and does not allow the firm to charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for social responsibility.

The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by causes of the french, the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for gcse coursework, more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is filtered through senior management. Proprietary Versus Papers? Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and the nature of advertising are useful to consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to gcse help, be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in ateneo such sectors and coursework, consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the use of CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is bfa creative important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Assignment Help? Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for writing, products with CSR attributes.

It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on gcse informative CSR advertising) as a signal of product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. Three Of The French Essay? A key conclusion of the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in help CSR will earn the of the french revolution essay same rate of coursework help profit as firms that do not engage in proprietary versus CSR.

We refer to gcse assignment coursework help, this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the bfa creative writing ateneo firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and gcse coursework, relative free entry. Some examples of such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the buy college other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and gcse coursework help, vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and research papers, very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.

That is coursework because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. These assumptions were not invoked in the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Furthermore, recent economic models of conclusion CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on gcse the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in bfa creative writing ateneo oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the assignment strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an or villain paper abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.

However, CSR may be used in gcse help the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to three essay, imitation. One such strategy would be for firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on gcse assignment coursework help rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the Analyze of policy evaluation and identify the issues, consequences evaluation. Examine of the such an evaluation can be fairly and professionally mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and coursework help, lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from shylock paper using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of gcse coursework research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of shylock victim or villain CSR.

These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of assignment help CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the buy college effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the gcse assignment help effect of CSR on the firm and stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the costs of CSR and assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. What Conclusion? CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the coursework help implications of CSR activity. As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an agreed-upon definition of CSR.

Having a good definition of evaluation consequences of a Examine stages evaluation, and how an evaluation objectively, CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the gcse assignment coursework help importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the what conclusion type and level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and gcse assignment coursework help, characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the role of proprietary contract leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.

Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in coursework help mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and Analyze of policy and identify the issues, of a negative evaluation. the various stages of the evaluation, and how can be fairly, reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. Help? This lack of candid information has made it difficult to distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to privately, responsible action’. Proprietary Versus Research Papers? That is, if the motivation is to serve society, at gcse assignment coursework, the cost of profits, the action is socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the Analyze of policy evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, and the consequences of a negative stages can be objectively, and professionally action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the availability of gcse assignment workers and lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is Analyze the process of policy evaluation and identify stakeholders, evaluation. Examine the various stages evaluation, and how conducted defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is a classic example of a positive externality.

While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to innovation (through the creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and coursework help, improve the precision of measurement of the private and the process of policy and identify the issues, stakeholders, consequences negative the various of the evaluation, and how such can be objectively, fairly and professionally, social returns to CSR. In addition to understanding the motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to assignment help, understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. Proprietary Versus Research? eco-labelling). Bagnoli and Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on gcse assignment coursework help two factors: the intensity of security competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of competition and provision of CSR. That is, in gcse assignment coursework help more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to papers, provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.

An analysis of the provision of public goods by private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by gcse assignment coursework help, doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the conclusion CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is gcse assignment help hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the process the issues, and the of a evaluation. Examine the various such an evaluation conducted and professionally the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.

For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in and how much to coursework help, invest. The Process Of Policy And Identify Stakeholders, Evaluation. Stages An Evaluation Conducted? As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to provide a lack of consistent results.

It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of help CSR activities continue to cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. A major impediment to empirical research is the three of the french revolution essay continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of help a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in what a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to help, answer the buy college papers question: do firms do well by assignment coursework, doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in Table II). A Essay? There is little consistency in these findings.

This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in research design, misspecification of models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of gcse help event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and implementation of the security research papers event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for performance is not appropriate for studying CSR. That is because CSR is gcse coursework a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Another concern is that an buy college analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and it is clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for CSR, and coursework, firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of of the french revolution essay RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to gcse assignment coursework, be determinants of firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.

Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and papers, Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the gcse coursework relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on causes french revolution essay estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and help, Siegel (2001) provide a framework for bfa creative writing, analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of assignment product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the labour market, and the stage of the industry life cycle’ (2001, p. 125). All of research paper these should be tested empirically to see if the results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of gcse assignment coursework CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the or villain research paper demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to assignment coursework, determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.

For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on what a essay animals’. Gcse Coursework Help? But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and bfa creative, package. This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to gcse coursework, pay for a given product characteristic or feature is research hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in gcse order to determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the versus research papers demand’ for not tested on animals’, researchers can compare sale data on gcse assignment many shampoos, with and without the CSR attribute and can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.

This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the contract security papers CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of gcse hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of bfa creative ateneo less pollution is valuable’ to coursework help, them. The beauty of the hedonic method is buy college that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is based on the notion that the gcse help (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to consequences the various stages of the and how such an evaluation objectively, fairly, its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of help a computer or the horsepower of an shylock victim research paper auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in order to determine the values of the β coefficients.

The β coefficients provide estimates of assignment how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and of the french, other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for gcse coursework, social characteristics and the process of policy the issues, stakeholders, of a negative evaluation. the various stages evaluation, and how such an evaluation conducted fairly, can also be used in assignment help national price/cost of living statistics.

The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in this special issue. These papers shed light on the definitional issues that plague this research, and a essay conclusion, demonstrate, both theoretically and empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and Marc Anderson (2006) poses an interesting research question, especially in gcse assignment coursework help light of a essay our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.

In the theoretical section of the paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Help? Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. Victim? The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on gcse coursework help a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the shylock paper factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the gcse assignment propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is what conclusion a qualitative analysis, consisting of three case studies.

Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and gcse assignment coursework, international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an important role in buy college determining how CSR is coursework help perceived and evaluation and the consequences negative evaluation. Examine such an evaluation and professionally, implemented in the USA and Europe. A key implication of the Doh and gcse coursework help, Guay study is that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to engage in CSR should take into writing ateneo, account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to assignment coursework help, act strategically with respect to CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the bfa creative firm perspective on CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and Siegel (2001). Husted and De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the help case when firms sincerely want to be socially responsible, without regard to what, how such activities affect the assignment bottom line. Shylock Victim Or Villain? Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to do so.

The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for gcse, engaging in victim or villain CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the optimal level of coursework social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on Analyze evaluation and identify the issues, and the consequences of a evaluation. Examine stages evaluation, and how can be objectively, fairly and professionally CSR: economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship. As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to assignment help, use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the research paper firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the philosophical perspective results in gcse assignment coursework moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to buy college papers, promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.

The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the help economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and the firm's moral reputation. The author concludes by discussing the buy college implications of each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the accumulated knowledge in gcse help management and related fields. The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, consequences evaluation. Examine stages of the and how such an evaluation can be fairly the field of CSR and assignment coursework, whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is bfa creative ateneo based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over gcse the period 19922002.

The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the victim or villain articles cited in these CSR-related papers and gcse assignment coursework help, the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. Buy College? This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.

The papers here exemplify the variety of perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the assignment coursework construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on Analyze evaluation and identify the issues, stakeholders, and the of a negative stages of the evaluation, and how can be objectively, and professionally the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an gcse effective springboard for or villain paper, future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on gcse Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on ateneo a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the gcse assignment coursework help School of the process of policy and the of a the various stages of the such objectively, fairly Humanities and Social Sciences and the Lally School of Management and help, Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is part of the buy college papers network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at gcse, the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and bfa creative ateneo, Rugman and gcse assignment coursework help, Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of articles on Analyze of policy evaluation stakeholders, and the evaluation. Examine of the such can be conducted objectively, and professionally Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of gcse record online: 10 January 2006.

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Corporate social responsibility, public policy and NGO activism in gcse help Europe and the United States: an institutional-stakeholder perspective . Buy College? Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 47 73 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 49 Donaldson, L. and coursework, Davis, J. H. ( 1991 ). Stewardship theory or agency theory: CEO governance and shareholder returns . Shylock Or Villain? Australian Journal of Management , 16 , 49 64 . CrossRef Donaldson, T. and Preston, L. ( 1995 ). The stakeholder theory of the corporation: concepts, evidence, and implications . Academy of Management Review , 20 , 65 91 . Gcse Assignment Help? CrossRef | Web of Science® Dutta, P. Victim Research Paper? K. , Lach, S. and Rustichini, A. ( 1995 ). Better late than early: vertical differentiation in the adoption of help a new technology . Journal of Economics and Management Strategy , 4 , 563 89 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Feddersen, T. and Gilligan, T. Three Causes Of The French Revolution? ( 2001 ). Saints and assignment coursework help, markets: activists and the supply of credence goods . Journal of Economics and Management Strategy , 10 , 149 71 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Fombrun, C. and Shanley, M. Proprietary? ( 1990 ). What's in a name? Reputation building and corporate strategy . Academy of Management Journal , 33 , 233 58 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Freeman, R. E. ( 1984 ). Strategic Management: A Stakeholder Perspective . Assignment Help? Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall. Friedman, M. ( 1970 ). The social responsibility of business is to increase its profits . New York Times Magazine , September, 13. Ghemawat, P. Proprietary Contract Research? ( 2001 ). Strategy and the Business Landscape . Upper Saddle, NJ: Prentice Hall. Web of Science® Times Cited: 101 Hart, S. ( 1995 ). A natural resource-based view of the firm . Academy of Management Review , 20 , 986 1014 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Hillman, A. and Keim, G. ( 1995 ). International variation in the business-government interface: institutional and organizational considerations . Academy of Management Review , 20 , 193 214 . CrossRef | Web of assignment coursework Science® Times Cited: 48 Hillman, A. and Keim, G. ( 2001 ). Shareholder value, stakeholder management, and social issues: what's the bottom line? . Strategic Management Journal , 22 , 125 39 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Hoppe, H. and Lehmann-Grube, U. ( 2001 ). Second-mover advantages in dynamic quality competition . Journal of Economics and Management Strategy , 10 , 419 33 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Husted, B. W. and shylock, De Jesus Salazar, J. ( 2006 ). Taking Friedman seriously: maximizing profits and social performance . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 75 91 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 34 Jennings, P. and gcse assignment help, Zandbergen, P. ( 1995 ). Ecologically sustainable organizations: an institutional approach . Academy of Management Review , 20 , 1015 52 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Jones, T. ( 1995 ). Instrumental stakeholder theory: a synthesis of ethics and economics . Academy of Management Review , 20 , 404 37 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Kor, Y. and Mahoney, J. Bfa Creative Ateneo? T. ( 2004 ). Edith Penrose's contributions to the resource-based view of strategic management . Coursework Help? Journal of Management Studies , 41 , 183 91 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Kuhn, T. ( 1962 ). The Structure of Scientific Revolutions . Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Levitt, T. ( 1958 ). The dangers of social responsibility . Harvard Business Review , SeptemberOctober, 41 50 . Writing? Web of Science® Lockett, A. and Thompson, S. ( 2004 ). Edith Penrose's contributions to assignment help, the resource-based view of strategic management: an what a essay conclusion alternative perspective . Journal of Management Studies , 41 , 192 204 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 20 Lockett, A. , Moon, J. and Visser, W. Gcse Assignment? ( 2006 ). Corporate social responsibility in management research: focus, nature, salience and sources of influence . Journal of ateneo Management Studies , 43 , 1, 115 35 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 38 Marcus, A. A. and Anderson, M. H. ( 2006 ). A general dynamic capability: does it propagate business and social competencies in coursework help the retail food industry? . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 19 46 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 13 Marvel, H. Contract? ( 1977 ). Factory regulation: a reinterpretation of early English experience . Journal of gcse assignment help Law and Economics , 20 , 379 402 . Bfa Creative? CrossRef | Web of Science® McGuire, J. , Sundgren, A. and gcse, Schneeweis, T. ( 1988 ). Corporate social responsibility and firm financial performance . Academy of Management Journal , 31 , 854 72 . CrossRef | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. and Siegel, D. ( 1997 ). Contract Security Research Papers? Event studies in management research: theoretical and empirical issues . Academy of coursework help Management Journal , 40 , 626 57 . Buy College? CrossRef | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. and gcse, Siegel, D. Three Causes? ( 2000 ). Corporate social responsibility and financial performance: correlation or misspecification? . Coursework? Strategic Management Journal , 21 , 603 9 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. and Siegel, D. ( 2001 ). Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the firm perspective . Academy of versus contract security research Management Review , 26 , 117 27 . Assignment? CrossRef | Web of Science® McWilliams, A. , Siegel, D. and Teoh, S. H. ( 1999 ). Issues in the use of the event study methodology: a critical analysis of corporate social responsibility studies . Buy College Papers? Organizational Research Methods , 2 , 340 65 . CrossRef McWilliams, A. , Van Fleet, D. D. and Cory, K. ( 2002 ). Raising rivals’ costs through political strategy: an extension of the resource-based theory . Journal of Management Studies , 39 , 707 23 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Milgrom, P. and Roberts, J. Gcse Assignment Help? ( 1986 ). Papers? Advertising as signal of product quality . Gcse Assignment Help? Journal of Political Economy , 94 , 796 821 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Orlitzky, M. , Schmidt, F. and Rynes, S. ( 2003 ). Corporate social and financial performance: a meta-analysis . Organization Studies , 24 , 403 41 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 273 Penrose, E. ( 1959 ). The Theory of the Growth of the Firm . New York: Wiley.

Piga, C. Analyze Of Policy Evaluation And Identify Stakeholders, Consequences The Various Of The Fairly And Professionally? ( 2002 ). Corporate social responsibility: a theory of the help firm perspective. A few comments and three causes french revolution essay, some suggestions . Academy of Management Review , 27 , 13 15 . Web of Science® Posnikoff, J. ( 1997 ). Disinvestment from South Africa: they did well by doing good . Contemporary Economic Policy , 15 , 76 86 . Gcse? Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Reinhardt, F. ( 1998 ). Environmental product differentiation . California Management Review , 40 , Summer, 43 73 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 54 Rugman, A. M. and Verbeke, A. Bfa Creative? ( 2004 ). A final word on Edith Penrose . Journal of Management Studies , 41 , 205 17 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Russo, M. and gcse coursework help, Fouts, P. ( 1997 ). A resource-based perspective on corporate environmental performance and profitability . Academy of Management Journal , 40 , 534 59 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Siegel, D. ( 2001 ). Do British companies really need a minister to make them socially responsible? . Parliamentary Brief , 7 , 7 8 , Special Supplement on Business and the Community. Teece, D. , Pisano, G. and Shuen, A. Papers? ( 1997 ). Dynamic capabilities and strategic management . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 509 33 . Help? Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2351 Teoh, S. Buy College? , Welch, I. and Wazzan, C. ( 1999 ). The effect of gcse assignment coursework help socially activist investment policies on three causes french the financial markets: evidence from the South African boycott . Assignment? Journal of Business , 72 , 35 89 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Waddock, S. and Graves, S. ( 1997 ). The corporate social performance financial performance link . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 303 19 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Waldman, D. , Siegel, D. and Javidan, M. Three Causes Of The Revolution? ( 2004 ). CEO transformational leadership and corporate social responsibility ’. Working paper, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. Wernerfelt, B. ( 1984 ). Gcse Assignment Coursework? A resource based view of the firm . Strategic Management Journal , 5 , 171 80 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Windsor, D. ( 2006 ). A Essay Conclusion? Corporate social responsibility: three key approaches . Journal of Management Studies , 43 , 1, 93 114 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Worrell, D. , Davidson, W. and Sharma, V. ( 1991 ). Layoff announcements and stockholder wealth . Academy of Management Journal , 38 , 662 78 . CrossRef | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Wright, P. and Ferris, S. Assignment Coursework? ( 1997 ). Agency conflict and corporate strategy: the effect of divestment on corporate value . Strategic Management Journal , 18 , 77 83 . Wiley Online Library | Web of Science® Articles related to the one you are viewing. 1 Suska Dreesbach-Bundy , CSR und Corporate Volunteering, 2018 , 353 CrossRef 2 Merryn Paynter , Abdel K. Halabi , Alan Lawton , The Goals of Sustainable Development, 2018 , 193 CrossRef 3 Jonathan Pryshlakivsky , Cory Searcy , A Heuristic Model for Establishing Trade-Offs in Corporate Sustainability Performance Measurement Systems, Journal of Business Ethics , 2017 , 144 , 2, 323 CrossRef 4 Gerrit Willem Ziggers , Advances in Dairy Products, 2017 , 438 CrossRef 5 Simone Ruchdi Barakat , Jo o Maur cio Gama Boaventura , Edilson Fernandes Polo , ALINHAMENTO ESTRAT GICO DA RESPONSABILIDADE SOCIAL CORPORATIVA: UM ESTUDO DE CASO NO SETOR BANC RIO BRASILEIRO, REAd. Revista Eletr nica de Administra o (Porto Alegre) , 2017 , 23 , 1, 206 CrossRef 6 Craig D. Macaulay , Orlando C. Richard , Mike W. 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Adverse Effect of of the french revolution essay Advertising Sinful Firms’ CSR Engagements on Firm Performance, Journal of Business Ethics , 2017 , 143 , 4, 643 CrossRef 13 Yuan Yuan , Gaoliang Tian , Louise Yi Lu , Yangxin Yu , CEO Ability and Corporate Social Responsibility, Journal of Business Ethics , 2017 CrossRef 14 H l ne de Burgh-Woodman , Alessandro Bressan , Angela Torrisi , Comparative Perspectives on Global Corporate Social Responsibility, 2017 , 138 CrossRef 15 Jayesh D. Patel , Dharmesh D. Gcse Assignment Help? Gadhavi , Yupal S. Proprietary Versus Research Papers? 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