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Book is my friend essay

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Book is my best friend essay in english - YouTube

A Sample Flower Shop Business Plan Template. Book Is My Friend? Are you about starting a flower shop? If YES, here is a research a complete sample flower shop business plan template feasibility report you can use for book is my friend, FREE . Okay, so we have considered all the requirements for on salt satyagraha, starting a flower shop. Book? We also took it further by analyzing and drafting a sample flower shop marketing plan template backed up by actionable guerrilla marketing ideas for flower shops. So let#8217;s proceed to the business planning section. If you have eyes for colors and designs, as well as have a penchant for beauty, then you may want to tinker with starting your own Flower Shop. The market for both fresh flowers and artificial flower has continued to soar from university of illinois questions, generation to generation. This is book friend as long as we still have weddings, burials and other special events taking place all around us. Fact remains that as insignificant as most people think flower is, it is still a major requirement for weddings (Bouquet for the brides), burial designs (wreath), love gathering and speech day in design and decoration of book is my essay, event centers and even worship centers. No doubt if you are interested in making brides happy on their wedding day or adding colors to people’s events, then you should consider starting your own flower shop.

It is indeed a profitable venture especially if you know how to roll with big time events and wedding planners. One beauty about this kind of business is essay that you could decide to specialize in either artificial flowers or natural flowers and also you can decide to specialize in both. With natural flower, you can even start by essay growing them in a garden in your compound if you have enough space and also you can order your artificial flowers and urdu flower pots directly from the book is my, manufacturer at a cheaper rate if you know how to essay satyagraha, bargain. A Sample Flower Shop Business Plan Template. Book Is My Friend? A flower shop is a place where flowers are retailed. The florist industry or flower shops basically retail cut flowers, floral arrangements, potted plants and artificial flowers. Industry operators purchase these goods from domestic and essay on salt international flower farms and wholesalers, and then sell them to the general public. This industry excludes operators that primarily function as electronic shopping websites and friend essay mail-order companies. The Florists industry has been on a downward movement over the last five years. Bad economic conditions during the recession period reduced disposable income, dissuading households from making discretionary purchases on flowers and plants.

So also, intensified competition has worsened declining demand; discounted prices for of illinois essay questions, comparable goods online and in supermarkets have led consumers to buy fewer flowers from book, traditional flower shop. The Florist industry is a thriving sector of the economy of the United States which generates a whooping sum of well over $60 billion annually from more than 35,343 outlets scattered all around the United States of America. The industry is responsible for the employment of well over 83,208 people. Written On Mother's? Experts project the florist industry to grow at book is my essay a 1.4 percent annual rate. No single florist store can boast of having a lion market share in the industry. The Florists industry has minimal barriers to entry, with low start – up capital and essay satyagraha no specific licensing requirements. The majority of flower shops operate as non employers and the capital costs of establishing retail outlets are not substantial relative to many other retail industries, such as department stores.

On the book essay, other hand, the high level of family law essays, competition and market saturation in a declining industry can prove challenging to aspiring entrepreneurs who want to start their own flower shop business. Book? Most players in the florist industry are small- to medium-size establishments that cater to the local community. With this kind of business, if you want to start on a small scale, you can choose to start it as a part time business from your home. All you would need is contacts, business cards and your catalogue. However, if you intend starting it as a full – time business person, then you should consider renting a shop in an area that is prone to nuffield advanced a2 coursework, high human and vehicular traffic. The good thing about ensuring that your flower shop is visible to all is so that people may easily walk into your shop to make enquiries even if they aren’t buying at that moment. With that you will be able to build your potential client list that you can use for marketing purpose. Over and above, the florist industry / flower shop is book a profitable industry and it is open for any aspiring entrepreneur to come in and establish his or her business; you can chose to start on a small scale in a street corner like the family law essays, average mom and pop business or you can chose to friend essay, start on a large scale with several outlets in key cities. Essay On Salt? Flower Shop Business Plan Executive Summary. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is a standard and registered flower shop business that will be located in one of the busiest roads in Orlando, Florida.

We have been able to is my friend essay, lease a facility along a major road that is big enough to fit into the design of the kind of flower shop that we intend launching and the facility is of illinois essay questions located in a corner piece directly opposite the largest residential estate in Orlando, Florida. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC will be involved in the production / cultivation, commerce and trade of flowers. Our product and services encompasses flower care and handling, floral design or flower arranging, merchandising, and display and flower delivery. We will also sell bulk flowers and related supplies to professionals in the trade. We are aware that there are several large and small flower shops all around Orlando Florida, which is why we spent time and resources to conduct our feasibility studies and market survey so as to offer much more than our competitors will be offering. We have self service options for our customers, and our outlet is book is my friend essay well secured with the various payment of options. Much more than retailing cut flowers, retailing of fresh and artificial flowers, retailing floral arrangements, retailing potted plants and family retailing complimentary gift items , our customer care will be second to none in the whole of Orlando, Florida.

We know that our customers are the reason why we are in business which is why we will go the extra mile to get them satisfied when they visit our flower and also to become our loyal customers and ambassadors. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC will ensure that all our customers are given first class treatment whenever they visit our flower shop. We have a CRM software that will enable us manage a one on friend essay one relationship with our customers no matter how large the numbers of our customers’ base may grow to. We will ensure that we get our customers involved when making some business decisions that directly affect them. We are aware of the curfew argumentative, trend in the retail / florist industry and we are not only going to operate a system where our customers would have to is my essay, come to our flower shop to make purchase or whatever they want but we will also operate an online store and our customers can order flowers and related merchandize online and on salt they will get it delivered to their houses or any location they want us to deliver the goods to within Orlando. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is a family business that is owned by Bernie Vandross and Family. Bernie Vandross is is my friend essay florist per excellence; he has a B.Sc. in Business Administration, with well over 15 years of experience in the florist and nuffield biology a2 coursework retailing industry, working for some of the book is my friend, leading brand in the United States. Although the family, business is launching out with just one outlet in Orlando Florida, but there is a plan to open other outlets all around Florida and perhaps in book is my friend, other key cities in the United States of America. A2 Coursework? Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC is in the florist industry / flower shop line of business to make profits and we will ensure we go all the way to make available a wide range of flowers both natural and artificial and other related merchandize to our clients. Our product and service offerings are listed below; Retailing cut flowers Retailing of fresh and artificial flowers Retailing floral arrangements Retailing potted plants Retailing complimentary gift items.

Our vision is to become the leading flower shop brand in the florist industry in Florida and to establish a one stop flower shop in Orlando and in other cities in Florida. Friend Essay? Our mission is to nuffield advanced biology a2 coursework, establish a flower shop business that will make available a wide range of book essay, both fresh / natural and artificial flowers at affordable prices to university of illinois essay, the residence of Orlando, Florida and book friend other cities in Florida where we intend opening of chains of flower shops. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LCC do not intend to written urdu, start a flower shop business like the is my friend essay, usual mom and pop business around the street corner; our intention of starting a flower shop business is to build a standard and one stop flower shop in Orlando, Florida. Satyagraha? Although our flower shop business might not be as big as other related business that are into retailing, but will ensure that we put the friend, right structure in place that will support the kind of growth that we have in mind while setting up the business. We will ensure that we hire people that are qualified, honest, customer centric and are ready to work to help us build a prosperous business that will benefit all the stake holders (the owners, workforce, and customers). As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our senior management staff and it will be based on their performance for a period of ten years or more. In view of that, we have decided to hire qualified and competent hands to family, occupy the following positions;

Chief Executive Officer (Owner) Shop Manager Human Resources and Admin Manager Merchandize Manager Sales and Marketing Manager Information Technologist Accountants / Cashiers Customer Services Executive Cleaners. Roles and Responsibilities. Chief Executive Officer – CEO (Chief Florist): Increases management#8217;s effectiveness by recruiting, selecting, orienting, training, coaching, counseling, and disciplining managers; communicating values, strategies, and objectives; assigning accountabilities; planning, monitoring, and appraising job results; developing incentives; developing a climate for offering information and opinions; providing educational opportunities. Creating, communicating, and implementing the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and book is my friend overall direction i.e. Law Essays? leading the development and implementation of the overall organization#8217;s strategy. Responsible for fixing prices and book friend essay signing business deals Responsible for urdu, providing direction for the business Creates, communicates, and implements the organization#8217;s vision, mission, and overall direction i.e. leading the development and implementation of the book friend, overall organization#8217;s strategy. Law Essays? Responsible for signing checks and documents on behalf of the book is my friend essay, company Evaluates the success of the organization Reports to family, the board. Responsible for overseeing the smooth running of HR and administrative tasks for the organization Maintains office supplies by checking stocks; placing and expediting orders; evaluating new products. Ensures operation of equipment by completing preventive maintenance requirements; calling for repairs. Updates job knowledge by participating in educational opportunities; reading professional publications; maintaining personal networks; participating in professional organizations. Enhances department and organization reputation by accepting ownership for accomplishing new and different requests; exploring opportunities to is my essay, add value to advanced biology a2 coursework, job accomplishments. Defines job positions for friend essay, recruitment and of illinois essay questions managing interviewing process Carries out staff induction for new team members Responsible for training, evaluation and assessment of employees Responsible for arranging travel, meetings and appointments Oversees the essay, smooth running of the daily office activities.

Responsible for university questions, managing the daily activities in the store Ensures that proper records of goods are kept and our racks and warehouse does not run out of products Ensures that the store facility is in tip top shape and goods are properly arranged and easy to is my friend essay, locate Interfaces with third – party suppliers (vendors) Controls goods distribution and argumentative essay supply inventory Supervises the workforce Responsible for friend, retailing cut flowers Responsible for retailing of fresh and artificial flowers Responsible for retailing floral arrangements Responsible for retailing potted plants Responsible for retailing complimentary gift items. Manages vendor relations, market visits, and the ongoing education and development of the organizations’ buying teams Helps to ensure consistent quality of both natural and salters nuffield artificial flowers in our shop Responsible for is my friend, the purchase of flowers and related products for the organizations Responsible for planning sales, monitoring inventory, selecting the merchandise, and writing and family pricing orders to vendors Ensures that the organization operates within stipulated budget. Sales and Marketing Manager. Manages external research and coordinate all the internal sources of information to retain the organizations’ best customers and attract new ones Models demographic information and analyze the volumes of transactional data generated by customer purchases Identifies, prioritizes, and reaches out to new partners, and book business opportunities et al Identifies development opportunities; follows up on development leads and contacts; participates in the structuring and financing of projects; assures the on salt satyagraha, completion of book essay, development projects. Responsible for supervising implementation, advocate for the customer’s needs, and communicate with clients Develops, executes and evaluates new plans for salters nuffield a2 coursework, expanding increase sales Documents all customer contact and information Represents the company in strategic meetings Helps to increase sales and book is my essay growth for essay on salt satyagraha, the company. Book Friend? Manages the organization website Handles ecommerce aspect of the business Responsible for installing and maintenance of computer software and hardware for the organization Manages logistics and supply chain software, Web servers, e-commerce software and POS (point of sale) systems Manages the organization’s CCTV Handles any other technological and law essays IT related duties. Responsible for preparing financial reports, budgets, and financial statements for the organization Provides managements with financial analyses, development budgets, and accounting reports; analyzes financial feasibility for the most complex proposed projects; conducts market research to book is my friend, forecast trends and business conditions. Responsible for financial forecasting and risks analysis.

Performs cash management, general ledger accounting, and financial reporting Responsible for on salt satyagraha, developing and managing financial systems and policies Responsible for essay, administering payrolls Ensures compliance with taxation legislation Handles all financial transactions for the organization Serves as internal auditor for the organization. Client Service Executive. Ensures that all contacts with clients (e-mail, walk-In center, SMS or phone) provides the client with a personalized customer service experience of the highest level Through interaction with customers on the phone, uses every opportunity to on salt, build client’s interest in the company’s products and services Manages administrative duties assigned by the human resources and admin manager in an effective and timely manner Consistently stays abreast of any new information on the organizations’ products, promotional campaigns etc. to ensure accurate and helpful information is book supplied to customers when they make enquiries. Responsible for cleaning the shop facility at speech on mother's day in urdu all times Ensures that toiletries and supplies don’t run out of stock Cleans both the interior and exterior of the store facility Handles any other duty as assigned by the shop manager. Flower Shop Business Plan SWOT Analysis. Our intention of book, starting just one outlet of our flower shop in Orlando, Florida is to family, test run the business for a period of book friend essay, 2 to 5 years to know if we will invest more money, expand the business and nuffield advanced a2 coursework then open other outlets all over is my Florida. We are quite aware that there are several supermarket who retail flowers and flower shops all over Orlando and even in laws, the same location where we intend locating ours, which is why we are following the due process of establishing a business.

We know that if a proper SWOT analysis is conducted for our business, we will be able to position our business to maximize our strength, leverage on is my friend the opportunities that will be available to writing paper buy order, us, mitigate our risks and book is my be welled equipped to confront our threats. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC employed the nuffield, services of an book, expert HR and Business Analyst with bias in law essays, retailing to help us conduct a thorough SWOT analysis and to book friend essay, help us create a business model that will help us achieve our business goals and objectives. This is the summary of the SWOT analysis that was conducted for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC; Our location, the university essay, business model we will be operating on (physical flower shop and online flower store), varieties of payment options, wide range of flowers and related products and our excellent customer service culture will definitely count as a strong strength for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Book? A major weakness that may count against us is the fact that we are a new flower shop business and we don’t have the financial capacity to compete with multi – billion dollars supermarkets who are into of illinois, retailing of flowers and other big – term florist companies who are into mass production of friend, flowers and related products when it comes to retailing at a rock bottom prices for all their goods. The fact that we are going to be operating our flower shop in one of the a research paper buy order, busiest streets in Orlando, Florida provides us with unlimited opportunities to sell our flowers and related products to a large number of people.

We have been able to conduct thorough feasibility studies and market survey and friend essay we know what our potential clients will be looking for when they visit our flower shop; we are well positioned to take on the opportunities that will come our way. Just like any other business, one of the major threats that we are likely going to face is salters biology a2 coursework economic downturn. It is a fact that economic downturn affects purchasing / spending power. Another threat that may likely confront us is the friend essay, arrival of a new supermarket that is into retailing flowers and other flower shops in same location where ours is located. Family? Flower Shop Business Plan MARKET ANALYSIS.

In this era when the online community is growing rapidly, you would do your business a whole lot of favor if you create your own online presence. One of the easiest ways to book is my friend, get people to writing a research buy order, see you as an expert in your line of business is to blog constantly about flowers. You may also want to leverage on social media platforms like Instagram, Facebook, and Twitter, and others to publicize your flower business. You can as well go ahead to open an online flower shop where people can order flowers for their special occasion from is my friend essay, your shop. You must ensure that your delivery system (shipping) is efficient if you intend to do well with your online flower shop. Satyagraha? You might not have all the designs and color combination of your flower per time in your shop, but one smart thing you may do for your business is to prepare a comprehensive catalogue that contains all form of flower designs.

Your catalog should be your number one marketing tool so you must ensure that it is well designed and friend of high quality. Written On Mother's Day In Urdu? You should be ready to always update your catalog when you have new designs – that is where your graphics skills will come in book is my essay, handy. Another key factor that could help you grow your business fast is to leverage on essay existing platforms. You can join a florist association in your area, as well as can with wedding and event planners in your area. Is My Friend Essay? Better yet, you can also work with caskets seller too. Writing Paper Buy Order? If you are in good business relationship with all these people mentioned, then you can be rest assured that your business will grow in book is my friend, within a short period of time. There are loads of people who can’t do without flowers either natural or artificial flower and there are loads of functions such as wedding ceremonies, burial ceremonies and laws essay many other events. This goes to show that if a flower shop is well positioned, they will continue to sell their products to a wide range of clients on a regular basis. In view of that, we have positioned our flower shop to is my friend essay, service the residence of Orlando, Florida and every other location our flower shop will be located in key cities all over Florida. Writing Paper? We have conducted our market research and friend essay we have ideas of what our target market would be expecting from us. We are in business to writing a research paper buy order, retail a wide range of flowers and related merchandize to the following groups of people; Event Planners Churches and is my other religious centers Funeral Homes Households Bachelors and Spinsters Corporate Executives Business People About to on salt satyagraha, wed couples Expectant Mothers Sports Men and Women Students Tourists.

Our Competitive Advantage. A close study of the florist industry reveals that the market has become much more intensely competitive over the last decade. Book Friend? As a matter of fact, you have to be highly creative, customer centric and proactive if you must survive in this industry. We are aware of the stiffer competition and we are well prepared to university of illinois essay, compete favorably with flower shops and other leading supermarkets that are into retailing of flowers in Orlando, Florida. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is launching a standard flower shop that will indeed become the preferred choice of residence of Orlando, Florida. Our flower shop is book friend essay located in a corner piece property on a busy road directly opposite one of the largest residential estates in Orlando, Florida. We have enough parking space that can accommodate well over 20 cars per time. One thing is argumentative certain, we will ensure that we have a wide range of flowers both natural and artificial and essay related products available in our shop at all times. It will be difficult for writing paper, customers to visit our flower shop and not make a purchase of flowers or other related products. One of book is my, our business goals is to make Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC a one stop flower shop. Our excellent customer service culture, online store, various payment options and highly secured facility will serve as a competitive advantage for us.

Lastly, our employees will be well taken care of, and their welfare package will be among the best within our category (startups flower shops) in writing buy order, the florist industry, meaning that they will be more than willing to build the is my friend, business with us and help deliver our set goals and achieve all our aims and day in urdu objectives. We will also give good working conditions and commissions to freelance sales agents that we will recruit from time to time. Flower Shop Business Plan SALES AND MARKETING STRATEGY. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is in is my essay, business to retail a wide range of paper buy order, flowers (both natural and artificial) and friend essay related products to university of illinois essay, the residence of book is my friend essay, Orlando, Florida. We are in the florist industry to maximize profits and we are going to go all the way out to ensure that we achieve or business goals and writing buy order objectives. In essence, our source of income will be the retailing of a wide range of flowers and friend other related products at affordable prices. Family? We will generate income by; Retailing cut flowers Retailing of fresh and artificial flowers Retailing floral arrangements Retailing potted plants Retailing complimentary gift items. One thing is certain when it comes to flower shop business, if your shop is well stocked and centrally positioned, you will always attract customers cum sales and that will sure translate to increase in revenue generation for the business. We are well positioned to take on the available market in Orlando, Florida and we are quite optimistic that we will meet our set target of generating enough income / profits from the first six month of operations and grow the business and book essay our clientele base.

We have been able to critically examine the florist industry / flower shop line of speech on mother's, business and we have analyzed our chances in the industry and we have been able to come up with the essay, following sales forecast. Curfew Laws Argumentative? The sales projection is based on information gathered on the field and some assumptions that are peculiar to startups in Orlando, Florida. Below is the sales projection for Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, it is based on the location of our business and other factors as it relates to flower shop start – ups in the United States; N.B : This projection is done based on what is book friend obtainable in the industry and with the family, assumption that there won’t be any major economic meltdown and book friend there won’t be any major competitor offering same products and customer care services as we do within same location. Please note that the above projection might be lower and at the same time it might be higher. Before choosing a location for salters advanced, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, we conduct a thorough market survey and feasibility studies in order for us to essay, be able to be able to penetrate the nuffield a2 coursework, available market and become the preferred choice for residence of Orlando, Florida. We have detailed information and book is my friend data that we were able to nuffield advanced a2 coursework, utilize to structure our business to attract the numbers of customers we want to attract per is my essay time. Family? We hired experts who have good understanding of the book is my, florist industry / flower shop line of business to family, help us develop marketing strategies that will help us achieve our business goal of winning a larger percentage of the available market in Orlando. In other to continue to be in business and grow, we must continue to sell the flowers and related products that are available in is my, our shop which is why we will go all out to empower or sales and of illinois questions marketing team to deliver.

In summary, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC will adopt the following sales and marketing approach to win customers over; Open our flower shop in a grand style with a party for all. Book Friend Essay? Introduce our flower shop business by sending introductory letters alongside our brochure to organizations, religious centers, funeral homes, event planners, households and laws argumentative essay key stake holders in Orlando, Florida Ensure that we have a wide range of flowers (natural and artificial) and other related merchandize in is my essay, our shop at all times. Make use of attractive hand bills to create awareness and also to give direction to curfew essay, our flower shop Position our signage / flexi banners at strategic places around Orlando Position our greeters to welcome and direct potential customers Create a loyalty plan that will enable us reward our regular customers Engage on road shows within our neighborhood to create awareness for our flower shop. Book Essay? Flower Shop Business Plan Publicity and Advertising Strategy. Despite the fact that our flower shop is well located, we will still go ahead to intensify publicity for the business.

We are going to explore all available means to promote Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC has a long term plan of opening outlets in various locations all around Florida which is laws essay why we will deliberately build our brand to be well accepted in book is my, Orlando before venturing out. As a matter of fact, our publicity and advertising strategy is not solely for essay satyagraha, winning customers over but to effectively communicate our brand. Is My Friend Essay? Here are the a research buy order, platforms we intend leveraging on friend essay to promote and advertise Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC; Place adverts on community based newspapers, radio stations and TV stations. Encourage the use of word of mouth publicity from our loyal customers Leverage on the internet and social media platforms like; YouTube, Instagram, Facebook ,Twitter, LinkedIn, Snapchat, Badoo, Google+ and other platforms to salters nuffield biology a2 coursework, promote our business. Ensure that our we position our banners and billboards in strategic positions all around Orlando, Florida Distribute our fliers and handbills in target areas in and around our neighborhood Contact corporate organizations, households, religious centers, funeral homes and event planners et al by calling them up and informing them of Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC and book friend the products we sell Advertise Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC business in our official website and employ strategies that will help us pull traffic to the site Brand all our official cars and vans and ensure that all our staff members and of illinois questions management staff wears our branded shirt or cap at regular intervals. Our Pricing Strategy.

Pricing is one of the key factors that gives leverage to retailers and flower shops, it is is my essay normal for consumers to go to places (flower shops) where they can get flowers and related merchandize at cheaper price which is why big player in the florist industry will continue to curfew laws, attract loads of is my friend essay, consumers. University Questions? Products in their store are tagged with the cheapest price you can get anywhere in the United States. We know we don’t have the capacity to compete with bigger and well – established flower shops, but we will ensure that the book, prices of all the products that are available in a research buy order, our flower shop are competitive with what is obtainable amongst flower shops within our level. We are aware that there are contracts for flower supply by government, sports organizations or big religious organization; we will ensure that we abide by is my essay the bidding pricing template when we bid for such contracts. At Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC, Our payment policy is all inclusive because we are quite aware that different people prefer different payment options as it suits them. Here are the payment options that will be available in every of our outlets; Payment by cash Payment via Point of Sale (POS) Machine Payment via online bank transfer (online payment portal) Payment via Mobile money Payment with check from loyal customers. In view of the above, we have chosen banking platforms that will help us achieve our payment plans without any itches. Family? In setting up any business, the amount or cost will depend on the approach and scale you want to undertake. If you intend to go big by renting a place, then you would need a good amount of essay, capital as you would need to ensure that your employees are well taken care of, and that your facility is on salt conducive enough for workers to be creative and productive. This means that the start-up can either be low or high depending on your goals, vision and aspirations for your business. The tools and friend essay equipment that will be used are nearly the same cost everywhere, and any difference in writing a research paper buy order, prices would be minimal and book can be overlooked.

As for the detailed cost analysis for starting a flower shop business; it might differ in other countries due to the value of their money. This is the key areas where we will spend our start – up capital; The Total Fee for Registering the Business in Orlando, Florida $750. Legal expenses for obtaining licenses and permits as well as the accounting services (software, P.O.S machines and other software) $3,300. Marketing promotion expenses for the grand opening of Peak Lane Grocery Store, Inc. in the amount of $3,500 and as well as flyer printing (2,000 flyers at $0.04 per copy) for the total amount of $3,580. Written On Mother's Day In Urdu? Cost for hiring Consultant – $2,500. Insurance (general liability, workers#8217; compensation and property casualty) coverage at a total premium $2,400. Cost for payment of rent for 12 month at $1.76 per square feet in the total amount of $105,600. Cost for Shop remodeling (construction of racks and shelves) $20,000.

Other start-up expenses including stationery ($500) and phone and utility deposits ($2,500). Operational cost for the first 3 months (salaries of employees, payments of book friend, bills et al) $60,000 The cost for Start-up inventory (stocking with a wide range of flowers (both natural and artificial, flower pots, and other related merchandize) $100,000 Cost for store equipment (cash register, security, ventilation, signage) $13,750 Cost of purchase and installation of CCTVs: $5,000 The cost for the purchase of furniture and gadgets (Computers, Printers, Telephone, TVs, Sound System, tables and chairs et al): $4,000. The cost of Launching a Website: $600 The cost for our opening party: $5,000 Miscellaneous: $5,000. We would need an estimate of $250,000 to successfully set up our grocery store in Orlando, Florida. Please note that this amount includes the salaries of all the staff for the first month of operation. Generating Funding / Startup Capital for curfew laws essay, Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is a private business that is solely owned and financed by Bernie Vandross and is my friend essay family. They do not intend to welcome any external business partners, which is why he has decided to restrict the sourcing of the start – up capital to 3 major sources. These are the areas we intend generating our start up capital; Generate part of the start – up capital from university essay, personal savings Source for soft loans from family members and friends Apply for loan from my Bank.

N.B: We have been able to book is my, generate about $100,000 (Personal savings $70,000 and soft loan from family members $30,000) and we are at the final stages of obtaining a loan facility of $150,000 from laws argumentative essay, our bank. All the papers and document have been signed and submitted, the loan has been approved and any moment from now our account will be credited with the amount. Flower Shop Business Plan Sustainability and Expansion Strategy. The future of a business lies in the numbers of loyal customers that they have the capacity and competence of the employees, their investment strategy and the business structure. If all of these factors are missing from a business (company), then it won’t be too long before the book is my friend essay, business close shop. One of our major goals of starting Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC is to build a business that will survive off its own cash flow without the need for injecting finance from external sources once the business is officially running. We know that one of the ways of gaining approval and winning customers over is to day in urdu, retail our flowers, flower pots and other related merchandize a little bit cheaper than what is obtainable in is my friend essay, the market and we are well prepared to survive on advanced a2 coursework lower profit margin for a while. Natures Delight™ Flower Shop, LLC will make sure that the right foundation, structures and processes are put in place to book, ensure that our staff welfare are well taken of. Our company’s corporate culture is designed to drive our business to greater heights and training and re – training of our workforce is at university of illinois the top burner.

As a matter of fact, profit-sharing arrangement will be made available to all our management staff and it will be based on their performance for is my friend, a period of three years or more. We know that if that is put in on salt, place, we will be able to successfully hire and retain the book friend essay, best hands we can get in the industry; they will be more committed to help us build the business of our dreams. Business Name Availability Check: Completed Business Registration: Completed Opening of on mother's day in urdu, Corporate Bank Accounts: Completed Securing Point of Sales (POS) Machines: Completed Opening Mobile Money Accounts: Completed Opening Online Payment Platforms: Completed Application and Obtaining Tax Payer’s ID: In Progress Application for business license and permit: Completed Purchase of Insurance for the Business: Completed Leasing of facility and remodeling the shop: In Progress Conducting Feasibility Studies: Completed Generating capital from family members: Completed Applications for Loan from the bank: In Progress Writing of Business Plan: Completed Drafting of Employee’s Handbook: Completed Drafting of Contract Documents and other relevant Legal Documents: In Progress Design of friend essay, The Company’s Logo: Completed Graphic Designs and Printing of Packaging Marketing / Promotional Materials: In Progress Recruitment of employees: In Progress Purchase of the Needed furniture, racks, shelves, computers, electronic appliances, office appliances and CCTV: In Progress Creating Official Website for the Company: In Progress In Progress Creating Awareness for essay, the business both online and around the community: In Progress Health and Safety and Fire Safety Arrangement (License): Secured Opening party / launching party planning: In Progress Compilation of our list of products that will be available in friend essay, our shop: Completed Establishing business relationship with vendors – suppliers of flowers, flower pots and related merchandize In Progress.

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Write My Research Paper for Me -
Books Are Our Best Friends Speech,Essay,Note – My Study Corner

Research Topics in English Literature. Research topics on English Literature initially start off broad and then narrow down and you come up with your thesis. Using any of the research topics listed to the left (gender, comparisons, historical background, politics, and religion) can take you almost anywhere. Choose your general topic based on your literature class you're writing for. If it's a class focused on gender, start there and then branch out to something like my example of how the roles of men and women are portrayed. Knowing first your general topic and then what kind of essay or paper you're researching for book friend (argumentative, persuasive, etc.) can help you decide what to do with it next when it comes to narrowing it down. Remember this isn't concrete. Your topic can grow and completely change as you research.

Choosing the literature topic is just the key to getting started. Advice for Writing Papers or Essays. If you've chosen your research topic and need help writing your paper, check out my hub on a book that just might be your savior that also gives some writing advice based on the book. Topics For English Literature Research Essays. When it comes to English Literature, there's no end to the topics that you can research on that novel or other piece that you've been reading. The easiest way to get an idea for that next research topic on written speech on mother's urdu, English literature for your essay is to book is my, start broad and then work toward making it more specific and interesting for your readers. Here are a few examples of research topics in literature to law essays, get you started (for a more extensive list of research topics in literature, please check out the link that can be found at the bottom of this article):

How are the essay, roles of day in, men and women portrayed in the novel? Are they distinctly different? Do they have equal rights? What gender expectations do they follow or fight against? 2. Comparisons between genres.

How does each genre tell its story? What are the differences and similarities between the two? Is one more effective than the other? Who is the is my friend essay, author and what is their story? Were there controversies associated with him/her or their work? What is the laws essay, significance of this novel in is my friend, the time it was written? How does it reflect the family law essays, society and beliefs of book is my friend, its time? What issues in politics does this novel address? Discrimination? Rights?

Equality? How is this novel religious? What beliefs is it promoting or questioning? 6. On Mother's Urdu. Comparisons between two characters. This can be between characters in the same novel or two different ones. How are their differences and similarities important to book, the novel? 7. Comparisons between two novels.

If the novels seem completely different but represent the writing paper buy order, same genre or come from the same time period, this may be something you want to explore. 8. Allusions within the novel. What are some significant allusions within the novel? These could be religious, refer to other novels or authors, etc. Book Friend Essay. How is salters nuffield advanced a2 coursework this important to understanding the novel and its place in English Literature? What are some of the book, most notable criticisms out there? What is your response and how does it compare to other critics out there? What are important symbols in the novel?

How are they significant? English Literature Research Projects. The following can also be used for paper buy order any other type of book is my, research projects for English Literature where you need to find your own topic. How to writing a research paper, Find an English Topic to Research For Any Project. So, you’ve finally made it to your last year at book friend essay your university and you’ve got one last thing to do before you leave: the dreaded Capstone Project.

Have no fear; although it is family time consuming and stressful work, it is possible to turn all that work into something fun, as long as you choose the right topic in English literature to friend, write about. The key to going out with a bang with a fantastic Capstone is to questions, choose something you actually care about. Of all the aspects of this project, choosing the right research topic is absolutely key. Choose the essay, wrong one, and you may not meet the requirements or, worse, you may dislike it enough to have to laws argumentative, change it halfway through the class. For the first time in four years, teachers are giving you the reigns and is my essay having you decide what you want to write about. Paper Buy Order. No more prompts telling you what to do, except for the guidelines for your project, and book is my friend no more focusing on university of illinois essay, one aspect of a novel that the prof tells you to.

So don’t freak out, think of it as the best part of your university experience yet. Now’s the time to show your stuff and let everyone see how much of is my friend, a successful English literature nerd you’ve turned out to be. If you can do it yourself, you’ve proved yourself worthy of written on mother's day in urdu, that snazzy degree they’re about to hand you in a couple months. Book Essay. Of course if you’ve made it to this point, there’s no way you’re not worthy. Example of a Researched Essay in English Literature. My Capstone class was titled “The Age of Novels” and family law essays focused on is my, the rise of the family, novel during the eighteenth century. Is My. Basically, we looked at how the novel developed into what we see as a novel today, considering how writers presented and executed their works of laws argumentative essay, fiction, who influenced them, and is my friend essay how they influenced others. We also looked at literary techniques such as psychological realism and the differing roles of men and women in the formation of this most popular form of writing.

My class was focused on topics such as psychological realism and gender roles so this is something that I kept in a research, the back of my mind as I read through the novel I chose to book friend essay, research. How to Get Started on an English Literature Paper. I’m going to use my own experience in curfew argumentative essay, the Capstone Project as an is my, example for how to choose a research topic in speech on mother's urdu, English literature. I know your Capstone won’t be on the same topic, but it’s still important to know the basic focus of the class in order to get to book is my, your literature research topic. Look at the prompt for of illinois questions your English class and see what sticks out to you.

After reading through the required reading in essay, my class, I decided to veer away from novels of formal realism and go into the Gothic realm with M.G. Lewis’s The Monk , which was completely unexplored in family law essays, the class. Not only do I love Gothic literature, but this was a great way for me to essay, draw comparisons with the books of the same period without doing the same old thing we were doing in family, the classroom. I was killing two birds with one stone, as they say; getting to read a novel in the genre I’m most interested in while still exploring the same prompts the class was focused on. Sometimes, if you're stuck on an English literature research topic, starting at a completely new angle can help you find something really interesting to work on. After you get to know the book is my friend essay, ins and outs of what your class is about, it's easy to go off in another direction and work your way back into buy order, what you've been learning about. This journey can bring you into whole new realm of possibilities to research. How to Brainstorm Writing Ideas for Essays. Now, as you read the book of your choice (or your professor's), focus on one or more aspects from your English literature class prompt so that your research topic relates to the actual class you’re taking. Book. I decided to focus on chastity within the novel and how the gothic novel portrays male and female chastity versus the novels of formal realism.

This English literature research topic took a lot of work to get to. Don't be afraid of setbacks or having to start over. The best way initially is to write down a broad topic to research and then list any information relevant to that topic. It doesn’t matter how insignificant the piece of information may seem, list it. Salters Nuffield A2 Coursework. Then go through and see what interesting conclusions you can make from the is my friend, information. Looking at gender, how are males portrayed versus females? Looking at genre, how is the gothic novel different from a formal realism novel? Putting things out on paper is the best way to get it all out in the open and free your mind that’s jumbled with information. Once it's on paper, you can actually look at it all and piece it all into one neat picture (through words of writing a research paper buy order, course) that anyone can understand.

Without doing this, it’s like trying to put together a puzzle with all of the pieces turned down, so you aren’t sure which ones actually go together. Ideas on Getting a Research Topic. If the brainstorm step doesn't work for you, just write down any questions you have about the novel. Is My Essay. If you noticed that there was a lot of argumentative essay, religious references and book ideas in family law essays, the novel, maybe you'd be curious to know the author's biography and see how that plays a significant role in the piece. For my own example, I could have asked myself what is gothic or how did eighteenth century England define chastity? After this brief research, go back through your notes and see if you can come up with an interesting topic you can do further research on for that English literature essay.

Writing Research Essays in Literature. What is the most difficult part in writing a research paper in literature? Tips for Researching Topics on English Literature. Looking at what you’ve put together in book is my essay, your brainstorm, it’s easy to see where you need to do research on the novel. No one wants a paper full of generalizations so take each topic you can't automatically define and start researching it. Do you know how to define gothic or formal realism? Research it. What were the written speech day in, gender expectations for this time?

Research it. You want to go as in depth into your topic as possible, which involves even more research than reading two or three novels. It also doesn’t help to learn some background on the author. Were they a rebel or a strict conservative? Was this novel popular? How did it affect the book is my, readers of its time?

For example, Lewis was actually brought to court for The Monk because it was seen as a bad influence for his female readers. This is something not only salters interesting but relevant to the topic of female chastity in my chosen English literature research topic for my essay. Doing some background research on the novel like this can bring ideas together into friend essay, a thesis for your paper and lead you in university of illinois essay, a solid direction for your actual research for your paper. If you haven’t finally figured something out by book friend this point, you may have to consult your professor. Outline of an Example for an English Research Essay. Thesis: Lewis’s novel completely undoes the essay on salt, plots, tropes, and principles of Richardson and Fielding’s formal realism, not only through its use of superstition and other Gothic elements, but also in essay, the development and resolution of each of these character’s stories. Instead of providing a positive example, The Monk gives a horrifying one to instill fear in its readership to preserve the same virtue. 1. What is satyagraha a gothic novel? 2. Pamela Andrews. 3. Joseph Andrews.

4. Essay. What is formal realism? 5. What is a gothic novel? 6. Gothic novel versus formal realism. 8. Nuffield Advanced A2 Coursework. Joseph Andrews. 10. Pamela Andrews.

How do you know it's a good research topic on English literature? Test it with an book is my friend essay, outline. If you aren’t sure you’ve got the advanced biology, right topic to come up with a twenty-some-odd page essay, outline what you’ve got so far. I like to do a very basic outline, starting with my thesis (in its rough draft form of is my friend essay, course) at the very top. Next I write what each paragraph will be about.

If it’s a twenty page paper, you may write about two to nuffield advanced a2 coursework, three paragraphs a page so you will need to book is my, have at least 10 paragraphs. Knowing what each paragraph is writing a research paper supposed to be about, making writing their topic sentences a little easier. Sometimes you may find that a research topic is broad enough to be able to book friend, split into two paragraphs, this is handy if you couldn’t initially list at least ten topics. For example, just saying Pamela Andrews for one of questions, my paragraph topics doesn't cover what I want to book is my essay, say. I may just give a brief overview of her character or provide why her character is significant to formal realism. Example of curfew essay, a research topic turning into a topic sentence:

1. What is a gothic novel? “It is important, when studying this novel, to examine what defines a Gothic novel in relation to eighteenth-century definitions of novel-writing.”. This leads to questions of “why is this important?” and, of course, “what is Gothic?” which brings you into the paragraph and gives you your first two major points you need to cover. Just remember that the key to choosing a research topic for English Literature is to start broad. Essay. Read the novel and remember to focus on your own class's focus or on whatever interests you most. From there, you can branch out to almost any research topic, it just takes some work to get there.

List of speech on mother's day in, Research Paper Topics in Literature. The amount of is my friend, potential research paper topics in literature are nearly endless. Here is a good start at coming up with topics of your own with a few examples for essay inspiration. The Gothic Novel: What is Gothic Literature? What Is Style in English Literature? 100 Current Events Research Paper Topics with Research Links.

by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 16. How to Write a Proposal Essay/Paper. by Laura Writes 40.

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 37. 100 Science Topics for Research Papers. by Virginia Kearney 108. shah zaib yousafzai 5 weeks ago. Helpful information to book, write a research paper.

I want to slect symbolism in tale of two cities by Charles Dickens. But couldn't find out the exact statement. . Can you help me plz. very informative it help me a lot of selecting an topic for my master proposal article thanks you so much. Plz suggest any topic about English literature for my project. any good topic about the difficulties of nuffield advanced a2 coursework, students in English subject? sir i do want to get help regarding my topic for reseach,would you plz help me. Jannat butt 4 months ago. I need a good and easy topic for essay my synopsis in English literature plzzzx help me any one. i need a research about (the old man and the sea)theme of buy order, hope , please any one help me. khalidmehmood 6 months ago.

please help to suggest the book friend, topic about english literature,, i want to write a thesis . very helpful informations thank you so much. Carolinrini 8 months ago. I have taken the changeling and the duchess of malfi comparison as my research topic can u pls help me. Really useful and genuine. I need a current topic for research in essay, English Language rather than Literature. I need a good topic on friend essay, Literature. Please help me anyone.. For sometime now, I hardly read, just scan, but this one I did. Very cohesively propounded on the art of writing. For those still seeking help, like myself:

1-need to read the text. 2-get familiar with the main events. 3-know the characters. 4-the various roles played by on salt the characters. 5-overall impression of the text - tragic,comic,tragic-comic,none. 6-get the undertone on : politics,gender,economy,religion; read on the period of the essay, writer; compare with yours. 7-note the various plots within the main. 8-be aware of the language impact with reference to the readers' and writer's time. 9-read on current affairs - find the family, topics most interest you. 10-befit the topic in your text.

Hopefully you guessed the right one. Dr Anupma Srivastava 3 years ago from is my friend essay, India. Informative hub. It is university questions really very tough to choose topic for writing. Very informative and helpful for the beginners/strugglers . you have put your ideas in a very systematic manner that will help others to choose their topics of research. thanks. Please share more topics.

plzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzzz suggest me any good english literature topics for my thesis and also for my two friends ,i have to submit my thesis in the first week of july. I hate research papers, especially for book friend English literature, but this was really helpful for me to come up with my own essay topic. Omg you saved me. My teacher told me I had to come up with 4 research topics on English Literature to on salt satyagraha, write about over the next month. Is My. I am a fan of English Literature but I had no idea how to go about finding research topics on the subject. and now I do. Thanks, Lisa! bhise pradeep 4 years ago. It is wonderful page. very useful tostudent. busyguru 5 years ago from U.S.

Wonderful advice on organizing your thought process before committing concrete idea to paper. :) ravindrapatil 5 years ago. good ideas for beginners in the area of research in English studies and encouraging at the same time. Satyagraha. thank you! James Paterson 5 years ago from Scotland. Great Ideas and is my friend information, thanks for sharing. Salters Nuffield Advanced A2 Coursework. jimmy. LisaKoski 5 years ago from WA. Thank you! I fixed the typo ;) Cheds 5 years ago from Maine. This is a wonderful hub packed full with information that will be useful to me, and book is my many others. Nice work!

You do have one typo at the beginning. University Essay Questions. You left out the book, T in laws, Suggested. Woops! Joan Whetzel 5 years ago. For my college Lit class, my topic was a comparison of short stories by O. Henry. Though therer are plenty of other authors our there who have written short stories that can also be compared. I love your other suggestions though, and like angela_michelle, I wish I'd had this article available when I took that lit class.

Angela Michelle Schultz 5 years ago from United States. Oh boy, if only book is my had I had this when I was going for my english degree. Would have been so helpful. LOL Great job! Anastasia Kingsley 5 years ago from family law essays, Croatia, Europe. Lots of great detail, original photo (with lovely pink fingernails) and book plenty of examples, much like a well thought out recipe. Bookmarked and voted up + beautiful. Judith Hancock 5 years ago from UK. There's lots of useful information, as well as some great practical examples.

This would be useful for anyone who was totally stuck with how to start their project or those who just wanted a bit of direction. Bev 5 years ago from Wales. Very comprehensive - lots of ideas for essay on salt jumping-off points. I should imagine that mindmapping would be a good tool to be able to is my friend, see patterns or links within the topic. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and respective owners. Other product and a research paper company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and others.

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Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. By: July • Research Paper • 3,404 Words • March 26, 2010 • 1,684 Views. Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Mrs. Lane Honors English 3. Abortion Pro-Choice Persuasive Paper. In the last few decades, abortion has become a much-discussed subject. It has been a central point in many political affairs as in; selecting justices for the Supreme Court, it has also become an issue for candidates for state and local offices as well as for the U.S.

Presidency. What exactly is friend, abortion anyway? Depending on who you ask one will always get different answers, but the dictionary defines abortion as the termination of a pregnancy after, accompanied by, resulting in, or closely followed by the death of the embryo or fetus. The moral question has always been whether or not it should be a woman’s decision to get an abortion. The other side of that question is whether the government should have control over a woman’s body and forbid her to get an abortion. Pro-Choice, though it does take the side of legalizing abortion, it does not mean Pro-abortion. Pro-choice is the right in family law essays choosing whether to book is my reproduce, adopt, or abort. I believe a woman should have the right to choose whether to keep the baby if she knows that she is willing to take up such a huge responsibility. The fundamental issue that Pro-choice focuses on advanced, is whether anyone-including the government, the church, and book friend essay, pro-life protesters- can tell a woman what to nuffield do with their bodies. Book Is My Essay. Pregnancy carries many obligations, and one will lose many privileges. One of those privileges is the right to pursue happiness.

A baby can sometimes disrupt a woman's pursuit of on salt happiness. Having the option to book is my perform an abortion can solve that obstacle. Most of the time the mother of the unwanted child is written, very young and inexperienced or too poor to friend essay take care of the child. The child is usually malnourished, has no medical care, and gets very little attention or love. When talking about abortion, there are many different ethical questions involved. Ethics is what one uses to university of illinois essay distinguish what is right from wrong, good from bad, etc. Since people come from different backgrounds, they have a different code of ethics, therefore answering the question of friend essay right and wrong can not be easily answered, and who knows if it can ever be answered? There is paper, no correct ethical or moral code for one specific time period, or group of people, so one must decide what they believe on the issue of abortion, by examining there own code of ethics. Without a woman's right to do what she chooses with her body, her freedom and liberty are taken away.

If for personal reasons, a woman wants an abortion, as is, currently, her constitutional right, she has the freedom to do so. A child needs to book is my essay be loved and wanted. A baby, whose mother resents his birth, will not receive the proper care and nurturing he deserves. Perhaps, he would be better off not to have been born. For these reasons, I support the Pro-Choice movement. A fetus is tissue growing inside the body of a woman. Since a fetus has no right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness, it has no right to be inside the body of another human being that does not want it. However, the fetus needs to be inside a woman's body to exist.

To give the fetus the right to exist in a woman’s body would make the woman a slave. Satyagraha. Slavery is not a right. It is not morally or legally a right. In fact slavery is a horrible act that was outlawed due to the Civil War. Abortion is a moral right--which should be left to book essay the sole discretion of the woman involved; morally, nothing other than her wish in the matter is to day in urdu be considered. Essay. Pro-choice is the sole belief in the right to chose an alternative, whether is be adoption or abortion. It is not the belief in murder, since abortion does not take the life of a human being. Asking a woman to give up her life for something that is not even a human being, is asking her to law essays make herself a slave. Abortion is an issue of women, and so it should be the woman's right to choose. She has the is my friend, free will to consider others views and university essay questions, morals such but it is her ultimate decision.

In 1973 the friend essay, American Supreme Court ruled that Americans’ right to essay privacy included: “the right of a woman to decide whether to have children, and the right of a woman and her doctor to make that decision without state interference” (“abortion”). The Constitution says we have a right to privacy; so taking away a woman’s chance to make decisions about her own body violates that right. The closure of abortion clinics will be done with the purpose to reduce the book, number of abortions. This raises the question whether this. An abortion is the procedure taken to end a pregnancy either medically or surgically. Like many topics of great controversy, abortion has its positive. In the family law essays, argument of abortion , there are many sides to be seen. There's the pro book friend -life side, which is the curfew, side that is against abortion . Friend Essay. The. Abortion is the termination of a pregnancy.

Since 1973 abortion has been an law essays, important controversial issue within the United States. 1973 marks the year that. Abortion - Pro Life and Pro Choice. There are many controversies about abortion . Many people in essay the world feel differently about this topic. Some are pro -life, the others are pro -chioce. Pro life. Pros Cons Differentiated Instruction. Persuasive Paper Against Portfolio Diversification.

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Essay on friend essay, Rural Development in India. Read this essay to learn about Rural Development in India. After reading this essay you will learn about:- 1. Paper! Introduction to Rural Development 2. Activities and essay Experiments Undertaken for essay on salt Rural Development 3. Essay! The Rural Development Programmes 4. Institutions 5. Observations and family law essays Problems 6. Suggestions. Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development Essay on the Activities and Experiments Undertaken for Rural Development Essay on the Rural Development Programmes Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development in book is my India Essay on the Observations and Problems of Rural Development Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India. 1. Writing A Research! Essay on the Introduction to Rural Development: The definition of Rural is residuary become all over the world that is defined as an urban area and whatever is not urban known as rural. In India a settlement is defined as urban if it fulfils either of the following conditions, were adopted in the 1991 census: (i) All statutory towns, i.e.; all places with a municipality corporation, municipality board, cantonment board or notified town area etc. (ii) A minimum population of 5,000. (iii) At least 75 per cent of the book, Male working population engaged in university of illinois essay questions non-agricultural and allied activity, (iv) A density of population of at least 400 persons per book is my essay square kilometres. Thus, the term ‘Rural’ essentially means an area, which is characterised as non-urban style of life, occupational structure and settlement pattern.

‘Development’ in general refers to on salt satyagraha the process of a general improvement in levels of living together, decreasing inequality in incomes and is my friend essay the capacity to sustain continuous improvements overtime. Thus the term Rural Development is viewed as an activity of a series of activities or a process, which either improves the immediate living conditions-economic, social, political, cultural and environmental or increases the potential for future living or both of the rural people. The Royal commission on Agriculture defined Rural Development as: “We cannot too strongly state our conviction that the directorship of laws argumentative agriculture is one of the key posts in Rural Development and that agricultural advance must in a very great degree depend upon the stability of the officer.” The taskforce appointed by the Planning Commission on Integrated Rural Development in 1972 defined Rural Development as: “After a careful consideration we have belatedly decided to take what might be considered a rather restricted view of the expression. ‘Rural Development’ we have chose to equate it with agricultural development in the widest sense so as to book essay embrace besides crop husbandry, all the essay, allied activities.” According to book the view of World Bank “Rural Development as a strategy design to improve the economic and social life of a specific group of people – The rural (people) poor.

It involves extending the benefits of development to the poorer among those who seek a livelihood in rural areas. The group includes small-scale farmers, tenants and the landless.” Rural Development means a strategy to family law essays improve the economic and friend social life of the salters advanced biology a2 coursework, rural poor and the rural weak in the overall spectrum of book is my essay development and growth. It is not only important to raise the agricultural productivity and the rate of overall economic growth in the rural areas, but also it is to ensure that the poor and weaker sections share the benefit. “Rural Development as a process in complex and essay on salt involves the interaction of economic, social, political, technological and other situational factors.

These have to be integrated with Government policies and plans with the book, objective of improving the quality of life of the people in the villages”. Rural Development encompasses: (i) Improvement in levels of living, including employment, education, health and nutrition housing and nuffield a variety of social services. (ii) Decreasing inequality in distribution of rural incomes and in rural-urban balances in incomes and economic opportunities and. (iii) The capacity of the rural sector to sustain and accelerate the book is my essay, pace of these improvements. The critical element in the Rural Development is improvement living standards of the poor through opportunities for law essays better utilisation of their physical and human resources in the absence of this utilisation of rural resources has no functional significance.

Making the process of rural development self-sustaining of capital and use of technology for the benefit of the friend, poor but their active involvement in the building up of essay on salt satyagraha institutions as well as functioning of friend essay these. There are a number of definitions of rural development. But that varies according to writing a research paper buy order time, priority and book is my friend nature of rural activities. Despite of differences, the academicians, planners and policy makers have always laid emphasis for the all-round development of the rural activities. However, Rural Development as a concept and as series of experiments in alternative methods of organising production, welfare and day in urdu exchange in rural activities has a long history and is not the monopoly of any single system or country. Its recent popularity however is mainly symptomatic of the failure of technocratic and growth strategies pursued by most developing countries in book essay the 1950s and 1960s.

Academics, nationals and international policy makers are carrying out the search for solution to the twin problems of rural poverty and unemployment. The noted Western economists like, Kuznets, Gerschenkron, Floud and Mccloskey provide useful insights into the history of economic development of the present day developed countries. The growth of output and productivity in these countries during last 10 to 15 decades has been qualitatively different from that observed in earlier periods. University Of Illinois Essay! Modern Economic growth since the late 18th century is different from periods of growth in earlier times in three specific respects. Firstly, the ownership and use of economic surplus were 34 Rural Development in India separated for book essay the first time. Those who used this surplus as capital in the production process did not necessarily own it as they did in the land-based feudal pre-industrial system.

Secondly, extensive use of an family, acceptable unit of book is my essay exchange called money helped in expansion of market, which made specialization and mobility possible. Lastly, mobility of both capital and labour in family pursuit of higher gains to urban areas and distant lands occurred on an unprecedented scale. The consequent increase in output and productivity were substantial and friend essay sustained over essay on salt satyagraha, a long period of time. These impressive increases were also accompanied by growth of population and large-scale migration from not only book is my friend essay rural to urban areas but from nation to nation and from continent to continent. Historically experience suggests that, when seen in long-term perspective, economic growth has been accompanied by specialisation centralization, maximization, urbanization and industrialization. History shows that, poverty has been diminished by the growth of labour increased productivity in written speech on mother's day in urdu the agricultural sector and migration of book is my labour to urban non-agricultural activities. Argumentative Essay! The population movement occurred mainly because industry could offer the incentive of is my essay higher wages and family law essays better employment opportunities. The role of the State has been changing significantly since the Eighteenth Century. Traditionally the is my friend essay, Government’s activities could be divided into three departments namely, defense, Public works and internal administration. A healthy balance among the three ensured stable regimes with the advent of nuffield a2 coursework modern economic development; the “Public works” component has been an expanding area of State activity.

Modern development policy makers while, recognising the importance of infrastructure have been rather ambiguous about the essay, contents of infrastructure is essay on salt satyagraha, one of the very few illuminating contributions on the subject. Infrastructure includes all things provided by the State, which promote directly or indirectly productive activities. Transport, irrigation, power, water supply, health, education and urban services are considered important elements of infrastructure. In a mixed economy, with a relatively important public sector, provision of infrastructure has to be carefully planned and friend essay provided by the State. The State playing an important role in paper development. Policy makers and planners have started devoting more to “rural development’ in their declarations and documents on national planning policies. In various ways and for various motives they have attempted to relate to the problems of their own rural poor. Despite, substantial and impressive increase in growth of agricultural and food outputs in some regions of a number of developing countries the plight of small and is my essay marginal farmers, agricultural and landless labourers, artisans and of illinois essay questions small retailers has not been improved significantly. In India the term ‘Rural Development’ is is my friend essay, not a very old phenomenon. Law Essays! Early in book is my the century their exist the British rule. In that time, rural development was a minor symphony in the governmental orchestra.

The functions of the Government were limited and written day in urdu even the spread of each function was narrowly restricted. Thus, Development cannot but be of minor meaning and significance in the structure of the priorities of book is my essay colonialism, which was also reflected in the rural areas. The decade 1920-30 was very significant from the view of early pioneering efforts at rural development in family India. The noted social Thinkers, Educationists, Politicians started such efforts in our country; in essay early 20s. 2. Written Day In Urdu! Essay on the Activities and book essay Experiments Undertaken for paper buy order Rural Development: Programmes and Projects in Pre-Independence Periods: The important activities and experiments undertaken for rural development in Pre-Independence periods are: (i) Sriniketan Experiments:

This programme was pioneered by noted scholar of the country Rabindranath Tagore. The important objective of the experiment was Economic and book is my essay Moral rehabilitation of the rural community. (ii) Martandum Project: One Rural Reconstruction Programme was initiated by Spancer Hatch at Martandum (South Travancore) in 1921. Martandum rural reconstruction Centre was opened with a five- sided programme popularly called as “The Five Sided Triangle” Comprising Spirit, Mind, Body, Economic and Social side. The philosophy of salters biology rural reconstruction embraced principles known as “Pillars of Policy”. The principle of ‘Self Help’ was maintained.

The project became the centre of book is my essay comprehensive programmes of rural development. (iii) The Gurugaon Experiment: The important village uplift movement was initiated by law essays I.L.Brayne the essay, Deputy Commissioner of Gurugaon district in 1920. This village development programme called as the university of illinois, “Gurugaon Scheme”. The Gurugaon Scheme claimed to deal with the whole life and is my essay the activity of the peasant and written on mother's day in his family and to present a complete remedy from the book friend, terrible conditions in with they lived. (iv) Rural Reconstruction Movement in Baroda: The important rural reconstruction centre was set up in 1932 and the work commenced in a group of villages round Kosamba (Navasri district). The movement aimed at improvement in all aspect of rural life, changing the law essays, outlook of the agriculturists, the attainment of higher standard of living. (v) Sarvodaya Scheme of Bombay: This scheme was based on is my friend essay, the Gandhiji’s idea of Sarvodaya. The important aim of the project is to stop migration of youths to nearest towns and cities.

The supply of salters nuffield advanced biology food for all, adequate medical facilities, free education, local self-Government, self-employment through cottage industries were highlighted in book the programme. (vi) Firka Development Scheme: The Firka Development Scheme aimed at the attainment of the Gandhian ideal of salters advanced “Village Swaraj” by is my essay brining about not only the education, economic, sanitary and written other improvements of village along with the revitalisation of the spirit if people and to book is my friend essay make them self-confident and self-reliant. The schemes involved close coordination with the various Government services like, agriculture, veterinary, irrigation, industries, medical and communication departments. The scheme was later merged with the day in, National Extension Services in 1953-54. Programmes and Projects in is my Post-Independence Period: Programmes and a research buy order projects were also launched in post-independence and pre-planning periods. The important among them are: (1) The Pilot Development Project of Etawah: The Project began under the is my essay, sponsorships of the provincial Governments of Uttar Pradesh in late 1948. The important objectives of the project were to increase the degree of productivity, social improvements, promotion of self-confidence and written day in urdu cooperation. The pilot project at Etawah treated as one of the most successful rural development project of the World.

The project also exhibited the exemplary Cooperation and Coordination of Government, volunteers and others. (2) The Nilokheri Experiment : India divided in book is my 1947. The Rehabilitation of displaced persons coming from Pakistan gathered importance. In order to provide them gainful employment a new township was developed at Nilokheri in 1948 with the efforts of Sri S.K.Dey. Sri Dey evolved a faith were to activate and support a triple charter of university questions rights such as: (i) Right to live, (ii) Right to work for living and. (iii) Right to receive what is earned. To give a practical shape to this charter or rights a new scheme known as the “Mazdoor Manzil” was drawn up. Book Is My Friend! The basic concept of the Mazdoor Manzil was to speech on mother's stop the book, one-way traffic of labour, material, skill and culture from villages to town. The township was intended to include institutions for family medical relief and sanitation, Higher Education, Technical and Vocational Training, Veterinary aid and agricultural extension embracing agriculture, horticulture, poultry, piggery, fishery, sheep breeding and other forms of book animal husbandry. The project was highly appreciated by the then Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru.

The Planning for Rural Development have been received utmost attention by the planners and policy makers along with the National Plan for Economic Development. The rural development strategies were also adopted by planners as per the methods and paper strategies adopted for the economic development of the country. Friend! India adopted both the centralised and decentralised planning models in the process of its planned economic development. The First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) adopted the Harrod-Domar model of capital accumulation and saving mobilisation as its methodological approach towards planning. Under this approach, the process of economic development must start from the villages.

In this context, the mobilization of peoples participation was required. In order to implement this ideology the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Block administration was created as a centre of Rural Development activities. This programme failed as blocks were quite big and left the weaker section untouched. The programme was also implemented in Orissa. Family Law Essays! The State planning machinery followed the objectives and guidelines fixed by Central Government.

The Second Five Year Plan (1955-56 to 1960-61) based on Feldman-Mahalnobis model of sectoral growth. This strategy emphasised investment in heavy industry to achieve industrialization, which was assumed to be the basic condition for rapid economic development. A good deal of is my friend reliance was placed on cottage and small industries with the aim of reducing rural under employment, unemployment. As against this background no important specialised rural development programme was launched during the second plan period. However, steps were taken to strengthen the ongoing community development programme. In this respect the, need for viable institutional base was felt and the Panchayati Raj System was introduced during the plan period. Besides, specialised rural economic development programmes like, Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP), Khadi and Village Industries Programme (KVI), Multi-purpose Tribal Development, Village Housing Projects/Schemes were also introduced in rural areas of the country. As a part of the Union, the specialised sectoral development programmes were also introduced in Orissa. In the on salt satyagraha, Third Five Year Plan (1960-61-to-1965-66) all round agricultural development was envisaged. Increased agricultural production in the farm sector and activities allied to agriculture received topmost priority during the plan period.

The important agricultural development programmes bringing green revolution strategy like Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) and High Yield Varieties Programme (HYVP) were implemented in the country. It is observed that, the benefits accrued only to rich and progressive peasants. Once again, landless and essay agricultural labourers were left untouched. Satyagraha! Besides, rural industries project for the promotion of village industries was also launched during the said plan period. Health and Nutrition is regarded as important inputs required for improvement in essay the quality of life. To ensure appropriate and adequate nutrition to the children, for written speech on mother's day in urdu their growth Applied Nutrition Programme was introduced during the Third Five Year Plan. The Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-74) in the name of “Growth with social justice” initiated efforts towards uplifting the vulnerable sections of rural society. Is My Essay! In this connection a number of ‘area development oriented’ and ‘Target Oriented’ programmes were introduced. Programmes such as Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA), Small Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFAL), Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP), Tribal Area Development Programme (TADP) were introduced as the important rural development programmes.

These rural development programmes did succeed, but only in limited areas and numbers. This plan paved the path for a number of rural development and poverty alleviation programmes in the country. These programmes were implemented through the existing administrative apparatus at block and law essays village levels. Employment generation programmes like, Crash Scheme for Rural Employment and Pilot Intensive Rural Employment Programme were also launched during the plan period. The Fifth Plan (1974-79) based on the Inter-sectoral transactions model of Leontief which emphasised on strengthening the inter-sectoral linkages for balanced growth in sectors. The most important objectives of the Fifth Plan Period was: (i) Removal of poverty and.

(ii) Achievement of self-reliance. In order to attain these objectives. The Programmes like, Command Area Development Programme (CADP), Hill Area Development Programme (HADP), Minimum Needs Programme (MNP), Food for Work Programme (FFW) were introduced, during the plan period. Besides, in is my friend essay order to promote small-scale, village and cottage industries the District Industries Centres (DICs) were set up in all districts of the country. The 20-point Economic Programme was also introduced during the said plan period. The Sixth Five Year Plan (1980-85) aimed at the removal of poverty, growth, modernisation, self-reliance and social justice. In order to attain all-round development in rural areas, one single integrated programme called Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP) was conceived.

IRDP is regarded as a multi-level, multi-sector and multi-section concept of family rural development. As a multi-level concept it encompasses rural development at is my friend various levels such as viable cluster of village communities, districts and curfew laws argumentative essay blocks. As a multi- sector concept, it embraces development in various sectors and sub-sectors of the rural areas such as agriculture, industry, education, health and transportation etc. As a multi-section concept, it encompasses socio-economic development of various sections and sub-sections of rural population such as Small farmers, Marginal farmers, Landless and agricultural labourers, Artisans, Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes. Besides IRDP, the employment generation programmes like, National Rural Employment Programme (NREP), Rural Landless Employment Guarantee Programme (RLEGP), Economic Rehabilitation or Rural Poor (ERRP), Training of Rural Youth for Self-Employment (TRYSEM), Self Employment for the Educated Unemployed Youths (SEEUY). Development of Women and Children in is my Rural Areas (DWCRA) etc. were also introduced during the said plan period. The important objectives of the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) were; building an independent self-reliant economy, establishment of social system based on of illinois questions, equity and book friend essay justice, reduction of regional imbalance and adoption of advanced technologies.

The plan intended; to continue the rural development programmes launched/implemented during the Sixth Five Year Plans. Besides, some rural infrastructural development programmes like, Indira Awas Yojana (IAY) Integrated Rural Energy Planning Programme (IREP), Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (JRY), Million Wells Scheme (MWS), etc. Paper! were implemented as the special rural development programmes during the plan period. The Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) aimed at generation of adequate employment opportunities, Universalisation of elementary education, provision of book is my essay safe drinking water and primary health care facilities, and strengthening the infrastructure. The special rural development and poverty alleviation programmes implemented in earlier plans were also intended to continue during the Eighth Five Year Plan. In order to boost earlier infrastructure and nuffield employment generation programmes the new and culmination programmes like, Intensified Jawahar Rozgar Yojana (IJRY), Employment Assurance Scheme (EAS), Operation Black Board (OBB), and book is my friend essay District Primary Education Programme (DPEP) were introduced. The Ninth Five Year Plan (1997-2002) aimed at generating employment opportunities in the secondary sector, all-round development of agricultural sector, strengthening the rural economy through development of agro-based industries, small- scale village and cottage industries and elimination of poverty. As against these objectives, the programmes for on salt satyagraha self- employment, and supplementary wage employment and other programmes intended to continue during the Ninth Plan with some modifications. These important antipoverty programmes include the IRDP, TRYSEM, JRY, IAY, IJRY, SFPP, DPAP and EAS etc. The IRDP, DWCRA, TRYSEM, MWS were in operation till the end of 1998-99. It was felt that; this fragmented approach with a multiplicity of schemes was not able to focus on the needs of the essay, rural poor in a coherent manner. Hence these schemes were amalgamated by written speech on mother's day in urdu Government of India and merged into a single new scheme called Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana (SGSY) with effect from book is my 1.4.1999.

In order to create adequate infrastructural development the Jawahar Gram Samridhi Yojana (JGSY) was also implemented on the same date. All the plan strategies for rural development based on various approaches like, growth-based approach in first Three Five Year Plans (First Five Year Plan, Second Five Year Plan, Third Five Year Plan), which was popularly known as trickle down approach. The Fourth Five Year Plan based on Target group approach. Writing Paper Buy Order! The Fifth Five Year Plan highlights the is my friend, target group approach with equal importance to Minimum Needs approach to rural development. The Sixth, Seventh, Eighth and Ninth Five Year Plan in our country adopt the on salt satyagraha, target group approach for rural development. The important elements of rural development strategies are: (1) Appropriate Institutional Arrangements. (2) Labour – Intensive agriculture and Minor development works. (3) A hierarchy of development centres to bridge the book is my friend, wide gap between rural and urban areas and self- reliance.

(4) An active policy for social development, and. (5) Appropriate Organisational arrangements. The Rural Development Programmes based on various approaches and strategies. These are varies according to plan and the Nature of the advanced a2 coursework, programme. However, all the Rural Development Programmes have its own feature, objectives finance system, implementation and monitoring as well as success and failure. Book Friend Essay! The discussion on some of the important rural development programme will throw light in day in urdu this respect. 3. Essay on the Rural Development Programmes in India: India started her planned economic development through Five Year Plans in the year 1950-51. The economy of the Country has been dominated by the rural and traditional economic sectors.

The productivity of these sectors has not changed significantly over the period of 50 years. The existence of massive unemployment and is my poverty is the common feature of Indian economy in general and rural economy in written particular. The infrastructure of the country has not developed up to the world standard. It is proper to mention here that, we have achieved little over the period of is my friend 50 years of planned economic development. The planners and policy makers have been laid best possible efforts for the development of the written speech, economy and rural development. Due to a number of factors, desired success has not been achieved so far. However, we would like to discuss some of the book is my, important rural development programmes implemented in our country as well as the states and Union Territories from time to time. The aims and objectives of nuffield a2 coursework these programmes are national in nature and is my essay the progress and achievements are based on the secondary data available.

As one of the under developed state, the progress and achievements of rural development programmes of Orissa. Some comparative analysis of the R.D. Programmes implemented in the country and the State Orissa is also made. Curfew Laws Argumentative Essay! Since 1951 a number of rural development programmes have been implemented in book is my essay our Country. Among such programmes/schemes, twenty five important rural development programmes considered for analysis. These programmes covers all plan periods i.e.; First Five Year Plan (1950-51 to 1955-56) to Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). (i) Community Development Programme (CDP): India as an independent Country started its planned economic development process in the year 1950-51.

The First Five Year Plan 1950-51 to 1955-56 based on methodical approach. The noted Harrod-Domar Model of university development was adopted in the said plan. The model emphasised on book friend, capital accumulation and family saving. The process of economic development must start from the village was also emphasised in the first plan. Book Friend Essay! In this context, the mobilisation of people’s participation is essential and to implement this ideology, the Community Development Programme (CDP) was conceived. The Community Development Programme was launched on on salt satyagraha, 2nd October 1952.

A general village community in India can be divided into six main groups as follows: (i) The owners of land and book friend those who have hereditary rights of tenancy. (ii) The sub-tenants or tenants at will. (iii) Landless Agricultural labourers. (iv) Village Artisans. (v) Money lenders and Shopkeepers. (vi) Persons in the professions or in personal services, e.g. doctors, lawyers, barbers, village officials. Taking all into consideration the objectives of Community Development Programme was framed.

The important objective of Community Development Programme is to create an speech on mother's, urge among the book friend essay, rural people for a research buy order a better life and to show the way to book is my satisfying this urge predominantly by curfew argumentative means of self-help. This objective is to be attained by book is my friend revitalising the existing village institutions and creating new ones where ever necessary. The programme emphasized to give effects to salters nuffield an intensive and comprehensive programme covering all aspects of rural life; i.e.; agriculture, rural industries, education, housing, health, recreation and services etc. and friend aimed at utilizing under a democratic set up the surplus labour force in rural areas for law essays development purpose. It also aims at the largest possible extension of the principle of cooperation and book every effort to made to make rural families credit worthy. The Community Development Programme as a people’s programmes introduced and implemented through Local-self Government and the rural people. The Local Self Government get further boost after the recommendation of university essay Balwantrai Mehta’s formulation of essay Democratic decentralisation in the forms of village Panchayats, Panchayat Samities and Zilla Parishads. The Finance for the Community Development Programme is drawn both from the people and the Government. Being a people’s programme prescribes a qualifying scale of voluntary contribution from the people in the form of labour as well as money. The State Government and the Central Government with due sharing basis meet the balance expenditure in a block. The Community Development Programme was launched in selected blocks of the State Orissa, as pilot programme.

The Community Development Programme received its momentum during Second Five Year Plan. The total expenditure of Rs. 822.91 lakhs was incurred during the Second Plan period for the said programme. By the end of the Third Five Year Plan (1965-66) period there were 147 Stage I blocks, 139 Stage II blocks bringing the total number of blocks to written speech urdu 314. Thus, all the blocks were covered under Community Development Programme. The total expenditure under this programme was Rs 1767 lakhs. The Community Development Programme has attained its pick during the book is my friend essay, Fourth Five Year Plan (1969-1974). During the said period all the Stage I block converted to Stage II and large number of stage II block to post-stage II blocks. It is observed that there were 43 CD blocks in stage II and urdu the remaining 271 blocks in the post stage II or in stage III.

Total Fund of Rs 850 lakhs were earmarked for the programme. Besides, special development schemes on book friend, irrigation, Agriculture extension, animal husbandry, horticulture, drinking water and communication were also implemented in essay on salt seven backward districts of the State. Is My Friend! In this respect a total sum of Rs 225 lakh has been earmarked. The contribution of Community Development Programme to the rural development are: (1) The setting up of on salt a network of community development blocks covering the length and breadth of the country, thus enabling the government to reach the rural population in book is my friend essay almost any aspect of of illinois questions their life, (2) The transfer of powers and is my functions for implementing the programme to the elected representatives at family the village, block and district levels, thereby paving the is my, way for democratic decentralisation through a three-tier Panchayati Raj System. The National Institute of Community Development conducted a survey to assess the advanced biology a2 coursework, impact of CDP They concluded that “the process of book is my modernisation has reached all strata, and going to argumentative do so at a faster pace in future, but this has not resulted in any violent reaction on the part of the lower classes”. The ideology of people’s participation through Panchayati Raj System, in is my essay absence of salters proper education and discipline resulted in conspicuous alienation of the book friend essay, weaker sections of the rural communities by the privileged classes. The latter could secure the essay on salt satyagraha, benefits of the programme because their contribution was not free but charged with consideration.

It is observed that the whole programme suffered from lack of vitality, and book is my friend essay was tending to generate only into a number of material benefits for a limited few. The official agencies responsibility for implementation of development activities lacked in understanding the new climate because they were manned by those officials who were trained in the particular framework. Besides, their bureaucratic approach also appeared to be a hindrance in initiating the programmes. The critics complained that the Community Development Programme has given a ‘new look’ but not the ‘food’ to the rural poor. It is essay on salt, no denying a fact that the expenditure on building the institutions for social change was larger than the expenditure incurred on productive purposes. Thus, its social contents superseded the economic contents though it was assumed to the instrument of economic transformation.

(ii) Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP): The Intensive Agricultural District Programme (IADP) as a package programme was very strongly recommended by Agricultural Production Team of the Ford Foundation (USA) on 1959. This programme was put into action during 1960-61. The important objective of the programme was to improve the agricultural production in a integrated and book intensified manner. This programme was introduced in curfew laws essay selected districts of the country. The selection of these districts was made on the basis of: (a) The district should as far as possible have assured water supply.

(b) It should have a minimum of natural hazards, (c) It should have well developed village Institutions like Cooperatives and Panchayats. (d) It should have maximum potentialities of increasing agricultural production within a comparatively short-time. Book Friend Essay! Taking the criteria into written speech on mother's, consideration Sambalpur district was selected in Orissa. It was decided to is my essay implement for the development of Rabi Crops in 1962-63. Paper! This programme was introduced in book friend all the 29 blocks of the district. In the second phase of the programme main thrust was given on university essay questions, the increase of higher yielding paddy in the Khariff extending the area under various commercial and horticulture crops and on promoting efficient soil and water management practices. Required inputs, know how and financial provisions are made for the success of the programme. Sambalpur district not only self-reliant in book is my friend essay Rice Production but also treated as a main rice-producing district of the State.

The IADP has been a ‘Path finder’ for successful programme. (iii) Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP): The Third Five Year Plan (1960-65) aimed to achieve self- sufficiency in food grains and increase agricultural production to meet the salters nuffield advanced biology, requirements of industry and exports. Besides, the mid-term appraisal of the Third Five Year Plan observed that “Much greater emphasis should be given to the development of scientific and is my friend progressive agriculture in an intensive manner in areas where a high agricultural production potentialities”. The Government of India formulated the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme (IAAP) with a view to cover at least 20 per cent to 25 per cent of the cultivated area of the country and this area should be selected for the intensive development of import crops such as wheat, paddy, millets, cotton, sugarcane, potato, pulses etc. Curfew Argumentative Essay! The programme was launched in friend essay 1964-65. The aim of IAAP was to bring about a progressive increase in the production of on salt satyagraha main crops in selected areas by an intensive package approach i.e.; the essay, use of inter-related factors – physical, social and institutional-in-strategic combination which were likely to exert an impact on agricultural production. It was decided to implement such programme in the selected blocks of the law essays, country as well as the friend, state. The selection criteria were the blocks having a minimum irrigated area of 5 thousand acres.

In Orissa a total of 86 blocks were covered under the Intensive Agricultural Area Programme during the writing a research paper buy order, period of Fourth Five Year Plan an additional 46 blocks were brought under the programme, taking total coverage of blocks up to 132. The required funds for the programme were met from the plan and non-plan expenditure of the Agriculture and allied activities. The programme paved the way for the introduction of Green Revolution in India. The Introduction of High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) reduced the book is my friend, importance of IAA Programme in the State as well in the country. (iv) High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP):

The High Yielding Varieties Programme (HYVP) was launched in the country from the kharif seasons of 1966-67 as a major plank of new agricultural strategy under the economic planning system. The important objective of the programme was to attain self-sufficiency in food by the end of 1970-71. The programme envisages the introduction and spread over fairly large areas of the newly identified and evolved high yielding variety of paddy, wheat, maize, jowar and bajra. The HYVP proposes to day in make a technological break-through in Indian agriculture which consists of the introduction of new and high-yielding varieties of improved seeds, increased application of the book friend, right amount of fertilizers and extension of the use of urdu pesticides so that the crop produced is not destroyed by friend insects. To enable the farmers to speech on mother's undertake this agricultural practice, the book friend essay, Reserve Bank of India (RBI) agreed to relax the writing a research paper buy order, usual terms and conditions in respect of Central Cooperative Banks (CCBs) for the purpose of financing such cultivators. During the Fourth Five Year Plan about 742.6 thousand hectares of land was brought under the HYV programme in is my Orissa. This has increased to salters nuffield a2 coursework about 1860 thousand hectares of land during Fifth Five Year Plan with an investment of about Rs. 2 Crores. This programme mainly confined to good land and to those farmers who have the resources and the adaptability to friend essay embrace the progress of technology. This programme became successful in the states like Punjab, Haryana and a part of Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu in general and university essay Punjab, and Haryana in friend essay particular, where wheat is the family, main food crop.

The rice and other commercial crops reported insignificant improvement in their production. Orissa as non-wheat producing state received insignificant growth in food production. (v) Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA): The Reserve Bank of is my essay India appointed All-India Rural Credit Review Committee on 1969, under the biology, Chairmanship of friend Sri B.Venkatappiah. The committee in university of illinois questions its-interim report recommended for the establishment of Small Farmers Development Agency (SFDA) in following words: “The special efforts proposed are to be restricted to those cultivators who can be developed into surplus farmers if they adopt improved techniques on the basis of support in terms of supplies, irrigation, services of machinery etc. Book Friend! Appropriate schemes have to be drawn up by technical experts with reference to local resources and requirements, so that such cultivators can undertake specific lines of investment (e.g. sinking of wells) adopt a suitable crop pattern, use modern inputs and so on.

It is to deal with this limited problem that in institutional setup in the form a Small Farmers Development Agency may be established in certain selected districts.” The important functions of the Agency was to: (i) Investigate and identify the problems of small farmers and endeavour to see that the family, provision of book essay various services and supplies to small farmers is written speech on mother's urdu, ensured, (ii) Help small farmer to secure loans from co-operative banks and other assistance like obtain improved seeds, fertilizers and book is my essay other inputs, (iii) The agency is to provide various services such as spraying of insecticides, hiring out of tractors and land leveling to family law essays small farmers through the agro-industries corporations or other appropriate bodies and institutions including cooperatives and local authorities such as Zilla Parishad and extension services, (iv) To draw up plans for investment and book is my production activities to be undertaken by the cultivators participating in the programme, (v) To explore the possibility of adding to the income of the small farmers by family assisting them in taking up animal husbandry activities such as dairy and poultry, (vi) It should endeavour to promote the flow of short-term, medium- term and long-term co-operative credit to small cultivators for appropriate purposes from the Agricultural Credit Societies and Central Cooperative banks on the one hand and the land development banks on the other. The scheme was included in the Fourth Five Year Plan. However, the book friend essay, scheme actually started functioning on a significance scale in the year 1971-72. The schemes were implemented in selected districts by a separate agency constituted under the Societies Registration Act.

The scheme was financed by the State and speech on mother's Central Government on matching basis. The provision of subsidy was also made by the agency at the rate of 25 per cent to non-tribal small farmers, 33.3 per cent to non-tribal marginal farmers and 50 per cent to Tribal farmers in capital investments and inputs subject to maximum of is my essay Rs 3000 and Rs 5000 respectively for any farmers. In Orissa, the Small Farmers Development Agency was implemented in three districts. They were Bolangir, Dhenkanal and Ganjam. During first two years of the programme, could not make much headway because of a number of initial difficulties. The loans were advanced to the farmers under this scheme were utilised mostly for productive purposes.

Orissa stand second in utilisation of loans in all-India basis after Kerala. Day In! The State utilised about 83.6 per cent of the loans sanctioned under the scheme. During the period between 1971-72 and 1980, about book friend essay, 272 lakh families in curfew essay 115 blocks less than seven SFDA were benefitted. The total loans mobilised stood at Rs. 38.4 crores. A total expenditure incurred towards subsidies and agency staff was Rs. 14.8 crores. The SFDA was the first rural development programme in the country where the Central Government, State Government and friend essay Financial Institutions maintained proper linkage for the success of the programme. However, the programme had been merged with the Integrated Rural Development Programme since 2nd October 1980. (vi) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency (MFALDA):

The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies were set up along with SFDA on the recommendation made by curfew laws argumentative essay Rural Credit Review Committee (1969). The principal objective of the programme is to assist the marginal farmers and agricultural labourers in maximum productive use of their small holding and skills by undertaking horticulture, animal husbandry and other economic activities, like rural industries etc. The important functions of the programme were to: (i) Identify eligible beneficiaries and their problems. (ii) To formulate economic programmes for providing gainful employment to the participants, (iii) To promote infrastructural facilities for production, processing, storage and is my friend marketing of products. (iv) To promote rural industries. The necessary credit for productive investment was provided by Institutional Financing Agencies like, Cooperatives and Commercial banks. Besides provision of matching subsidies were also provided to the beneficiaries. The non-Tribal Marginal farmers and Agricultural labourers were eligible to receive subsidies worth 33.3 per cent on the capital investments and inputs, whereas this was 50 per cent for tribal beneficiaries, subject to maximum of Rs 3000/- and Rs 5000/- respectively. The Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agency was launched during the laws argumentative, year 1971-72 in the districts of Cuttack and Keonjhar. During first two years both short and medium-term loans amounted to Rs 61.32 lakhs and Rs 45.97 lakhs respectively were advanced to about 9 thousands and 8 thousand Farmers respectively.

A total sum of Rs 1.6 cores was earmarked in the year 1974-75. This amount has increased to Rs 4.2 crores in the year 1975-76. Friend Essay! Under the project 2.6 lakh Marginal farmers and 0.3 lakh Agricultural Labourers were identified and benefitted under the programme. Among them about 70 per family law essays cent of the book, beneficiaries were enrolled as members of essay satyagraha cooperative societies. (vii) Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP):

A Rural works programme was initiated in 1970-71 with the objective of providing development investment in drought prone areas. During the Fourth Five Year Plan the main emphasis of the programme was on labour intensive works such as medium and book friend minor irrigation, road construction, afforestation, soil conservation and writing a research provision of drinking water. In the Fifth Plan, this scheme was re-oriented as an area development programme. The strategy of this programme was to book is my friend essay improve the economy of the areas covered, through a package of of illinois essay questions infrastructural and on-farm development activities with the objective of book friend optimum utilisation of land, water, human and livestock resources. Writing A Research Paper! This programme was also targeted the weaker sections of the society like, Small and Marginal farmers, Agricultural Labourers and is my friend other rural poor, who have no assured source of income. Co-operative societies were organised to argumentative essay act accordingly. This programme implemented in the areas where the monsoon is most unpredictable vis-a-vis it also laid emphasis for the inclusion of target group people. Thus, this programme was the first in its category, which included both the book friend, area approach and target group approach. The DPAP was implemented in the chronically drought affected districts of Orissa. Considering the concentration of weaker sections as well as drought prone area the programme was implemented in 11 blocks of of illinois essay questions Kalahandi and book is my 14 blocks of Phulbani district in Orissa. During the Fourth Plan the scheme was fully financed by the Government of India.

The Government of India revised the programme during Fifth Five Year Plan. As per the revision the programme was financed by Central State Governments on 50:50 matching basis. In Fourth Five Year Plan the Central Government sanctioned an amount of Rs 3.4 Crores to Orissa for the programme. During the years 1974-80 expenditure on the programme was stood at Rs 14.2 Crores on different schemes. The programme has been extended to university essay questions 14 more blocks of Bolangir and Sambalpur districts (8 blocks in Bolangir and 6 blocks in Sambalpur) bringing total blocks to 39 in 4 districts of the State. The State Plan allocation for the Sixth Plan was Rs 7 Crores against the anticipated expenditure of Rs 7.1 Crores. The total plan expenditure for DPA Programme during the Seventh Five Year Plan (1985-90) was Rs 26.5 Crores.

The launching of book friend essay Eighth Plan was delayed by two years due to political instability in the country. However the programme received Rs 12.7 Crores in 1990-91 and 1991-92. Of Illinois Essay Questions! The Drought Prone Area Development Programme is being operated in 47 blocks (2 blocks each in Boudh, Sonepur, Dhenkanal, 12 blocks in Phulbani, 10 blocks in Kalahandi, 8 blocks in Bolangir, 6 blocks in is my Bargarh and 5 blocks in curfew argumentative essay Nuapada districts) Spread over to 8 districts of the book friend, State during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97). The Total expenditure incurred under the plan was Rs 36.9 Crores. The total Funds available during 1997-98 at; the all-India level was about salters, Rs 913 lakhs.

The total Expenditure incurred during the year was Rs 436 lakhs. The expenditure was thus 47.8 per cent of the book is my friend essay, total funds available under the programme. The percentage share of total expenditure to total funds available was about 48.6 per cent. (viii) Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (ITDA): Next to Africa, India has the largest concentration of the tribal population in the World. Though all the states have tribal population in various degrees of concentration, majority of written on mother's urdu them is found in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and West Bengal. Economic backwardness of the tribal population has undoubtedly occupied considerable interest among our planners. The First Five Year Plan laid down its priorities for tribal development in three broad categories namely education, economic uplift and health, housing and other schemes. Since then each five year plan has chartered new strategies for achieving these basic objectives. Book! During the Second Five Year Plan, multi-purpose tribal blocks were set up which were later re-named as Tribal development blocks in the Third Five Year Plan. Expenditure on tribal development too, increased several fold over the plan periods.

However, these efforts did not bring about any substantive change among the majority of the essay, tribal population. It is noticed that, in the first three plans emphasis was placed on sectorial plans under various subjects such as agriculture, industry, transportation, health and friend education etc. Most of these were conceived at writing paper the National or at the State level. The Fourth Five Year Plan gave importance to planning at the district level and to experimental studies on growth centres for evolving a planning strategy at the grass-root level. In this context, the Government of India has sanctioned pilot projects for tribal development in the central agricultural sector. Among the book friend, Six projects sanctioned in All-India level, Ganjam and Koraput districts were selected in Orissa. The outlay on each of these projects was Rs 2 Crores. Under the Tribal Development Agencies (1972-73) the Tibetan Re-settlement scheme at Chandragiri of Ganjam district and a Saura Development Scheme in Koraput district were brought out.

A new strategy has been evolved for planning the development of the tribal communities during the written speech day in urdu, Fifth Plan period. The new strategy envisages the preparation of a sub- plan for the tribal areas. The first exercise in this regard is to demarcate the book is my friend essay, tribal areas based on the tribal population. (i) Areas, where the written speech on mother's urdu, tribal concentration of 50 per cent or above. (ii) Areas of dispersed tribal population below 50 per cent. (iii) Extremely backward and isolated little communities.

In order to implement the sub-plan programmes 21 ITDA’s were constituted covering 118 out of is my friend 314 blocks in the state. Each ITDA has a project level committee under the Chairmanship of Collector with official and non-official and Tribal women as members. They have to writing a research buy order draw up the plan and programmes at ITDA level and review and monitor the developmental activities of different Department. Each ITDA is headed by a Class I officer with supporting staff like Special Officer, Assistant Engineer, Junior Engineer, Statistical Assistant, Soil Conservation/Agricultural Extension Officer and other clerical staff. 15 Project Administrators have been declared as Additional District Magistrates for exercising powers under different regulatory laws.

There were about 47 thousand villages in Orissa; out of that 18.7 thousand villages were in Tribal sub plan of which 14 villages were declared as ITDP villages. They were spread over to about 98 blocks of the State up to 1977-78. A total financial outlay of Rs 189 crore was earmarked for the programme in 1979-80 with a view to cover about 2 thousand families. Book! The total estimated flow of resources during the sixth plan period was Rs 700 Crores. It is observed that 36 per writing a research buy order cent of the total outlay of the State during Sixth Plan Period was earmarked for investment as against 23 per cent during fifth plan period. About 5.0 lakh tribal families were assisted under various anti- poverty programmes (including IRDP ERRP) during Sixth Plan Period. During the Seventh Plan period, about 7.6 lakh families were covered under the plan with the plan expenditure of Rs 1440 Crores. The plan allocation for the sub-plan during the book essay, year 1990-91 and 91-92 was estimated at Rs 391 crores and Rs 590 crores respectively. The proposed flow of funds for the Eighth Plan Period (1992-97) was estimated at law essays Rs 3885 Crores. The Flow of is my friend essay funds during 1992-93 was of the order of Rs 459 Crores. Paper! This covered about 34 families.

The total funds for book the year 1993-94 have increased to Rs 466 crores. Further more the plan expenditure under the programme was Rs 568 Crores. Under the of illinois essay, plan 43 thousand families were benefitted in the year 1993-94. Where as this stood at 41 thousand during 1994-95. Book Friend Essay! During 1995-96 about 96 thousand tribal families were benefitted with a total financial investment of Rs 626 Crores. The total plan out salters nuffield biology, lay for the year 1996-97 and 1997-98 was Rs 862 Crores and Rs 749 Crores respectively. (ix) Modified Area Development Approach (MADA): Article 46 of the constitution enjoins up on friend, the State to promote with special care the university, educational and economic interest of the weaker sections and in particular Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and to protect them from social injustice and all forms of exploitation. The approach for development of Scheduled Tribes was first laid down by book is my friend essay the first Prime Minister of India, Late Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru in his “Tribal Panchseel” more particularly emphasised on the preservation of tribal culture. The Tribal Sub-plan approach was operated in essay satyagraha mid seventies.

The objectives of the Tribal sub-plan strategy have basically remained two fold: (i) Socio-Economic Development of S.Ts. and. (ii) Protection of tribals against book is my friend, exploitation. Integrated Tribal Development Programmes in the form of Integrated Tribal Development Agencies (I T D A) were implemented in the areas where the concentration of tribal population is university of illinois questions, more than 50 per cent, and they live in extremely backward areas. For the all-round development of the Tribals outside the Sub-plan areas a new programme called Modified Area Development Approach (MADA) was launched in 1978- 79. The criteria for selection of this area was areas having a population of ten thousand or more with at least 50 per cent tribal concentration.

The identified areas called as MADA Pockets. In these pockets individual family-oriented schemes as well as community benefit oriented programmes are to book friend essay be implemented. There is curfew laws argumentative essay, a MADA level Advisory Committee for each MADA Sub-Collector concerned with officials and non- officials like peoples representatives as members. Book Is My! This Advisory Committee is salters nuffield biology, responsible for drawn up programmes and overseas the friend, implementation. During Fifth Plan Period 30 Modified Area Development Approach Pockets were identified and family Rs 1.2 Crores was earmarked for the development of Tribal people living in those areas.

The number of pocket has increased to 37 during Six Plan period. A Total sum of Rs 5.5 Crores was allocated for the programme, where about 10 thousand Tribal families were received assistance. There are, 45 MADA Pockets covering about 47 blocks of the State, during Seventh Plan Period. The total amount of Rs 7.2 Crores was earmarked for the implementation of different schemes. Under different schemes about 13 thousand Scheduled Tribe families were benefitted during the said plan period.

In two annual plans i.e.; 1990-91, and 1991-92 about book, Five thousand families benefitted under the a2 coursework, programme. The total investment of Rs 2.2 crores and Rs 2.5 crores were made for the year 1990-91 and 1991-92 respectively. The number of MADA pockets increased to 46 during the Eighth Plan (1992-97) period. A total Fund of Rs 16.4 crores was utilities for implementation of different programmes in the MADA Pockets. Book Friend Essay! During the plan period about 20 thousand tribal families were covered in a research different programmes. (x) Command Area Development Programme (CADP):

The Command Area Development Programme was introduced in the Country in 1974-75 with a view to realising a fast and optimum utilisation of the book essay, irrigation potential created in the major irrigation projects. In Orissa, the programme was launched in salters nuffield biology 1976-77 covering 52 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur and Bolangir. It was spread over to about 5.3 lakh hectares of land of friend essay three major Irrigation Projects of Mahanadi, Salandi and Hirakud. The basic concept of the Programme was to step up agricultural production by optimum utilisation of water by controlled irrigation and adoption of multi-cropping pattern on an extensive scale. The components of C A D Project which are given highest priority in realising these objectives are: (i) Construction of field channels. (ii) Warabandi i.e; regulated and assured water supply to the farmers. (iii) Consolidation and.

(iv) Adoption of Multi-cropping pattern. As against this background four Command Area Development Authorities have been registered as Societies under the Societies Registration Act 1860. Funds sanctioned for the various schemes by State and Central Government are placed at their disposal in shape of grant-in-aid. A special loan account was also set up by the ARDC with 50% contribution from Central Government and 25% each by the State Government and ARDC to finance on-farm development works for the ineligible and unwilling beneficiaries. During the Fifth Plan the major achievement was, conducting of a large number of family multi-crop demonstrations to make the farmers aware of the needs for having three cropping patterns. Small and Marginal farmers were also involved themselves in the programme and became members of Co­operative Societies. A modest beginning was also made in demonstration of is my friend proper water Management by Construction of field channels to serve about 3 thousand hectares of land. A total financial provision of Rs 12.5 Crores was made for the programme. The principle components of the Command Area Development Programme during the Sixth Five Year Plan (SO­BS) have been: (i) Construction of family field channels including field drains. (ii) Topographical Survey.

(iii) Soil Conservation and Survey. (iv) Rotational water supply to the beneficiary farmers. (v) Multiple Crop Demonstration, including mini-kits and farmers training. During the said plan period about 1.5 lakh hectares field channel was constructed with the total expenditure of Rs 6.9 Crores. The Command Area Development Programme expanded to 58 blocks in the districts of Cuttack, Puri, Balasore, Sambalpur, Bolangir and Koraput. An area of 2.7 lakh hectare Culturable Command Area has been covered under field channels at friend essay the end of Seventh Five Year Plan. The Principal Component of CAD Programme during the Eighth Five Year Plan (1992-97) was: (i) Survey Planning and Design. (ii) Construction of field channels, drains and land leveling. (iii) Rotational water supply.

(iv) Adaptive Trails. (v) Farmers participation. (vii) Conjunctive use of surface and ground water. (viii) Marketing and Communication and. (ix) Monitoring and essay evaluation.

The programme has been extended to 83 blocks in 17 districts with a Culturable Command Area of 7.4 lakh hectares during Eighth Plan Period. A total sum of Rs 18.4 Crores was spending under the programme during said plan period. It is observed from the available data that, during the Seventh Five Year Plan about 11.14 million hectares field channels were constructed. About 1.93 million hectare of land leveling activities and 4.96 million hectare Warabandi work was also completed during the said plan period. The total achievement during the Eighth Plan Period on construction of field channels, land leveling and Warabandi was about 1.75 M.ha, 0.14 M.ha, and essay 2.75 M.ha respectively. The achievement of Eighth Plan reduced due to other alike rural development programmes introduced in the country. The introduction of specialized watershed scheme was one of the same programmes. 4. Essay on the Institutions for Rural Development: The Rural Development in India is a very old phenomenon. Social scientists and organisations had experimented this noble attempt in pre-Independence period.

Those programmes were not highlighting a unique problem of the rural poor and the necessary solution therein. However, the attempts so undertaken were focused mostly to the social, economic and cultural aspects of human well-being. The noble attempts made by great and intellectual sons of the soil could not spread over to all part of the country due to lack of government attitude and patronage. The British Government had never felt the importance of rural development in the country. The rulers felt that, rural development was a part of social welfare, which is perhaps contradictory to the British ideology and policies. India became an independent nation in August 1947, from political point of view but attend its economic independence only on January 1950. After attaining the economic independence, India started its planned Economic Development Programmes with the adoption of writing paper Five Year Plan. During the is my, process of planned economic development, Rural Development received utmost attention by the rulers, planners and policy makers. Since 1952, a number of rural development programmes were introduced, implemented and discontinued in the country. The programmes are varied in nature and approach.

Some of the programmes proved to be successful and some failures. The success and failure of the programmes governed by a number of a research buy order factors important among them are: (i) Nature of the is my friend, programme, (ii) Approach of the programme, (iii) Finance for the programme, (iv) Implementation of the programme. Good nature, right approach, adequate finance and proper implementation may bring success to the programme. In this connection, the last factor, proper implementation gathers top most importance as it co-ordinates other factors of success. This can be achieved through good and right institutions. As against this background, we would like to discuss the university of illinois questions, structure and functions of the is my friend essay, institutions established exclusively for Rural Development from time to time. These institutions can be classified into two such as: (i) Main institutions and. (ii) Ancillary institutions. The main institutions are those, which are directly responsible for the planning, implementing, monitoring and evaluation of the rural development programmes and permanent statutory in nature.

The ancillary institutions are those, which are indirectly responsible for planning, implementation, monitoring and evaluation and temporary in nature. In India, a structure of policy formulating and implementing institutions has been built up in the country for Rural Development. Some of them are at the national level, some are single purpose, some relate to a particular target groups, some relate to area, sector and commodity. However, all these institutions aim at fulfilling the national objectives of economic development in general and rural development in particular. The administrative organs of Central and State Governments involved in the process of rural development are at the Centre of the Organisational Structure. The spatial structure of rural development administration mainly comprises Centre, State, District, Blocks, Gram panchayats and Village. At the Centre, the Ministry of Rural Development is in charge of all rural development a programme including those relating to land reforms, village and cottage industries, town and country planning and essay on salt rural roads etc. This is the nodal responsibility for elementary education, adult education, rural health, rural electrification, rural water supply, housing for book landless rural labour, nutrition and sanitation programmes. The ministry has also responsible for all aspects of salters nuffield advanced biology rural reconstruction and development. The Ministry lays down broad policies, devises suitable programmes and determines Central assistance etc.

In addition to the Ministry of Rural Development, the ministries of Agriculture, Commerce and Civil Supplies, Energy, Irrigation and Industry also perform functions related to essay rural development. The Ministry of Agriculture is in buy order charge of agricultural extension, Ministry of book friend Commerce and Civil Supplies has within its purview the Development Commissioner of Handlooms, several Commodity Boards and the public distribution system. The Ministry of Energy and Irrigation deals with all matters pertaining to water resources development and university essay questions irrigation and accordingly has important functions pertaining to rural development. The Central Silk Board, Coir Board, Khadi Village Industries Commission are attached to the Ministry of Industry. The Ministry of Rural Development, for rural development with proper co-operation and coordination from other ministries. Book Friend! The other ministries are also take active role in the rural development programmes so formulated. Besides, the Ministries, the Reserve Bank of India in the past and NABARD at present play the catalytic role for the success of rural development. NABARD as the apex level financial institution for rural development provide refinance to the financial institutions working at the state level.

At the State level, the State Governments have the primary responsibility for the administration of developmental programmes. The Departments of agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation, forests, education, public health and sanitation, industries, power. Government has also take active part on the monitoring and implementation of rural development programmes in the State. The State Government also formulates State level special rural development programmes other than the written day in urdu, Central Government’s Programmes. However, The State Level Organisational Committee is headed by the Secretary for Rural Development, who is in the rank of Commissioner of rural development is book friend, assisted by one Deputy Commissioner three Assistant Commissioners and of illinois a number of technical officers and book is my friend essay subject specialists. Besides, a representative of the written speech on mother's day in, Ministry of Rural Development, Government of India is is my friend, associated as a member of the Committee.

There are a number of Statutory Corporations, Boards and other agencies providing infrastructural, promotional and supporting services for writing paper rural development. Important among them are: (i) Rural Electrification Corporation, (ii) The Central Ground Water Board. (iii) Minor Irrigation and tube well Corporations. (iv) Central and State Warehousing Corporations. (v) Central and book is my State Seed Corporations. (vi) Food Corporation of India.

(vii) The Jute and the Cotton Corporation of India. (viii) National Cooperative Development Corporation and Cooperative banks in the State. (ix) National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation. (x) State Trading Corporations, (xi) The Handicraft and Handloom Corporations. (xii) The Boards for Coffee, Tea, Rubber, Cardamom, Tobacco, Cashew and Coconut etc. (xiii) The National Dairy Development Board. (xiv) The Khadi and Village Industries Commission. (xv) State Khadi and Village Industries Board. (xvi) The Central Silk Board. (xviii) The State Finance Corporation.

(xix) The Agro-Industries Corporation. (xx) The Marketing Regulation Boards etc. The statutory corporations and Boards works for essay on salt the implementation of various rural development programmes to their expertise. At the State level the Financial Institutions also play vital roles for book is my friend essay formulation, implementation of various rural development programmes. Satyagraha! They form one State Level Coordination Committee taking the representatives of all financial institutions like, Cooperative banks, Nationalised Commercial banks and book essay Regional Rural banks. Besides, the representatives of various government departments are also participate in the formulation and Implementation strategy of the rural development programmes.

The representative from essay on salt satyagraha NABARD is also participating in the committee. One Nationalised Commercial bank acts as the convener of the committee. The Third Stage of Institutional Structure for Rural Development is the District Administration. The District Collector is responsible for law and order, Revenue Collection and developmental activities. In the past, the developmental programmes so formulated by book the central and state governments were channelised through the District Administration, known as the District Development Coordination Committee. This committee consisting of the Project Officer, the Managing Director of the Central Cooperative Societies, one/two representatives from Cooperative Societies and a Special Rural Credit Officer.

Prior to October 1980, the rural development programme particularly beneficiary and area oriented programmes operated through specially constituted agencies. They are, Small Farmers Development Agencies, (SFDA) Marginal Farmers and Agricultural Labourers Development Agencies, Drought Prone Area Programme (DPAP) and Integrated Tribal Development Programme (ITDP), etc. In 1980 the paper, integrated rural development programme was launched. In successive time period some special programmes related to rural development are also implemented. All the friend essay, programmes are to be implemented by a single agency called as District Rural Development Agency (DRDA). Essay! The earlier agencies functioning at the district level are merged with the is my friend, DRDA. The District Collector/Deputy Commissioner heads the DRDA. Besides the agency has a full time Project Officers followed by Assistant Project Officers in agriculture, animal husbandry, and cooperation, a credit planning officer, rural industries officer and an economist/statistician. In addition there is one Research Officer, two senior economic investigators followed by written speech day in regular supporting staff. The peoples representatives like, the Chairman Zilla Parishad, Member of Parliament, the MLA and the representatives of Weaken Sections and women are also take active part in friend the planning process at the district level.

The representatives of the lead bank, financial institutions also take active role with the DRDA to formulate District Credit Plans. According to salters advanced biology the Indian Constitution Amendment (74th) Act 1992 The State Governments constituted the District Planning and Development Board to provide necessary guidelines and direction to district planning units and to approve the district plans prepared by the planning units. The board consists of a Chairman, a Vice-chairman and other members, viz.; all Sub-divisional Officers, all Chairman of Panchayat Samities (Block) in the district, the head of lead Bank and Presidents of all Municipal Committees. Book Is My Essay! The Chief Planning and family law essays Development officer acted as the Member Secretary. The district-planning unit comprised the Chief Planning and book is my friend essay Development Officer, an economist, a Planning Officer, a Credit Planning Officer and other supporting staff.

The position of the Chairman of DPB varies from state to state. In some State a Minister of State Government chairs it and argumentative essay the district Collector is the Chairman in some other. The Block is the Fourth Important Institution for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The overall resource situation, to identify human resource situation, particularly from the point of view of employment, to review the ongoing development activities to formulate a package of is my friend schemes/programmes to optimize production and augment employment and income, to identify gaps in speech urdu infrastructure and to book friend essay devise measures for filling these gaps. The Planning Commission appointed an Expert group to frame guidelines on the basis of the recommendations of Prof. M.L. Dantewala working group. As per the guideline issued on 1978 the block level plan should have the following component: (i) Production programmes for the target groups in the rural areas. (ii) Manpower planning and skill development in relation to essay production programmes. (iii) A supplementary works programme, where necessary to clear off the backlog of unemployment. (iv) A programme for the self-employed in is my friend essay the trades and writing a research services sector.

(v) Programme for rural Infrastructure like, market, roads, rural electrification etc. (vi) A programme for the provision of Social Services, including basic minimum needs. (vii) A programme for Institutional support to book the rural poor. The Administrative setup of the Blocks was defined during the First Plan Period with the inception of Community Development Programme. With the implementation of Integrated Rural Development and other special developmental schemes/programmes in early 80s.

The Administrative setups of the law essays, blocks were revised accordingly. The Block Development Officer is book is my friend, intended to be the steering wheel of the new developmental administration. The BDO is to be assisted by extension officers from different fields like; agriculture, animal husbandry, irrigation and works, cooperation, Panchayats, social education, public health, village industries and on salt satyagraha women and child welfare etc. Below the extension officer there are about 10 village level workers (VLWs) or Lady Village Level Workers (LVLWs) working for the implementation or rural development programme. There is a Progress Assistant who coordinates the is my, development committee.

The people’s representatives like; Chairman Panchayat Samiti, MLA and representatives of Weaker Sections and women also participate in the Developmental Planning at the block level. The representatives of the financial institutions also take part in the committee while undertaking credit plans at the Block level. Village Panchayat is the last recognised institution responsible for planning and implementation of rural development programmes. The village Panchayat as an executive body implements the policies and decisions of the speech on mother's day in, Gram Sabha comprising the entire population of the village. The social sanctions of the people generally strengthen the hands of the is my friend essay, Panchayat and act as a deterrent to arbitrariness. The Panchayat organise local manpower for the developmental purposes. In almost all the states; the Gram Sabhas have been statutorily recognised and assigned the specific functions to direct and supervise the activities of the Village Panchayat and to some extent to the Blocks. The important functions performed by the Panchayats are: (i) Civic amenities.

(ii) Social welfare activities and. (iii) Development works. The broad functions of the Panchayat are: The people’s representatives like Ward Members; Sarapanch also took part in decision-making and implementation of the programmes. The village level worker represents the block in village committee. University Of Illinois Questions! Besides, the Panchayat Secretary, Secretary of the Cooperative Societies, the Revenue Inspectors also play active role in the village committee. Thus village committee comprises of book essay the: (i) Village level worker. (ii) Panchayat Secretary. (iii) Secretary of the writing a research buy order, Cooperative Societies. (iv) Revenue Inspector.

(v) The Sarapanch. (vi) The ward members. (vii) The villagers are the General body members. It is to conclude that, the planning and Implementation of the rural development begins from the root i.e.; village and flows upward to the national level. Experience shows that the is my friend essay, rural development programme decisions in respect of curfew argumentative formulation, strategy approach are undertaken at friend the national level and family that flowing downward to the village in a “Trickle down approach”. The “Bottom up” approach although exist in the country does not exist in book friend practical sense of planning and implementation. However, the institutions for rural development are closely connected with each other, whether there exists “Trickle down” or “Bottom up” approach of planning and implementation of the rural development programmes in our country as well as the state.

5. Essay on the Observations and nuffield biology Problems of Rural Development : India is an economically underdeveloped country. The condition of rural economy is is my friend essay, worse. The economic activities and people employed therein have not also achieved required development/growth. In order to break the jinx of family rural economic sector, Government through its different plans introduced a number of rural development programmes. The programmes are also varied in nature. They are of sector, area and target oriented programmes. The Formulation, Implementation of the programmes has also undertaken by some specialised Agencies of Government.

In addition the NGOs, the Panchayati Raj institutions, financial institutions involved themselves in the success of the programmes. Is My Essay! In course, of their function they also encountered a good number of problems. The problems were also varied in nature. As the of illinois essay, book/based on the macro level information/data. The problems so encountered by both the implementing agencies and the beneficiaries of the programme are highlighted based on the general observations and macro-based data/information available. The problems mainly highlights the problems encountered by book is my essay the Government as the planning and implementing machinery the Associated/ancillary agencies inevitable for the fruitful implementation of such rural development programmes, they are the Rural Development agencies/institutions/Departments, Financial Institutions, Non-Governmental Organisations, working as intermediary agencies for the implementation of rural development programmes/schemes. The last agencies are the people likely or receive benefits from the rural development. They can also belong to the area and sector approach rural development programmes.

Thus, we can classify the rural development agency into three as; Government, Intermediary/Ancillary agencies and the targeted people/beneficiaries. All the problems and observation based on writing, the facts, information and essay literatures available from the secondary sources. A Research Buy Order! These may not hold good in book friend all respects. Rural Development Programmes have been conceived for the all-round development of the rural areas. However, the rural development programmes are launched in the context of on mother's general problems of the rural areas. It fails to give importance to some particular and area issues. Essay! The rural development programmes should be micro in paper nature and growth oriented based on is my friend essay, real values. As per the Guidelines all the developmental programmes in the rural areas are to family law essays be planned/formulated by the DRDA in cooperation and coordination of other departments and financial institution, agencies of peoples representatives etc. It is often observed that these agencies, organisation failed to book friend essay maintain proper coordination among each other.

All the agencies/organisations are trying their best to speech day in urdu stick to their own principles and ideologies. In the process cooperation and is my friend essay coordination are not maintained. The Agencies responsible for the formulation, Implementation and evaluation of the Rural Development Programme is required to on salt maintaining good co­ordination among them. (iii) Based on Ruling Party Principles and Ideologies : In India, the rural development programmes are conceived/launched as per the principles and ideologies of the book friend, ruling party. Besides, in the participation for planning, formulation and implementation through their representatives tried to maintain such principles and ideologies. The said representatives often interested to fetch more benefit to their party affiliated peoples/workers. This does not cover the problems of all class people. The Rural Development Programmes should be based on reality and highlight the real problems of the rural areas as well as the people. Written Speech On Mother's Urdu! The political personalities are required to change their attitudes in this respect. The rural development programmes require more capital investment.

The Economic Sectors of rural areas remain more or less traditional. These sectors also adopt traditional methods of production. In order to attain rural development the transformation of technologies is required. The conditions of weaker sections people are not improved after 50 years of planned economic development. The upliftment of is my friend essay their socio­economic condition also require high dose of investment. In our country, a fixed amount of on mother's funds are allocated for book essay a particular rural development Programme.

These are distributed among the States/District as per buy order the importance, such as geography, concentration of weaker section population etc. The share of the Fund to cope with the local problems seems to be inadequate. Contributions from the public or other viable private organisations are not seeked by the Government. Thus inadequate fund is a major concern for the attainment of the rural development. India’s rural economy being primarily land-based, all major developmental programmes of rural India are linked with agricultural developments. It is also evident that most of the available resources are controlled by is my few, this reinforces the university questions, hegemony of the few over many and essay the benefits do not tickle down to those who need them most. Besides, the precarious land and writing paper buy order man ratio suggests that by introducing radical land redistribution in rural India very limited egalitarian goals can be achieved and if done so, that will mean only sharing of is my friend poverty and no real development. Rural development plan implementation is required to be accepted by the local level functionaries who attend the District consultative committee meetings and writing paper buy order that they are in a position to is my essay mobilise financial and organisational resources to fulfil accepted commitments. It is observed that the authority structure in the administration and the banks is such that those who attend such meetings are neither in a position to accept firm commitments on university essay, behalf of their departments, banks without reference to higher authorities not to act accordingly. Although some powers are conferred to book friend the officers to exercise but these are seems to be very limited.

All the decisions are required due approval from the higher authorities. It is laws, observed that, there is considerable leakage of benefits to non-target sectors and groups. Most of the rural development programmes are conceived to friend essay improve the Socio-Economic condition of the weaker sections like small, marginal farmers, agricultural and non-agricultural labourers, rural artisans, scheduled castes, scheduled tribes and deprived women etc. It is observed that the benefits are not properly reaching to these classes. It is often found, that, the vulnerable class of the society enjoys the real benefits. The subsidy components of the rural development programmes tend to allow to essay on salt satyagraha non-target groups, specially the programme implementing bureaucratic class, rather than including expansion of production base of the beneficiaries. Due to illiteracy and ignorance the real benefits sometimes enjoyed by the Third party commonly speaking the middlemen and is my essay the village touts including the petty personnel having a little political affiliation. It is observed that a considerable number of rural development programmes/schemes having no or little sustaining impact for changing the socio-economic status of the beneficiaries. The assets created from the credit assistance of financial institutions and subsidies of the development/administrative agencies are short lived (Particularly in-case of livestock assets) failed to push the beneficiaries up on the scale of production and productivity. This is perhaps due to the existence of low or no developmental approach/thoughts.

This factor again dominated by the lack of awareness about the programmes. (ix) Dominance of Welfare over Productivity: In India, most of the written speech day in, rural development programmes are based on the basic welfare principles. These schemes are backed by both credit and is my friend subsidy components. Besides, development of infrastructure facilities is also emphasised under these programmes. It is also evident that provision of long-term credit and based on the principle of write off by political parties also have adverse effect on laws, the productivity of economic sectors. It is observed that the subsidy component is often extending up to 100 per cent in book some selected schemes and class of university of illinois essay beneficiaries. This reduces the productive motive, attitude of the beneficiaries.

(x) Based on the Principles and Policies of is my Political Parties : In our country most of the rural development programmes are either based on the principles of the political parties or biased by their ideologies. Besides, the programmes again ruled/governed by cheap popular slogans or election; manifestos. Due to these, causes the curfew laws, programmes failed to attain the expected success. It is also observed that after the essay, completion of one political party’s rule the next political party, which assumes power, hesitates to carry out the same. Besides, the new party is also don’t hesitate to wind up the ongoing programme despite of its importance and success.

In India, due to these problems, the rural development has not attained after five decades of the planned economic development. 6. Essay on the Suggestions for Rural Development in India: 1. In India, the rural people in general and the weaker section people in particular are to depend upon traditional rural economic sectors for their livelihood. The rate of literacy in rural areas is very low in essay on salt comparison to urban areas. Due to low literacy level, most of the rural people are not aware about the ongoing rural development programmes. The steps taken by the government in order to enhance the awareness level of the beneficiaries is not adequate. The Government should open special cells for the publicity of the rural development programmes. The Government is required to adopt the book is my friend essay, publicity method, which is conducive to the nature and curfew laws argumentative requirement of the rural people.

The people are to be provided with adequate instruments for book is my enhancement of awareness level. The existing system of publicity about the rural development is required to be re-considered and should be based on university questions, rural realities prior to the Selection of the Scheme as well as the Beneficiaries, the implementing agencies should provide details of the programme to the rural people, who are likely to be benefitted serious endeavour is, therefore, needed to make the book, rural people aware about the resources earmarked for rural development in various Government departments. 2. Family Law Essays! In our country a number of rural development programmes have been launched, implemented since 1952. It is often said that, the rural development programmes failed to book attain its desired goal due to improper identification of the programmes, schemes and the beneficiaries therein. The Implementing Agencies attitude to biology implement the programme is target oriented. The target-oriented approach of the identification in different levels is believed to be made in a hurry. This approach forced the agencies for wrong identification of friend essay programmes, schemes and beneficiaries.

As against this, the Government should lay more emphasis on the reality rather than the law essays, target. The schemes should be appropriate to friend essay the rural conditions and the beneficiaries therein are to be selected by the villagers or the law essays, effectively functioning Gram Sabha. The implementing agencies should take the matter seriously, while selecting the scheme as well as the beneficiaries. The selection of the schemes is needed to be made by the beneficiaries. Book Friend! Emphasis to be given to the interest, intention, and attitude of the beneficiaries towards the curfew laws argumentative essay, scheme for rural development programmes. It is to conclude that, A realistic programme on rural development with the potentiality of the successful implementation, can only book friend be prepared if rural poor are taken into confidence and salters advanced biology are assisted to draw the development programme, taking the village as unit. Book! Outsiders, as technocrats, Economists etc. should only assist them as Friends to make their own decision. 3. The important objective of rural development programme is to eradicate poverty, reduce imbalance and increase productivity of rural economic sectors.

Thus, the beneficiaries of rural development programmes are rural poor living below the salters advanced a2 coursework, poverty line. The poverty line in India determined by the relative standards. A less importance has been laid on absolute standard of poverty determination. Whatever, emphasis laid again converted to money terms, which appears to be unrealistic. A household earning income more than Poverty line income level may be poor in relation to the calorie intake. Thus, the determination of poverty line required re­considered. Besides the identification of beneficiaries living below the poverty line (BPL) should be fixed at the realistic level. 4. The beneficiaries of the Self-employment programmes need training and education prior to their involvement in the programmes. The implementing and monitoring agencies is required to book friend impart required training to family the selected beneficiaries, before the developmental activities undertaken. Is My! Besides, rural people should be provided with the written speech on mother's day in, scope of expressing their own felt needs and is my friend need to be provided with an salters nuffield biology, opportunity to choose economic activities for their own development. 5. The wage employment programmes can be fully focused on rural infrastructure development and is my essay local natural resources development.

This approach will not only improve the infrastructure network but also help village people to improve their farm as well as non-farm production for which a favourable environment exists. 6. The working of the Rural Development Programme in the last decades has shown that the written speech on mother's urdu, initiative for implementing the programmes is vested on DRDA. The role of book friend DRDA is more or less confined to the planning and release of subsidies for university questions rural development programmes. The DRDAs should play an important role for the Implementing and book friend Monitoring of rural development programmes. Regular monitoring and evaluation of rural development programmes in real manner could solve the family, ongoing problems encountered therein and can also helpful to solve the problems. This will pave the path of book essay success to on salt satyagraha the rural development programmes and attainment of rural development. 7. The village plans would have to be dovetailed into the district plan, which would prepare by the DRDA. Proper appraisal of the rural development schemes is needed. Besides, for the success of Rural Development Programmes it should be ensured that the Project Directors of the DRDA are given tenure of not less than three years so as to inculcate in them a sense of commitment to the programme. The other staff in the key posts should not be disturbed frequently.

8. The various Government departments with specialised expertise and banks should work in close co-operation with the district planning unit in order to have a coordinated and scientific plan, the availability of book is my essay local resources, the potential for alternative productive works and of viable schemes, to be looked into. 9. Voluntary effort will no doubt continue to grow in the coming years but it can accelerate if the environment is more congenial to its growth. Voluntary Organisations with professional and Managerial Capabilities can act as a catalyst and can organise beneficiaries, involve people in planning and development and curfew argumentative essay provide the necessary support to make development a reality. In this respect, the Government should provide required assistance to the Voluntary Organisations. 10. The prosperity of the book is my friend, rural economy depends directly upon the development of agriculture and industry. Biology A2 Coursework! These to book is my essay dependent variables for development again controlled by a number of independent variables. These are, power, credit, transport facilities, which include railways, roads, waterways, market, communication, information facilities etc. All these facilities and services constitute collectively the infrastructure.

The development and expansion of these facilities are an essential pre-condition for attainment of essay economic development and rural development. The link between infrastructure and development is not once for all affair. It is a continuous process and progress in development has to be preceded, accompanied and followed by progress in infrastructure, if we are to fulfill our declared objectives of a self-accelerating process of book is my essay economic development. Despite its importance the desired infrastructural development has not been achieved due to resource constraint. In view of the resource constraint, further expansion of facilities may be secured by a shift of laws argumentative priority from high cost technology to low cost technology, from public funding to private financing and from large-scale public management to small-scale private/co­operative/community management in appropriate areas required for rural development. 11. The planning, implementing, monitoring of rural development programmes has been made by the Planning Commission and its subsidiaries. In the process they have been facing a number of difficulties. Friend Essay! Political interference is one of the law essays, difficulties faced by the Planning and Implementing agencies.

This undue interference seems to be one of the book is my, important causes of failures of rural development programmes. In order to attain rural development the salters nuffield advanced biology a2 coursework, Planning and Implementing agencies in our country should perform independently like the Judiciary System. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages:

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All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at book is my friend, your sole risk.