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What invention did vannevar bush wrote about in a 1945 essay

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What invention did vannevar bush wrote about in a 1945 essay, Essay

Malaria and mosquito net utilisation among schoolchildren in + about+in+a+1945+essay, villages with or without healthcare facilities at different altitudes in Iringa District, Tanzania. The endemicity of malaria in Tanzania is heterogenous, mainly associated with physical factors such as topography, climate and socio-economic status. The contributions of these factors in many regions of Tanzania have not been studied in detail. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence and core transmission of malaria and mosquito nets coverage among schoolchildren in + wrote, relation to faculty, altitude in villages with or without healthcare facilities in Iringa District,Tanzania. A cross-sectional survey of schoolchildren was carried out in what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, six villages in three altitude transects (965#x02013;2075 m). In each transect a village with and without a healthcare facility were selected. The villages included Idodi (965m), Makifu (985m), Tosamaganga (1561m) Mangalali (1520m) Lulanzi (1917) and core Kilolo (2075m). For the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, purpose of this study, the on pyrazole, villages were categorised as lowlands (Idodi and Makifu), intermediate (Tosamaganga and Mangalali) and highlands (Lulanzi and Kilolo. What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay! Healthcare facilities were available at Idodi,Tosamaganga and Kilolo. Each child was asked whether or not slept under a mosquito net during the previous night.

Mosquitoes were collected using pyrethrum spray catch technique in ten houses in each study village. Blood smears from a total of 1643 schoolchildren (mean age = 5.9#x02013;12.3 years) were examined for malaria infection. Plasmodium falciparum accounted for 93.1% of the malaria parasites. The prevalence of systematic essay, P. falciparum among children in Idodi, Makifu, Mangalali,Tosamaganga, was 51.51%, 73.66%, 22.79%, and 14.83%, respectively. Malaria parasites were not found among children in the highland villages of Lulanzi and Kilolo). The prevalence of malaria parasitaemia, packed cell volume, geometric mean parasite density and spleen rates were higher in children living in what+did+vannevar+bush, villages without healthcare facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). Of the children, 16.1% (264/1643) slept under a mosquito net during the previous night. About three quarters (253/344) of the write thesis, schoolchildren who had malaria parasites were not using mosquito nets. Mosquito net coverage was higher in lowland villages, accounting for 61.7% (163/264) of the total net use in the district.

The majority (75.5%) of the + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, mosquito net users were from village with health facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). A total of 228 mosquitoes were collected, with Anopheles gambiae s.l. accounting for the majority (53.5%). Overall, 8.7% of the An. gambiae s.l. were infected with malaria sporozoites. Higher sporozoite rates were observed in mosquitoes collected in the lowlands. Communities living in areas without health facilities form the largest proportion of malaria-infected populations in Iringa district. Availability of healthcare service has an influence on mosquito net coverage. The results provide more evidence of the existence of a relationship between altitude variability or accessibility to healthcare services, and the burden of malaria in rural communities of Tanzania. Malaria remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality, with an over 600 million cases and over 2 million deaths each year worldwide.

Over 90% of the on pyrazole, cases occur in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, sub-Saharan Africa where falciparum malaria is core, pervasive and + wrote the the major killer of children #x0003c;5 years old 1 . For many years malaria in Africa has been categorized into levels of endemicity (as hypo-, meso-, hyper- or holoendemic) or as stable and common application transfer unstable transmission 2 , 3 . Such classification does not consider fine differences in what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, transmission intensity that may influence the outcome of malaria associated morbidity within the to the, same geographical locality. Comparing areas of different endemicity is a means of understanding the relationship between the environmental and socio-economic risk factors in malaria transmission and + wrote acquisition of application transfer, parasites and hence malaria morbidity. Factors that influence malaria transmission and malaria risk are manifold, but a major distinction can be made between intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Intrinsic factors may be defined as characteristics belonging either to the parasite, vector or host and what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay which are not part of the natural environment 4 . Host intrinsic factors include sickle cell trait in humans 5 , pregnancy 6 , nutritional status 7 , knowledge of malaria 8 and co-infection with other diseases 9 , 10 . Extrinsic factors which include physical and being biological factors mostly affect the development and survival of the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, mosquito and the parasite (temperature, rainfall, humidity, vegetation, alternative hosts, etc), while human activities, behaviour and living conditions (socio-economic factors) may provide an additional risk as a result of an increased exposure to the disease. Being Systematic! Recently in a study in central Tanzania malaria prevalence was observed to vary between villages with and without healthcare facilities, located at similar altitudes 11 . To what extent environmental, socio-economic and other factors indeed contribute to an increased risk of malaria remains unclear in most parts of Tanzania and are subject for further research. It was therefore the objective of this study to what+did+vannevar+bush, determine malaria parasitaemia and transmission and utilisation of mosquito nets among schoolchildren in villages with or without healthcare facility in Iringa District,Tanzania. This cross-sectional study was carried out in Iringa district (7#x000b0;35'S, 35#x000b0;30'E) in Tanzania. The district comprises of three distinctive landscape zones which were categorised for the purpose of this study as high-, intermediate and lowland zones. 3 Coursework! The highland zone (#x0003e;1600 m) is characterised by mountainous and + about+in+a+1945+essay undulating topography.

The mean annual rainfall is about 1300mm. The highlands are usually cold with an average temperature of 15#x000b0;C. The intermediate zone (1001#x02013;1600m) is characterised by scattered mountain hills and flat areas with swamps and essay ponds. The area receives a mean annual rainfall of 600#x02013;1000mm. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay! The annual mean temperature ranges between 15 and 20#x000b0;C. Systematic Essay! The lowland zone (#x02264;1000 m) lies within the Great Rift Valley, and is usually dry, hot with mean annual rainfall of + about+in+a+1945+essay, 500#x02013;600mm and thesis in latex mean annual temperature of 20#x02013;30#x000b0;C. The district inhabitants are predominantly rural and practice subsistence farming. Major crops in the lowlands include rice and maize; fishing and livestock farming is also common. In the what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, intermediate zone, major crops include maize, tobacco, onions, sweet potatoes, sunflower, sorghum, and tropical fruits. The main crops in the highlands include maize, wheat, potatoes, fruits, vegetables and timber. The district was stratified into three strata based on the altitude.

Then a random sample of on pyrazole, two villages (with and without healthcare facility) was selected in each stratum. The villages were Idodi and Makifu (lowlands), Mangalali and Tosamaganga (intermediate) and Kilolo and Lulanzi (highlands). Healthcare facilities were available at Idodi (health centre), Tosamaganga (hospital) and Kilolo (dispensary). The average distance between villages in + wrote, the same stratum was 11 km. The altitudes and coordinates of the selected study areas were determined at thesis to the the central point of + about+in+a+1945+essay, each village using a hand-held Global Positioning Satellite receiver. The sample size calculation was based on the anticipated malaria prevalence to be between 20#x02013;30% according to the proportion of malaria cases reported in the district. The true value was expected to narrative essay of experience, be within 95% confidence interval with relative precision of 0.10.

The sample size (minimum of 240 children) was equally distributed within the study villages. Malariometric surveys were carried out to + wrote, cover a sample of schoolchildren in schools, one in each village. Being Essay! The aim was to screen 1800 schoolchildren in the six villages. From each child, personal data such as name, sex, age and village were entered in a questionnaire form. Each child was examined clinically and thick and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay thin blood smears were collected from a finger prick. The blood smears were stained with 10% Giemsa in phosphate buffer ( p H 7.2) and examined under a microscope at 1000x magnification to essay, identify any malaria parasite species present.

Enumeration of the malaria parasite was made and parasites were counted against 200 leukocytes. When sexual malaria parasites (gametocytes) were present, they were enumerated against 500 leukocytes. Parasite rate, geometric mean of parasite density, gametocyte rates and what+did+vannevar+bush density indices were then determined. All schoolchildren were palpated in a horizontal position for the presence of enlarged spleen by a medical doctor 3 . Each child screened for malaria parasite was asked whether he/she slept under a mosquito net during the previous night. Thesis! Fingerprick blood from a representative sample of pupils (50 children) from each village was taken into heparinised capillary tubes for packed cell volume (PCV) determination 12 . Entomological surveys were conducted in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, the same villages where the parasitological surveys were done. Mosquito collections were done in 10 houses in each village using pyrethrum spray catch technique. As much as possible, sentinel houses were of core, similar construction to avoid the effect of variability caused by differences in what+did+vannevar+bush, construction. All mosquito collections were morphologically identified, sorted according to site of collection, house, date and write your thesis in latex species. Female Anopheles gambiae s.l. + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay! were dissected to determine parity by observing the degree of coiling of ovarian tracheoles (13).

Salivary glands of parous mosquitoes were examined for malaria sporozoites using standard dissection techniques. All data were entered and verified in Microsoft Excel or Access and analysed using STATA statistical analysis software package version 8 (Stata Corp., College Station, TX, USA, 2003). In order to investigate whether there was a relationship between parasitaemia and the absence or presence of 3 coursework, healthcare facility, we explored the + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, distribution of variables and summarised the on pyrazole, statistics of each individual variable. For the continuous variables such as age of children and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay PCV level, Shapiro-Wilk test was used to thesis to the faculty, check for normality. Chi-square test was done to determine whether there was an association between malaria parasitaemia and other categorical variables such as altitude and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay presence of healthcare facility.

The magnitude of the thesis submitted to the, effect between strata and presence of + about+in+a+1945+essay, healthcare facility in relation to malaria prevalence was obtained using logistic regression analysis. In each school, meetings were held with the teachers, to explain the purpose and methodology of the study before the screening was done. All children with malaria were offered appropriate treatment free of charge. Ethical clearance was granted by the Medical Research Coordination Committee of the National Institute for Medical Research. There was a high participation, with 91.3% of the target sample recruited in application essay, the survey. A total of 1643 children (mean age range = 5.9#x02013;12.3 years) were screened for malaria parasites. The sexes were almost equally represented; however, girls formed a slightly higher proportion of the what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, study subjects in all schools except in Idodi ( Table 1 ). Plasmodium falciparum (93.1%) was the predominant species of malaria in thesis on pyrazole, the district. P. malariae and mixed infections of what+did+vannevar+bush, P. falciparum + P. malariae and P. falciparum + P. ovale and P. malariae + P. ovale accounted for 2.5%, 3.7%, 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. The overall district mean prevalence rate of P. falciparum was 25.9% (418/1614). Parasite prevalence decreased with increasing altitude.

It was 62.6% in the lowlands, 18.8% in the intermediate and 0% in the highlands. Children in application transfer, villages in the intermediate transect were at + about+in+a+1945+essay lower risk of essay, getting malaria infection by 16% (95% CI: 10% #x02013; 24%, P #x0003c;0.01) than those in + about+in+a+1945+essay, the lowlands. Malaria parasite rates in villages with health facilities were significantly lower than in villages without health facilities ( Table 2 ). Communities living in areas without health facilities in the lowland and intermediate transect were at a higher risk of acquiring malaria infection by 35% (95% CI: 24% #x02013; 52%, P #x0003c;0.001) and 55% (95% CI: 34% #x02013; 88%, P =0.01), respectively when compared with their contemporaries in villages with healthcare facilities. The geometric means of parasite density (GMPD) for P. falciparum in the lowlands and intermediate transects were 499.8 and 231.5/#x000b5;l of thesis, blood, respectively. The GMPD was 2.4 higher among children in the low than in the intermediate altitudes ( P #x0003c;0.01). Higher mean parasite density was observed among schoolchildren in villages without healthcare facilities than in those with healthcare facilities ( P #x0003c;0.01) ( Table 2 ). P. falciparum gametocytes were observed in 0.73% (12/1635) of the children. The gametocyte rate was significantly higher in the low- (1.5%) than in the intermediate altitudes (0.6%) (P#x0003c; 0.0001). A total of 172 (10.5%) of the children had enlarged spleen. Of the + wrote, children with enlarged spleens, 82.6% were from villages in the lowlands.

Spleen rate was higher (26.6%) in being systematic, the lowlands and lower (5.6%) in the intermediate transect. Spleen enlargement was not observed among children in the highlands. The spleen rates were significantly lower in villages with healthcare facilities in + wrote, both lowland (Idodi=22.4% versus Makifu= 30.9%) ( P = 0.03) and intermediate transect (Tosamaganga= 3.4% versus Mangalali = 7.8%) (P=0.04) ( Figure 1 ). The packed cell volumes (PCV) were significantly higher among children in the highland than in the lowland villages ( P #x0003c;0.05) ( Table 1 ). There was no significant difference between PCV in children between villages with and common transfer without healthcare facilities. Of the screened children, 16.1% (264/1643) slept under a mosquito net during the previous night.

Mosquito net coverage was 41.1, 16.5, 24.2, 16.3, 1.0 and 0% in Idodi, Makifu,Tosamaganga, Mangalali, Lulanzi and Kilolo, respectively. Mosquito net coverage was higher in lowland villages, accounting for 61.7% (163/264) of the total net use in the district. The majority (75.5%) of the mosquito net users were from village with health facilities ( P #x0003c;0.001). Further analysis showed that in 73.6% (253/344) of the + about+in+a+1945+essay, schoolchildren who had malaria parasites were not using mosquito nets. Malaria parasite rate in the lowlands was significantly lower among those sleeping under nets than those without nets ( P =002). However, this variation was not observed among infected children in the intermediate transect villages ( P #x0003e;0.05).

A total of 228 mosquitoes were collected in six villages. Of these, 53.5% (N=122) were An. gambiae s.l., 1.8% (N=4) were An. funestus , and 43.4% (N=99) were Culex quinquefasciatus . Other species accounted for common 1.3% (N=3). Larger numbers of An. gambiae s.l. and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay Cx quinquefasciatus were collected in Makifu and Tosamaganga, respectively. The average density of the core 3 coursework, An. gambiae s.l. + About+in+a+1945+essay! was 4 per room. Overall, 8.7% of An. gambiae s.l. were infected with malaria sporozoites. The sporozoite rate was highest in mosquitoes collected in Idodi (14.3%). None of the mosquitoes collected in Lulanzi, Mangalali and Tosamaganga was infected ( Table 3 ). Malaria parasite prevalence in Iringa district varied markedly with altitude, ranging from 0 to 73.66%. Higher parasite rates were observed in villages at low than higher altitude transects. Children from villages at higher altitudes (#x0003e;1900m) were not infected with malaria parasites.

Previous studies around Iringa Municipality (1600m) showed a lower prevalence of essay, 13% among children aged up to 10 years old 2 . In the lowland villages of Iringa district, malaria parasite rates of between 59.3% and 80.6% among children have been reported by other investigators 13 , 14 . The inverse relationship between malaria prevalence and altitude has been reported elsewhere in Tanzania. In a study in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, Usambara Mountains in north-east Tanzania, a prevalence of malaria in children was observed to decrease by 5% for systematic essay every 100 m increase in altitude from 82% in the lowlands (300m) to 12% in the highlands (1700m) 16 . In another study in northern Tanzania 17 a 19% and 21% decrease in malaria prevalence has been observed, for what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay every 100m altitude increase. The lower malaria prevalence in the higher altitude is likely to be attributed to the low ambient temperatures 19 . Altitude has been considered as a proxy for temperature on the parasite 20 . However, local variations in seasonality of malaria transmission including vector species composition, topography, host and parasite genetics, and socio-economic factors influence malaria prevalence in narrative essay, any given area 17 . Malaria parasite and spleen rates and malaria parasite densities among children in villages with healthcare facilities were significantly lower than in villages without healthcare facilities. Similar observations have been made in a nearby district of Mpwapwa 11 . What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay! The accessibility of the narrative of experience, community to what+did+vannevar+bush, early treatment is likely to play a significant role in the lower parasite and spleen rates in villages with health facilities. It is likely that the availability of prompt treatment reduces the number of your thesis, individuals with malaria parasite and the density of parasite circulating in their blood (as shown by the low gametocyte rates among children in villages with healthcare facilities). The presence of what+did+vannevar+bush, gametocytes is commonly used as a parameter of malaria transmission 20 . Moreover, communities close to health facilities are expected to being essay, be more aware of the disease and its treatment and control; the knowledge which may be obtained from health facilities. On the other hand, those living far from health facilities are likely to seek treatment late and thus live with the parasites in their blood and hence providing a reservoir of malaria infection.

In this study, higher spleen rates were observed in villages located in lower altitudes and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay those without healthcare facilities. Core 3 Coursework! Usually, spleen enlargement indicates the endemicity of malaria in a given region. In malaria holoendemic regions of Tanzania, as high as three-quarters of school aged children has been found with splenomegaly 21 . + Wrote! Such high spleen rates indicate an thesis faculty intensive malaria exposure of the population to what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, malaria parasite. The low spleen rates among children in villages with healthcare facilities are likely to be attributed to common application, easy accessibility to early malaria treatment. Higher packed cell volume, an indication of haematocrit level was observed among children in the highland villages.

Similar findings have been reported in north-eastern Tanzania, where mean haemoglobin concentrations increased with altitude 17 . An. gambiae s.l. is the predominant malaria vector in the district. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote! Larger numbers of the mosquito were collected in villages at altitudes lower than 1600m. It is in the same villages that mature and infective mosquitoes were collected, indicating that more malaria transmission is taking place in the lowland than intermediate or highland transect villages. Like in our study, in comparison, Kenya, mosquito vectors have been found at altitudes from 1600m to 3000m 19 , 22 . The low mosquito densities found in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, our study are likely to have been due to ecological factors or the sampling technique used. Spray catches have been found to narrative essay of experience, under-estimate the abundance of exophilic Anopheles mosquitoes in northern Tanzania 23 . In this study, the proportion of sporozoite-infected mosquitoes (sporozoite rate) was found to + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, be quite variable from submitted faculty village to village. The higher sporozoite rates (4.3#x02013;14.3%) found in this area were probably due to a small sample size of the mosquitoes collected. However, these are among the what+did+vannevar+bush, highest sporozoite rates ever recorded in Tanzania 21 , 24 . Similar to our findings, the pattern of malaria transmission elsewhere in Tanzania varies markedly from area to thesis, area, depending on climate and biogeography 17 , 21 . Generally, the number of children sleeping under mosquito nets in the district was low. However, it was relatively higher among residents of villages at what+did+vannevar+bush low altitudes where malaria was more prevalent.

Similar findings have been reported in a recent study in central Tanzania 19 . At high mosquito densities and high malaria prevalence, people tend to thesis submitted to the faculty, protect themselves by what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay using mosquito nets 25 , 26 . Moreover, mosquito net use coverage was significantly higher among children in the villages with health facilities than from common application essay those without. This is likely to what+did+vannevar+bush, be a result of continuous health education provided at health facilities, creating awareness of the common, importance of self-protection against malaria. In a recent study 27 in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, a nearby district of Dodoma, it was observed that most of the information, education and communication materials such as posters are found at health care facilities than elsewhere in thesis in latex, the district and that healthcare facilities are among the what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, most important source of health education. This means, communities living close to such facilities have much more access to health information than those living far from the facilities. It has already been established that a population which is comparison, knowledgeable about the use of + wrote, personal protection measures and can afford them, which understands the write thesis, importance of seeking effective treatment at the first sign of illness, and can pay for + wrote health services and submitted to the drugs, have substantially reduced disease morbidity, despite being in an area of high risks 28 . The use of mosquito nets has shown a beneficial effect in Iringa district where the + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, majority of the children with malaria parasites were reported not using nets. Results of our study indicate that the prevalence of malaria infection is likely to be higher among communities who live at great distances from health care services and those not using mosquito nets. In conclusion, the results of this study show that malaria prevalence and intensity varied considerably throughout the district, with children from villages at low altitudes and/ or without healthcare facilities forming the largest proportion of malaria-infected populations. Mosquito net ownership and coverage is high in comparison, areas with health facilities than in those without.

These results provide more evidence of the existence of the relationship between altitude variability or accessibility to what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, health services, and the burden of malaria in rural communities of Tanzania. These relationships are however, complex and 3 coursework must be viewed in the context of other environmental and socioeconomic factors. The authors wish to thank G. + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay! J. Chuwa, B. Mkumbwike, A. Khihatura, L. Kadete, F. Mgohamwende, M. Mohamedi, B. Chambika, D. Thesis On Pyrazole! Mwanjeluka and A. What+did+vannevar+bush! Mathias for application their excellent technical assistance. Special thanks are due to Dr. Jasper Ijumba for his invaluable comments on an earlier version of the manuscript.

This study received financial assistance from the Italian Cooperation.

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What invention did vannevar bush write about in 1945 essay

agrumentive essay Definition : In this kind of essay, we not only + about+in+a+1945+essay, give information but also present an essay of experience, argument with the PROS (supporting ideas) and CONS (opposing ideas) of an argumentative issue. We should clearly take our stand and what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, write as if we are trying to persuade an opposing audience to adopt new beliefs or behavior. The primary objective is to narrative of experience persuade people to + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay change beliefs that many of them do not want to change. Choosing an argumentative topic is not an easy task. The topic should be such that.

X Marijuana should be considered illegal. (Not a good topic because it is too general. In some medical cases, marijuana is prescribed by the doctors and transfer essay, the patients are encouraged to + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay use it in case of suffering from too much pain) #8730; Selling and thesis, using marijuana in public places should be considered illegal . X We should decide whether we want a bicycle or a car. ( our stand is not clear: do we support having bicycles or cars?) #8730; If we are under the age of what+did+vannevar+bush 30 and want a healthy life, we should definitely get a bicycle instead of a car. Core Comparison. X Are you one of + wrote those who thinks cheating is application transfer, not good for what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay students? ( a question cannot be an argument) #8730; Cheating helps students learn. X Considering its geological position, Turkey has an important geopolitical role in the EU. ( facts cannot be arguments) #8730; Considering its geopolitical role, we can clearly say that the being, EU cannot be without Turkey . it should be a topic that can be adequately supported (with statistics, outside source citations, etc.) X I feel that writing an argumentative essay is definitely a challenging task. ( feelings cannot be supported; we cannot persuade other people) If you believe that you can find enough evidence to support your idea and refute others effectively, you can choose challenging topics as well. You can enjoy writing about such topics: Cheating is beneficial for students. Murat 124 is a very good choice for conscientious drivers.

Stress is good for the human body. Polygamy is quite natural. For women, there is no need for men. Organization : All argumentative topics have PROs and CONs . + Wrote. Before starting writing, it is imperative to make a list of these ideas and choose the most suitable ones among them for supporting and refuting. There are three possible organization patterns: CON idea 1 ----- Refutation. Thesis Submitted Faculty. CON idea 2 ----- Refutation. What+did+vannevar+bush. CON idea 3 ----- Refutation. The sample essay has been written according to the third pattern. Thesis: Do Reiki instead of taking medicine . People should trust medicine since it is being systematic, effective and scientifically proven.

Reiki is also scientifically proven and does not have side effects . What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay. (refutation method: insufficient claim) Serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without medicine. Medicine also cannot treat serious illnesses if not diagnosed at an early stage . Write Your Thesis In Latex. (refutation method: opponents are partially correct) Reiki, like alternative healing methods, requires a lot of time . Reiki requires less time if done regularly . (refutation method: opponents are completely wrong) Supporting our ideas : This is the most important part when persuading others. We are asking some people to change their beliefs or actions. What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay. We should be supporting our ideas with such facts, statistics and/or authorities that there should not be room for any doubts. Here are some faulty supports we should avoid: Thesis: Leaving the university and starting to work is good for the adolescent because … Feelings, emotional arguments (… it makes one feel much better .) Irrelevant examples (wandering off the topic) (… he would then be able to write thesis in latex take his girlfriend to expensive restaurants .) Oversimplification (… only then would he understand what it means to be an adult. ) Hasty generalizations (. it is a widely known fact that all adolescents look forward to earning money .) Unreliable, even false outside sources (… according to, 80% of working men wish they quit school when they were at university and started working at an earlier age. ) For more mistakes in the logic of + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay arguments, see Fallacies. Thesis Submitted To The Faculty. Refuting opposing arguments : Before we start saying that the opponents are wrong, we should specify their opposing ideas. Otherwise, it would be like hitting the + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, other person with eyes closed. We should see clearly what we are hitting and be prepared beforehand so that he cannot hit us back.

We can do this by knowing what we are refuting. e.g . X Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education; however, they are wrong . ( what they say is comparison, not wrong. Maybe their supporting idea is wrong /irrelevant /insufficient. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay. We should state their supporting idea specifically to be able to to the faculty refute it.) #8730; Some people may say that adolescents should not leave university education because they are not physically and psychologically mature enough to cope with the + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, problems of the application essay, real world. However, they forget one fact: adolescents can vote or start driving at the age of 18 (in some countries even before that age!), which proves that they are considered physically and + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, psychologically mature at core, that age . Language : Signposts gain importance in the argumentative essay. They enable the readers to follow our arguments easily. When pointing out opposing arguments ( CONs ): Opponents of this idea claim / maintain that … Those who disagree / are against these ideas may say / assert that … Some people may disagree with this idea. When stating specifically why they think like that : The put forward this idea because … They claim that … since … Reaching the turning point : On the other hand , When refuting the opposing idea, we may use the following strategies : compromise but prove that their argument is not powerful enough: They have a point in thinking like that. To a certain extent they are right. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote. After seeing this evidence, there is no way we can agree with what they say . Systematic. say that their argument is irrelevant to the topic: What we are discussing here is not what they are trying to prove.

Their argument is irrelevant. HEALTH AND HEALING AT YOUR FINGERTIPS. What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay. Throw out the bottles and boxes of drugs in your house. A new theory suggests that medicine could be bad for your health, which should at least come as good news to people who cannot afford to buy expensive medicine. Submitted. However, it is a blow to what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay the medicine industry, and an even bigger blow to our confidence in the progress of thesis science. This new theory argues that healing is at our fingertips: we can be healthy by doing Reiki on a regular basis. Supporters of medical treatment argue that medicine should be trusted since it is effective and scientifically proven. They say that there is no need for spiritual methods such as Reiki, Yoga, Tai Chi. These waste our time, something which is quite precious in our material world. There is medicine that can kill our pain, x-rays that show us our fractured bones or MRI that scans our brain for tumors.

We must admit that these methods are very effective in the examples that they provide. However, there are some “every day complaints” such as back pains, headaches, insomnia, which are treated currently with medicine. When you have a headache, you take an Aspirin, or Vermidon , when you cannot sleep, you take Xanax without thinking of the side effects of what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay these. When you use these pills for a long period, you become addicted to them; you cannot sleep without them. We pay huge amounts of money and become addicted instead of thesis getting better.

How about what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay a safer and more economical way of being essay healing? When doing Reiki to what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote yourself, you do not need anything except your energy so it is very economical. Core 3 Coursework. As for its history, it was discovered in Japan in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, the early 1900s and its popularity has spread particularly throughout America and Western Europe . In quantum physics, energy is recognized as the fundamental substance of which the essay of experience, universe is composed. Reiki depends on the energy within our bodies. It is a simple and effective way of restoring the energy flow. + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay. There are no side effects and thesis submitted faculty, it is scientifically explained. What+did+vannevar+bush. Opponents of alternative healing methods also claim that serious illnesses such as HIV/AIDS and cancer cannot be treated without drugs. They think so because these patients spend the rest of their lives in thesis to the, the hospital taking medicine.

How can Reiki make these people healthy again? It is very unfortunate that these patients have to live in what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, the hospital losing their hair because of chemotherapy, losing weight because of the side effects of the essay, medicine they take. Actually, it is common knowledge that except for when the cancer is + wrote, diagnosed at an early stage, drugs also cannot treat AIDS or cancer. Most of the medicine these patients use are to ease their pain and their sufferings because of the thesis submitted faculty, medical treatment they undergo. Instead of drugs which are expensive and what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, have many side effects, you can use your energy to overcome the being systematic essay, hardships of life, find an emotional balance, leave the + wrote, stress of everyday life and let go of the everyday worries. Most of the chronic conditions such as eczema or migraine are known to have causes such as poor diet and stress. Deep-rooted anger or other strong emotions can contribute to viral infections as well.

Since balancing our emotions and thesis, controlling our thoughts are very important for our well-being, we should definitely start learning Reiki and avoid illnesses before it is too late. Some people may still maintain that in our material world, everything depends on time. + Wrote. It is even “lacking time” that causes much of the stress that leads to being the illnesses we mentioned. How would it be possible to what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay find time to do Reiki to ourselves and the people around us when we cannot even find time to narrative of experience go to the theater? This is one good thing about Reiki; it does not require more than 15 minutes of what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote our time. Being. There is what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, no need for changing clothes or special equipment. It is a wonderfully simple healing art, an effective method of relaxation and stress-relief. Most important of all, it is less time consuming than medicine if we think of all the time we spend taking medicine for some complaints and taking some more for the side effects as well. Having said these, resistance to application transfer essay Reiki would be quite illogical. Reiki is natural and drug-free.

What is more, it is easy to learn by + about+in+a+1945+essay, anyone, regardless of narrative age and experience. It can be used anywhere, anytime. It also enhances physical, mental, emotional and what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, spiritual well-being and the benefits last a lifetime. It is essay, definitely high time to get away from the + about+in+a+1945+essay, drug boxes we store in our drug cabinet!

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What invention did vannevar bush wrote about in a 1945 essay

Community and Problem-Solving Policing. Community and + about+in+a+1945+essay Problem-Solving Policing. In the United States today there are modern laws that are used in of experience policing which are called community and problem-solving policing. Both of these are known to be useful in the community and with the law enforcement when trying to prevent and control crime in the community. At the core of problem-solving policing is responding to the matters within each community all across the United States.

With that being said community and problem-solving policing are both improvements to the police and society that understands the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay use for these methods. I am going to talk about thesis submitted to the community policing. This method of full-service is really personalized policing where police officers patrol and work in the same area day in and day out. Community policing is what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, a law that is brought down from the police department to provide assistance with the public and also inside the community which is very effective in minimizing crime due to the aid received by the police and individuals in the community. Thesis? As the community develops an what+did+vannevar+bush, involvement of proactive techniques of community policing certain should then be reduced and managed in a safer manner. Write Your In Latex? Police officers on a daily basis face ethical concerns in which they are the ones that are more experience to handle or answer to them.

With that being said a lot of + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, those situations due involve letting people get away with something as petty as a traffic ticket by offering them a warning the first time around. Also they are face with people trying the bribe them in order to get off from a traffic violation or a crime that has been committed. So police officers should not fall that weak they should stick to the morals and ethics involving the transfer law that they were taught and continue in doing the right thing.. . Problem Statement Jana LeBeau MGT/521 November 8, 2010 Sandra Griffin Problem Statement “Kudler Fine Foods is + about+in+a+1945+essay, committed to providing our customers with the finest selection of the comparison very best foods and wines so that your culinary visions can come true” (Kudler, 2003, p. 3). While holding true to their vision Kudler Fine Foods is having some select issues such as too many stores, high paid employees and the need to expand online ordering. Once these issues are addressed Kudler Fine Foods can begin to bring in the desired cash flow Kathy Kudler is looking for be for she decides to retire and sell off the company.

Solving the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay issues such as location, lack of delegation to managers, and strengthening online sales will allow Kudler Fine Foods to continue with the vision to service customers in every way possible through the stores and thesis on pyrazole online and achieve the goal of becoming a productive company. Issues Selected. Kudler Fine Foods (KFF) has several issues beginning with having too many stores for one person to run, opening too many stores in surrounding areas in a short amount of time, high paid employees, and the need to expand online ordering. These issues, if addressed properly can be resolved and allow KFF to continue in growth physically and financially thus allowing Kathy better leverage when she decides to sell off the what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay company and retire. Management’s Efforts to Solve the Issues. Write In Latex? Kudler Fine Foods currently has three locations and what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay is looking to open. Words: 687 - Pages: 3. Community and Problem-Solving Policing. . Community and Problem-Solving Policing CJS/210 July 17, 2011 Community and Problem-Solving Policing Introduction In the United States today there are modern laws that are used in policing which are called community and problem-solving policing. Both of these are known to be useful in the community and with the law enforcement when trying to prevent and control crime in the community. At the core of problem-solving policing is responding to the matters within each community all across the United States.

With that being said community and problem-solving policing are both improvements to the police and society that understands the use for these methods. I am going to talk about thesis submitted to the faculty community policing. This method of full-service is + wrote, really personalized policing where police officers patrol and on pyrazole work in the same area day in and day out. Community policing is a law that is what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, brought down from the police department to provide assistance with the public and write your thesis also inside the community which is very effective in minimizing crime due to the aid received by the police and individuals in the community. As the community develops an involvement of proactive techniques of community policing certain should then be reduced and what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay managed in a safer manner. Thesis? Police officers on a daily basis face ethical concerns in + wrote which they are the ones that are more experience to handle or answer to them. Narrative? With that being said a lot of those situations due involve letting people get away.

Words: 1220 - Pages: 5. Community and + wrote Problem-Solving Policing. . Essay? Community and Problem-Solving Policing CJS/210 There are different types of what+did+vannevar+bush, policing methods used through the different local, state, and governmental policing agencies throughout the thesis submitted to the faculty United States. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote? However are any of the philosophies better or worse than their counterparts. We will be covering different philosophies used in the current policing administrations today. The first of the two major philosophies that we will cover is called community policing.

The primary goal or focus of this policing method is to attempt to involve the community as an active partner in application transfer addressing crime problems throughout the community. Community policing sets out to separate the thinking of individual segments consisting of the police, and the community. It instead is trying to + about+in+a+1945+essay make a single joint effort that is thesis, completed by both the police department and the community residents working as a single unit to + about+in+a+1945+essay deter or stop crime. The community policing philosophy has an emphasis on partnership and openness to the point that there have been innovative ideas created by the Detroit police department with their mini-station program. The idea behind this was that more officers closer to the community with great community relations skills would help to encourage the community with.

Words: 1131 - Pages: 5. . Community Polic CJS/210 November 04, 2011 Michael Graham Community Policing Community Policing this is a subject that affects every one big or small and is very wide as well diverse, over the next few paragraphs I will be informing you on being systematic essay, couple of things. I will be informing the reader on, what community policing is, what the benefits of community policing are, how community policing differs from traditional policing, and what I have come to believe what would happen if policing agencies adopted only one patrol style. Lets hit this off right with, what is + wrote, community policing? Now in order to give to you the reader a tangible grasp on the matter I have found the definition of community policing by Friedmann, Robert R. (1992) “Community policing is a policy ad a strategy aimed at achieving more effective and efficient crime control, reduce fear of crime, improve quality of life, Improve police services and being systematic essay police legitimacy, through a proactive reliance on community resources that seek to change crime causing conditions. This assumes a need for a greater accountability of police, greater public share in decision making, and greater concern for civil rights and liberties.” Now by the above definition community policing that is left to the citizens to do the right thing for the right reasons. Community policing can have a good reaction on what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, policing and write your thesis in latex community moral at the same time it can have a bad impact on community moral. It has been proven through study. Words: 427 - Pages: 2. . Curt Williams LEN 101 Assignment #4 2/9/12 Community policing as defined in the text is “a collaborative effort between the police and the community that identifies problems of crime and disorder and involves all elements of the community in the search for solutions to these problems.” Further expansion upon that statement describes community policing as forging a partnership between police and the community as they work together to solve crimes and identify the underlying problems which cause or promote the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay commission of crimes, and then working on core comparison, solutions to overcome identified problems to promote a better quality of life. Community policing differs from tradition policing in that it is a proactive approach to fighting crime and what+did+vannevar+bush handling the multitude of problems that arise because of to the faculty, crime rather than just investigating and attacking the crime problem after the commission of a crime has occurred. Community policing and community relations are not he same. Community policing can be part of community relations, but where as community relations are merely how the police and public interact with one another community policing is the combined efforts of the public and the police to stem crime and create a better society.

Community policing can offer an important opportunity to improve policing services especially in communities that are serious in their desire to work with the police in + about+in+a+1945+essay efforts to reduce crime. Communities that promote information sharing and. Words: 279 - Pages: 2. . Community policing brings police work into a domain traditionally policing units and charging them with improving the quality of life in low and moderate income neighborhoods. Community policing is “a policing philosophy that promotes and supports organizational strategies to address the causes and reduce the fear of common application transfer essay, crime and social disorder through problem-solving tactics and police-community partnerships.” The main focus of what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, community policing is on comparison, crime and social disorder through the delivery of police services that includes aspects of traditional law enforcement, as well as prevention, problem-solving, community engagement and partnerships. After surveying residents of the community our team has new and improved strategies that will better the community policing and keeps our streets safer. What is what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay, community oriented policing and what does it ask of the police officers of today? There is no one commonly recognized definition of community policing, and application transfer there is a cautious tendency to label anything and everything as community policing. However, a good working definition would be a department-wide philosophy of full-service, personalized and what+did+vannevar+bush decentralized policing, where citizens feel empowered to work in proactive partnerships with the police at comparison solving the problems of crime, fear of crime, disorder, decay, and what+did+vannevar+bush quality of life. Community policing broadens the nature and number of police functions compared with traditional policing. It emphasizes.

Words: 1908 - Pages: 8. . Community Policing George Chu DeVry University Abstract Community policing is thesis to the, a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the organized use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to + wrote positively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder and fear of crime. The police departments for being systematic many years have maintained a stressed relationship with the community it serves. The several police department has not aggressively pursued a positive image within the community. The community perceives the police in a negative perception. The community feels that the police department is out of touch with their needs and values. The community also feels that their respective neighborhoods are not safe and that the police department could do a better job of responding. Another community complaint is what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, that the police department could do a better job of patrolling the communities. This research paper will be on thesis faculty, community policing and it will weigh the pros and cons of what+did+vannevar+bush, community policing. This research paper will also address the part of how important community policing values of the community it serves. Community Policing Crime has been one of the most important and essay debated issues in the United States and is largely assumed to be a major problem that keeps getting worse. The media strongly portrays television crime stories through numerous productions.

Productions such as, Without Trace. Words: 2424 - Pages: 10. . What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote? Community Problem-Solving Janice S. Gordon-Caddy CJA/454 January 19, 2012 Kendra Owens-Johnson Community Problem-Solving Block watch is thesis on pyrazole, a program that was started to allow neighbors to + about+in+a+1945+essay look out for neighbors and to help prevent crime. Block watch aims to get citizens involved in discouraging and on pyrazole preventing crime at the local level. The ultimate success of Block Watch depends largely on a commitment to cooperate between area residents and what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay the police, and more importantly, between residents themselves. In my neighborhood I am the Block Watch captain and core 3 coursework comparison have been since September 2007. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote? I enjoy going to your thesis in latex the meetings and learning how to be more proactive in eliminating crime in my neighborhood.

I am also a member of Citizens on Patrol and I also enjoy patrolling different areas with other members. In my neighborhood there was a big problem that started around 2008 with homeless people sleeping and camping out around and under the interstate 101 bridge. Then the homeless people started being bolder in what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay choosing to essay sleep closer to the residential area of + wrote, our neighborhood. Since the problem encompassed my block watch area and another block watch area, both of our block watches got together and with the help of the Phoenix police developed a plan to stop the transients from common transfer sleeping and hanging out in our neighborhoods. The crime in our areas increased a lot due to the unwelcome visitors. Automobiles were broken into, stolen and vandalized. Homes were being. Words: 703 - Pages: 3. . respond to them based on vivid impressions etched into their minds in the past (Bucqueroux). Community policing helps the community see the officers not only as the police but also as people. Police are not patrolling the streets looking for + about+in+a+1945+essay crime. They are traveling around the neighborhood to systematic essay have a presence and to talk to members of the community.

Community policing has a different view on crime investigation, especially in cases of domestic violence. In community policing officers are expected to analyze the + about+in+a+1945+essay factors that caused the problem rather than just react to the symptoms (Trojanowicz 1994). For example if the to the police are called to domestic violence case they do not just take the person who is + wrote, being violent out systematic, of the what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay house and move on. They try find out what caused the disturbance or bad behavior. If the husband was beating his wife because he drank a fifth of essay, Jack Daniels the problem might not be the husband is violent but an alcoholic. The police will suggest the husband get help for his drinking problem. The officers will keep tabs on what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, houses they are repeatedly being called to for problems. In this case the narrative essay of experience officers are looking for + wrote a solution to the problem not a temporary fix. The officers will also offer advice to the person being abused such as going to meeting with other people who are in abusive relationships. The police need to be careful because research confirms that women are at the greatest risk of being killed when they try to break away (Bucqueroux.

Words: 772 - Pages: 4. . RESEARCH PAPER Christopher Burnett Charleston Southern University Professor Alan Fix A research paper presented to the Department of Criminal Justice in a partial fulfillment of the requirements of Bachelor Science in Criminal Justice Charleston Southern University December 2011 ABSTRACT Many police agencies have developed a community policing style approach to fighting and preventing crime. This has worked for some and not so much for others. 3 Coursework Comparison? I have developed a program that interacts with the community and helps fight crime. This project not only reduces crime in an area but may continually keep crime at a low by + about+in+a+1945+essay, getting the community to be more involved in day to day activities. You cannot expect the police to do all the crime fighting and then blame them whenever your vehicle gets broken into or your property gets stolen from your front yard.

Mount Pleasant Police Department has been around for several years and has always taken the approach to policy community style or community policing. They believe policing this way will help reduce crime and get the community involved. They want officers to walk businesses, patrol neighborhoods, and be social able to show the community we are all nice and to common application transfer call us for what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay whatever reason. I believe this has back fired because the community calls on us to fix every single problem they have and most are not related to narrative essay law enforcement at all. I have developed a new program which takes community policing to a. Words: 1742 - Pages: 7. . the rest can be referred to as the thin-blue-line attitude. This also brought about a heightened discrepancy between minority groups (Moore, 1988).

The previous eras of policing brought about the need for a more personable, problem-solving oriented way of policing, which has brought us to where we have been sense 1970 until present day. The policy and practice of community policing is now the dominant form of policing. The notion of community policing was created under the + wrote belief that is could both reduce the fear and disorder felt by submitted, citizens in + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay order to ultimately reduce the overall crime rate (Nadine M. Connell, 2008). Community policing is faculty, made up of + about+in+a+1945+essay, four key elements that are said to be necessary to carry out essay, its intended mission. These four elements include: (1) Accountability, (2) Collaboration, (3) Decentralization, (4) Problem-solving (Nadine M. Connell, 2008). Officers being held accountable as the first element of community policing involves officers being held more responsible for + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay their actions and geographical locations that they work (Nadine M. Connell, 2008). Being Systematic Essay? An officer being made to answer for happenings within their beats on a weekly basis rather than a quarterly or annually basis requires officers to be much more in what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote tuned with those community members that surround him or her on a daily basis. This expected accountability of officers promotes collaboration between citizens and police officers to better combat the fear of and 3 coursework comparison actual act of crime. Words: 1812 - Pages: 8. . What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote? Community Problem Solving Law enforcement is a constantly changing organization. As society grows more diverse, population increases, technology becomes more advanced, and of experience criminals become smarter, the methods of what+did+vannevar+bush, policing must adapt and essay overcome.

The current strategy for policing is referred to as Community Oriented Policing and Problem Solving (COPPS). Since the late 1970s early 1980s COPPS began gaining ground and momentum with involving and building relationships among communities in the effort to reduce and prevent crime. “The community policing model balances reactive responses to + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay calls for service with proactive problem-solving centered on the causes of crime and disorder. Community policing requires police and citizens to join together as partners in being the course of both identifying and effectively addressing these issues” (Fisher-Stewart, 2007, pg.4). Eucalyptus Ridge, a small community in Lakeside, is home to only military families. Most would image that a military housing community would be the one place that is + wrote + about+in+a+1945+essay, free from crime. However, that is not the case for this community. Being located approximately 7 miles away from Barona Resort and core 3 coursework Casino, Eucalyptus Ridge sits right off Highway 67. There was a time when the wandering (and most often slightly inebriated) trouble-makers drifted into the community looking for opportunities. The community is also not gated creating even more temptations for law breakers to come inside and do as they please. With no police or.

Words: 844 - Pages: 4. . Problem-Solving Process: Part I HUM/111 March 30, 2014 Pam Strunk Problem-Solving Process: Part I The situation in my life what I have chosen to use for is assignment is my sons weight. This is what+did+vannevar+bush + wrote, something his father and I have weekly discussions about. Your? The problem is my son is overweight for his age and height and we want him to be a healthier weight. + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay? The issue is that his father believes he does not eat a healthy diet and I disagree with this. His father only sees and spends time with our son every other weekend and assumes that the diet I feed him is full of fast food and candy. Essay? I spend every day with my son and + wrote almost the 2 days every other weekend that he is with his father and know that he does eat a healthy diet that I prepare for thesis him. What+did+vannevar+bush + About+in+a+1945+essay? The way that I distinguish what is a problem and what is an issue in this situation is by narrative essay, thinking about the main thing we both agree on and what we disagree on to some extent. What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay? In this situation the main thing we both agree on is that my son could be at a healthier weight, this is the problem. Something we disagree on to some extent is weather my son is eating a healthy diet, this is the issue. Your? Another way is to + wrote ask myself the following questions to determine whether it was a problem or an issue. If the narrative of experience answers to these questions are yes then the subject is an issue and not a problem.

If not, then it is a problem and not an what+did+vannevar+bush, issue. Does the subject. Words: 656 - Pages: 3. . Community Policing Briarcliffe College Professor Toohey 12/17/14 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Community policing is a philosophy that promotes organizational strategies, which support the systematic use of partnerships and problem-solving techniques, to proactively address the immediate conditions that give rise to public safety issues such as crime, social disorder, and fear of thesis submitted faculty, crime. Throughout this reading you will get the full concept of “Community Policing” and how it benefits us civilians as a society. LITERATURE REVIEW This section of the what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay essay consists of a grouped summary of published sources that I will be presenting, that I will be using for my paper, you will read about the pros of community policing such sources will be Wycoff and your in latex Skogan (1993), McElroy et al (1993), The United States National Institute of Justice (1992), and Bayley (1989). What+did+vannevar+bush + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay? I chose these sources because all these people were all involved with police field. HISTORICAL ANALYSIS On December 17, 1996 the resolution was further amended to expand the transfer Community Policing Task Force from what+did+vannevar+bush 9 to 15 members. On November 4, 1997 the core 3 coursework comparison resolution was further amended (Resolution 73916) to create the Community Policing Advisory Board (CPAB). In 2004, Oakland voters approved Measure Y, he Violence Prevention and Public Safety Act which influenced how Oakland handled community policing and what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay violence suppression.

On April 13, 2005 Oakland adopted Resolution 79235. This resolution reiterated Resolution. Words: 982 - Pages: 4. . Submitted To The? as well as the police officers, but it has to be implemented. The implementation process must have everyone on the same page, which created a few challenges initially. Community policing requires the citizens/civilians and the police force to work together.

Siegal and what+did+vannevar+bush Worrall indicate that community policing strategies must be able to transfer react effectively to what+did+vannevar+bush + about+in+a+1945+essay the following significant administrative problems in on pyrazole order to be successful: Defining community, Police administrators must be able to define the concept of community as an ecological area characterized by common norms, shared values, interpersonal bonds. Defining roles, Police administrators must also establish the exact role of community police agents. Changing supervisor attitudes, some supervisors are wary of community policing because it supports a decentralized command structure. + Wrote + About+in+a+1945+essay? This would mean fewer supervisors and consequently, less chance for promotion and a potential loss of authority. Narrative? Reorienting police value, Research shows that police officers who have a traditional crime control orientation are less satisfied with community policing efforts than those who are public service oriented.

Revising training, Community policing requires that police departments alter their training requirements, especially during field training. + About+in+a+1945+essay? Future officers must develop community -organizing and problem-solving skills, along with traditional police skills. Reorienting.