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Essays on changes by tupac

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Where Can I Find MBA Dissertation Topics. I have been asked on my occasions by students on where to find quality MBA dissertation topics. Well, I responded by saying that you can find them in a university library or on the internet on credible websites. Before we go any further on explaining how to essays find relevant MBA dissertation topics it is vital that we establish what an MBA dissertation is. Firstly, An integral part of any MBA degree is the successful completion of parenting, a research dissertation. In near enough every case, you must complete an MBA dissertation before graduating you cannot elect to sidestep the essays dissertation requirements of an MBA degree. As you are already aware, an argumentative, MBA degree is a study into the theory and application of business management principles, often applied to a variety of real world business situations. Essays On Changes? It would be prudent to base your MBA dissertation topic on the most common components or subject areas of an MBA degree; Accounting Operations Management Business Management Finance Marketing Information Technology Management Strategic Risk Management Entrepreneurship Human Resource Management E-Commerce Economics. We will attempt to essay on simone highlight areas of essays, interest and typical dissertation titles that MBA students across the globe undertake. How Long Essay Grad School? One of the by tupac most satisfying aspects of writing your own MBA dissertation topic is that you chose your own dissertation title and you have the opportunity to contribute to on simone de beauvoir the field of study you have chosen.

Below are some MBA dissertation topics that have been written in their respective field that may help to guide you. Accounting MBA Dissertation Topics. An MBA Accounting Thesis is not restricted to one major category or subject area. You have the ability to essays think outside the box and generalize about wider subject matter which fall into the accounting field. Same-sex Essay? You could begin to look at new global accounting principles, account practices across boarders, how information technology affects traditional accounting techniques, or base your research on the performance of a specific company while considering a whole host of external factors, the list goes on. Below is a list of on changes by tupac, accounting based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Operations Management MBA Dissertation Topics. An MBA Operations Management Thesis will not be limited to one common operations management technique. You would have gained enough operations management knowledge during your MBA degree to adequately compose a dissertation in this field. Parenting Essay? It is tempting to add more knowledge to an existing topic but you should relish the opportunity to contribute something new to essays the operations management field of study. You could begin to creative websites look at global supply chain management, inventory control, performance management, TQM, statistical process control and quality management within prestigious organisations.

The following is a list of essays, operations management themed MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Business Management Dissertation Topics. When undertaking an essay de beauvoir, MBA Business Management Thesis you will discover that the essays by tupac subject is not limited to how long should a personal essay be for grad one particular organisation or management technique. Business management is probably the essays by tupac broadest business subject area out there. Management techniques go back centuries and there has been a lot of academic contribution within this field, but with changes in same-sex parenting culture and global management techniques you should have a wealth of information at essays by tupac your disposal in order to adequately compose a dissertation in this subject field.

It is essay tempting to write about existing management techniques and how they are applied to organisations but you should embrace the opportunity to contribute something new to the business management field of study. You could begin to look at by tupac global management techniques (challenges and opportunities), business performance and evolving management techniques within prestigious organisations or profitability challenges faced by organisations, the list goes on. The following is october 2008 a list of management theory based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Writing an by tupac, MBA Finance Dissertation is an exciting prospect to say the october 2008 sat essay least, there is so much happening within the field of by tupac, finance and essay odyssey you will have the opportunity to write a remarkable dissertation in this field. Finance is probably one of the most talked about subjects out there at essays on changes by tupac the moment. Finance is should a personal essay grad school becoming a global phenomenon and changes on on changes by tupac a daily basis with the influence of writing websites, stock exchanges and governments. It is by tupac safe to say that you will have a plethora of information at on simone your disposal when compiling your dissertation in this subject field. For an on changes by tupac, insight you could begin to look at global finance techniques, financial performance of global organisations, global money markets, and essay financial comparisons of countries, the list goes on and on.

The following is a list of finance related MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Marketing MBA Dissertation Topics. Similar to business management, the field of marketing is a very common research preference for MBA Students. Writing an MBA Marketing Thesis will be an exciting opportunity to by tupac write a cutting edge dissertation. The field of marketing is how long a personal essay grad school often seen to cross over into other fields of study but you can remain on topic and base your dissertation purely on marketing theories and techniques. The marketing discipline is wide and varied and essays on changes you can start to look at creative writing relationship marketing, advertising, branding, cross-culture marketing, direct marketing, consumer behavior, online marketing and essays on changes by tupac marketing ethics. The following is a list of marketing based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by writing, successful MBA graduates in 2014 / 2015; Technology Management MBA Dissertation Topics.

Constructing an by tupac, MBA Technology Management thesis on writing websites technology management can be a demanding task due to the fact that information technology changes at such a rapid rate. Essays On Changes? Don’t be put off by this as writing a technology management MBA dissertation is fulfilling and grabs attention as business graduates with information technology skills and knowledge are a rare commodity. Be sure to write your dissertation on up to date technologies and organisations, it is not advisable to investigate outdated research or defunct organisations in writing websites this field. Why write an MBA technology management dissertation on outdated technologies? You should look into cutting edge research fields such as nanotechnology, IT outsourcing, global IT Infrastructure, ERP systems, VoIP technology, e-learning and key IT mergers and acquisitions. Try to relate you research to essays on changes by tupac the business management field and try to avoid writing a scientific dissertation that would detract from you MBA degree. The following is a list of information technology based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Strategic Risk Management MBA Dissertation Topics. Basing you MBA Thesis on strategic risk management suggests that you are writing a piece of research that would help organisations to reduce exposure to de beauvoir risk or adverse trading conditions.

It is safe to say that strategic risk management will be rigorously covered in essays the MBA degree and you will have built up a significant amount of knowledge relating to should a personal be for grad this field, you should be able to apply the knowledge and essays by tupac techniques gained into an MBA dissertation. You could look at the volatility of essay on the odyssey, global stock exchanges, social risk in global organisations, risk management in derivative markets, risk management within the supply chain and risk factors affecting shareholder value. This list goes on. The following is a list of Strategic Risk MBA Dissertation Topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Entrepreneurship Dissertation Topics.

Developing an MBA thesis on entrepreneurship is a very interesting proposition for any MBA student. Entrepreneurship has a lot of exposure on most MBA taught degrees and many successful entrepreneurs hold an essays on changes by tupac, MBA, it is common knowledge that an MBA and entrepreneurs sit side by side in the business world. For inspiration you could look at competitiveness of nations, investigate business enterprise, outsourcing, or ask whether entrepreneurs born or made? There are many interesting topics surrounding enterprise and entrepreneurship. The following is essay on simone de beauvoir a list of Entrepreneurship based MBA Dissertation Topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Human Resource Management Dissertation Topics.

Writing an MBA HRM Thesis is by tupac not restricted to one organisation or technique, HRM has become a global phenomenon due to cross boarder training practices, worker migration and organisations trading on essay de beauvoir a global scale. If you need a starting point for your HRM dissertation you can look at global recruitment trends, staff motivation within organisations, analyse staff retention techniques and staff training and engagement. There is so much to explore within the field of HRM. The following is a list of HRM based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; Similar to technology management, writing an MBA E-Commerce Thesis can be a tricky proposition due to the fact that electronic commerce changes on a daily basis.

This includes stocks, shares and on changes by tupac any organisation that trade online. Be sure to write your dissertation on up to date methods and organisations, it is not advisable to investigate outdated research or defunct organisations as e-commerce has come a long way in a short period of time. Writing an e-commerce MBA dissertation on eBay or Amazon is old hat and how long a personal uninspiring to a large extent. If you need inspiration for essays, your e-commerce dissertation you can look at security risks and threats to organisations, the emergence and impact of online shopping, e-commerce strategies and essay business process re-engineering. On Changes? The following is a list of e-commerce themed MBA dissertation topics that have been written by writing, successful MBA graduates; When writing your MBA Economics Thesis you will discover that the essays on changes by tupac subject is not confined to a particular economics theory or technique. We are all exposed to economic conditions these range from october sat essay domestic to global factors all of which make a firm foundation to base you economics dissertation on. Business economics is such an encompassing subject and there are many areas to investigate, you could start to look at global economic trends, hyperinflation, macroeconomics, economic policy, influence of the IMF and essays on changes by tupac economic development.

Below is a list of economics based MBA dissertation topics that have been written by successful MBA graduates; MBA Dissertation Topics. How MBA Dissertation Examples Can Help You. As you can see, there are a lot of possible MBA dissertation topics for you to how long should a personal essay be for grad school choose from, and we have pointed you in the direction of essays on changes, quality pre-written MBA dissertation topics. The material is to be used to outline structure your own MBA dissertation we do not encourage you to on changes by tupac copy or plagiarize any reference material you encounter during your studies. Hopefully, we have given you a positive insight on how to writing begin and research your own MBA dissertation topic. Good luck and all the essays best! Click Here To View MBA Dissertation Topics.

My name is october Steve Jones and I’m the creator and administrator of the dissertation topics blog. I’m a senior writer at study-aids.co.uk and hold a BA (hons) Business degree and MBA, I live in Birmingham (just moved here from London), I’m a keen writer, always glued to essays by tupac a book and creative writing have an interest in economics theory. View all posts by Steve Jones. 44 thoughts on by tupac “MBA Dissertation Topics” Thanks for finally talking about MBA Dissertation Topics and Liked it, As an MBA student I found this post really interesting and valuable as I am about to october start writing my own MBA dissertation Q1 2015. Do you have any dissertations relating to Operations Management at a North American SME? Thanks Ivan.

Thanks for the response Ivan, I suggest you search all the essays MBA dissertation topics in the link provided at the bottom of the how long post. Essays By Tupac? I’m sure you will find a dissertation topic relating to grad your MBA studies. Let me know. I’ve been having so much trouble getting started on my e-commerce dissertation. As you mentioned, my stumbling block is the fast changing nature of the field.

But it’s growing so fast that I know it’s a good area to get into. I’m taking a look at your topics now, hopefully it can get me started! No problem, let me know if you need anything in on changes particular if you’re unable to how long essay be for grad find the dissertation topic on the website. I have my MBA dissertation coming up and have been struggling with finding a topic idea that I feel comfortable with. I was so relieved come across your website – you have some really good, practical suggestions here. I enjoy writing, so have no problem with that part. My big fear is correctly citing my sources after I’ve written the essays on changes dissertation.

Do you have any suggestions or good sites I could go to help with that? Hi, referencing should not become a problem if you follow your university’s guidelines.mthis blog contains posts on referencing and citing the be for school work of others appropriately. Also, our main website should provide you with the information you’re looking for. Good luck. This is an excellent MBA sample dissertation. I’m in accounting, and essays on changes have to say that whoever wrote this really knows their stuff. I appreciate the fact that you post examples so those of us who are flailing around trying to decide how to go about this can benefit. I’m grateful to the friend who directed me here. Thanks for odyssey, providing a great service. Steve- I left Ireland in September 2008 for the UK and essays by tupac my Masters dissertation in Manchester was on the Global Financial Crisis a history showing the role of US, Japan, The Asian Tigers and leading to the demise of parenting essay, major economics post 2008, I’ve created a timeline of events (up to mid-2013) at essays on changes present but have information up to date.

This will give a chronological history of UK, EU, US events 2008 to date. It will be published early 2015. It is the parenting US people have had to pay dearly for on changes, the toxic assets bought by essay odyssey, Nama. Essays On Changes? Banks in Ireland are not lending, nor are they in the UK. I did here a figure mentioned that a third of the UK commercial lending was done by essay, Irish banks. How can Nama be increasing lending when a lot of toxic assets have simply been “parked” by essays on changes by tupac, banks to be released shortly at knock-down prices onto essay the market? Thanks so much for all this work! I’m blown away by the level of essays by tupac, detail you’ve gone into.

On some other sites I’ve looked at same-sex essay the content really only skims the surface and doesn’t take the reader in depth with a chance to really develop ideas and give a helping hand regarding this type of content. On Changes? I know I have a million questions for you but I’m off to read other pages here and collect my thoughts before I bombard you. No problem at all, be mindful that we have uploaded more MBA dissertation topics since you posted your reply. Hopefully, there are more titles that will interest you further. Hi i have trouble in finding topic of my mba thesis.

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Tupac Shakur: an Analysis of ” Changes” – BEST ESSAY TOPICS

100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. On Changes By Tupac! She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. On The! For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about.

As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. On Changes By Tupac! This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy. Note: Some teachers use the term argument essay and others call it a position essay. These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in same-sex parenting essay, this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of on changes a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and websites pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. Essays By Tupac! shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for essay on the odyssey, young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in essays on changes by tupac, athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to essay, be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from elected males? (fact) How important is on changes by tupac it to have equal representation of october 2008 sat essay genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the on changes, rights of artists and october writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. On Changes! This essay argues that we need to care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of how long should be for grad school hunger?

Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the essays on changes by tupac, U.S. Parenting Essay! adopt an essays on changes educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from how long should be for grad, high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in education? (value) What is the value of a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to on changes by tupac, take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to spend money on fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. (definition) Computers are changing the creative, way humans think. Essays! (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the how long should essay grad, reverse—has caused them to be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and essays on changes efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the should a personal essay be for grad school, way we relate to each other in positive ways. (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. (policy) How are online technologies changing the on changes, way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of 2008 sat essay what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of by tupac social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on writing, Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to by tupac, experiment on human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and possible uses in the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the argumentative essay outline, Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the on changes, history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable?

How does war become integral to society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the U.S. Essay De Beauvoir! continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the United States defend itself against terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the essays by tupac, way Americans feel about on the themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. increase or decrease? (policy) How important is race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on essays on changes by tupac, ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from essay on simone de beauvoir, Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of essays by tupac a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is culture? (definition) What is the value of knowing your racial and october 2008 cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to by tupac, be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to other nations? (value) How will the creative, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to by tupac, stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for creative writing, the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for essays, their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to essay, the past? (fact) What can Americans do to stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the dangers of disease in essays on changes, the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to essay on the odyssey, find essays to spark ideas. In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is a list of essays suggested issues and on simone de beauvoir articles related to essays on changes, those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out a personal grad school what different people think about that issue. Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on on changes by tupac, YouTube. You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and essay on the title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro essays, or con. Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an writing idea of what to essays on changes by tupac, write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy.

How to creative, Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Easy Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas with Research Links and essays Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 32. How to essay odyssey, Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Reflective Essay with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 21. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and essays on changes Response Essay Paper With Examples. by creative writing websites, Virginia Kearney 55. 100 Cause and Effect Essay Topics. by Virginia Kearney 37.

Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from essays, United States. Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. On Simone De Beauvoir! Start with your situation and essays on changes then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and college tell why or why not. Essays By Tupac! Finish with telling the end of your story. See my articles on How to outline college, write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to essays by tupac, write a position essay. 2008! Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about by tupac writing this essay.

Virginia Kearney 4 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Essay Be For School! Roami, You have an interesting idea. I think one way for you to get some good information to by tupac, start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first.

Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to outline college, get some quotes on this topic. Essays On Changes! Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. On Simone De Beauvoir! In the essays, United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in college, their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in on changes, English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to october 2008, an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by essays on changes, age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to catch up.

However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. On Simone De Beauvoir! but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into this position topic for me. On Changes By Tupac! Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from same-sex essay, United States.

Hi Sam, you might want to try my article about essays on changes Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of same-sex parenting essay my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to essays, get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is october sat essay less a problem in America than Europe. Why the by tupac, leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic). Writing! Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in essays, school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned.

Thanks for essay outline college, your comment and idea. Essays On Changes By Tupac! Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it. I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from argumentative outline college, this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from essays by tupac, United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of culture you are writing about which makes it hard to how long a personal essay school, help you. However, for example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is on changes worth listening to, you could start by on the odyssey, talking about what you agree with about modern music and on changes by tupac acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to it.

Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to should essay grad school, appreciate that kind of essays music. I need help on on the, my regerian Argument eassy on culture. Essays! I dont now how to start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays. I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago.

This article along with many of the creative writing websites, other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from United States. Look for my articles about how to on changes by tupac, write argument or position essays for lots of how long should essay be for school ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about on changes by tupac a student who is generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by others) when they are able to share about creative their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from essays on changes by tupac, United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on creative writing websites, how to write different sorts of essays. On Changes By Tupac! You can use the search engine on should essay be for school, HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of essays by tupac my articles.

Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne. To start a paper on your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to parenting essay, start . My topic is cellphone,texts and emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from yours sample :) thank you. On Changes By Tupac! I think that is video gaming good or bad is a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 18 months ago from United States. Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. Odyssey! You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Jumanah Alsaif 18 months ago.

Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for essays, each individual. Parenting! Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago. By Tupac! Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago.

Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio. How Long Should Essay Be For! Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to be inspired. On Changes By Tupac! Voted up for useful! That Tom Hanks video is argumentative essay outline hilarious. These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring!

Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States. Cindy A. So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas. This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Hi Safa--Here are the main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to essays on changes, write about. How Long A Personal Essay Be For School! Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be. 2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to essays by tupac, believe this (that is a personal grad your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. On Changes! That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you?

4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of your essay. 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of those reasons. That is websites what you will use to support those three reasons. On Changes By Tupac! 6. What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you.

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at the bottom right blue box I have the links to sample essays. These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States.

Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is same-sex essay a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in essays by tupac, the past. Is the right to vaccinate children a good topic? Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of october 2008 food are good or bad for your health. On Changes By Tupac! Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the on the, fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to look at all sides of things and that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to essays, just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from october 2008, Eugene, Oregon.

A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for essays by tupac, years, though I have a position on almost everything. Creative Writing! Useful Hub and well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and essays by tupac respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of creative their respective owners.

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essay japan A Case Study of on changes Tokugawa Japan through Art: Views of a Society in Transformation. Tokugawa Japan: An Introductory Essay. by Marcia Yonemoto, University of Colorado at Boulder. Sir George Sansom’s history of Japan was first published in 1932 and used in U.S. college classrooms into the 1980s. October Sat Essay? In it, he described the Tokugawa period (1603-1868) as an era of oppressive “feudal” rule. In this view, hierarchical divisions between samurai, peasant, artisan, and merchant were strictly maintained. Sansom described a system in which swaggering samurai used their swords to cut down commoners. Essays On Changes? Miserable peasants barely eked out a living, and urban merchants were scorned as unethical profiteers.

According to essay odyssey Sansom, change was loathed. The government kept the rest of the world out, denying “themselves all the gifts which the West then had to offer.” This move, said Sansom, “arrested the cultural development of Japan” (Sansom 1932, 455, 457). Scholars today largely dismiss this view. Yet it remains pervasive. Films and on changes by tupac manga comics glorify samurai bravado. But they ignore much else about the period. Thus, even the well-informed often are surprised when they read more recent histories of the de beauvoir period. Such newer works describe the political system as a rational “integral bureaucracy.” This system was “not merely a samurai institution.” Rather, it depended on non-elite “commercial agents and activities” (Totman 1981, p. 133). Newer histories call the era “a time of extraordinary social growth and change. In terms of population and production, urbanization and commercialization, and societal sophistication and elaboration, the century was one of unparalleled development.”

What should readers make of essays on changes these discrepancies? What do teachers and students really need to essay know about the Tokugawa period? This brief essay addresses these questions by (1) sketching the by tupac outline of Tokugawa history, touching on politics, economics, society, and culture; (2) introducing some historical debates regarding the Tokugawa period; and (3) giving references for further reading on important topics. The Tokugawa Political Settlement. The first Tokugawa shogun was Tokugawa Ieyasu (1542-1616). October 2008 Sat Essay? He came of on changes age in an era of essay on the violence and conflict.

During the Warring States period (c.1467-1590), centralized political authoritythe imperial court and the military government (shogunate, or bakufu )had lost its effectiveness. Practical political power had passed into the hands of approximately 200 local warlords, or daimy#333; . The daimy#333; controlled their own territories. These territories were called domains. By the end of the period, some daimy#333; had become extremely powerful. Each commanded large swaths of territory and tens of thousands of warriors. One such leader was Oda Nobunaga (1534-82).

Nobunaga was a daimy#333; from the province of essays on changes by tupac Owari in central Honshu. Using strategic alliances and brutal military tactics, Nobunaga brought about one-third of the country under his control. Outline College? When he was assassinated in 1582, his most able general, Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536-98), took his place. Hideyoshi was a brilliant military and political tactician. His talent and ambition had allowed him to rise from a humble peasant background. Building on Nobunaga’s achievements, Hideyoshi brought all of Japan under his control by on changes about 1590. Two problems marked Hideyoshi’s later years. One was his growing belief that his power was unlimited. This megalomania was reflected in unsuccessful attempts to invade Korea and China. The second problem was his difficulty in producing an heir.

At his death in 1597, he had only one infant son. He entrusted his son’s fate to five trusted allies. Each swore to protect the heir and help ensure the Toyotomi clan’s future. Among these allies was Tokugawa Ieyasu. Ieyasu controlled significant territory in northeastern Honshu. Ieyasu’s castle headquarters was located in creative the city of Edo (now Tokyo).

Hideyoshi had been dead scarcely three years when Ieyasu turned on his former lord. In 1600, his forces defeated the Toyotomi. In 1603, Ieyasu established a new shogunate in his family’s name. Essays On Changes By Tupac? He went to war once again in 1615 to completely wipe out the Toyotomi and their allies. From then on, the Tokugawa maintained political authority for 253 years without resorting to military combat. The primary political goal of Tokugawa Ieyasu and his heirshis son, Hidetada (1578-1632) and grandson, Iemitsu (1604-1651)was to cut off the roots of potential dissent and rebellion. In the essay college late 1630s, Tokugawa Iemitsu expelled Portuguese and Spanish Catholic missionaries and traders. This decision was motivated more by the political threat posed by essays on changes by tupac converts, especially daimy#333; converts, than by essay dislike of Christian doctrine or the foreign presence in Japan. Essays On Changes? The early shoguns were wary of other daimy#333; . Many of these daimy#333; were recent allies who were not totally committed to Tokugawa rule.

The Tokugawa shoguns built on the ideas and tactics of Nobunaga and Hideyoshi. Sat Essay? They developed a form of political rule that was authoritarian but not dictatorial. This can be seen in the way the early shoguns distributed land to their daimy#333; allies. The Tokugawa kept only about a quarter of the land available for by tupac redistribution for themselves. Of the remaining lands, the shogunate allocated about 10 percent to blood relations (known as the collateral, or shinpan daimy#333; houses).

Another 26 percent went to longtime loyal allies, the fudai daimy#333; . The remaining 38 percent went to the most recent, less stable allies. These allies were the “outside,” or tozama daimy#333; . The early Tokugawa shoguns’ use of land distribution to both win the allegiance and encourage the dependence of daimy#333; illustrates the blend of resourcefulness, pragmatism, and foresight characteristic of Tokugawa political rule. In its policies, the shogunate was careful to balance demands on daimy#333; with privileges granted to them. For example, the shogunate never directly taxed the daimy#333; . Should A Personal Essay Grad School? Instead, it exercised indirect levies such as requiring daimy#333; to supply labor and raw materials for on changes by tupac the construction and maintenance of castles, roads, post stations, and the like. The shogunate also forced all daimy#333; to commute between their home domains and the shogunal capital of 2008 Edo, a time- and resource-consuming practice. Essays? The shogunate exercised authority by compelling the wives and children of all daimy#333; to essay reside permanently in essays on changes by tupac Edo. There, they were under the shogun’s watchful eye. Daimy#333; were also required to secure shogunal approval before marrying. At the same time, daimy#333; were for the most part free to argumentative college govern their domains as they saw fit.

They issued their own law codes and administered justice. On Changes By Tupac? Some printed and circulated their own currency. Essay On Simone De Beauvoir? The shogunate intervened only essays on changes if requested to do so. In these ways, the Tokugawa governing system balanced authority and autonomy. Economic Growth and Social Change. Studying the Tokugawa era reveals many seeming contradictions. Of these, perhaps none is more striking than the contrast between the Tokugawa rulers’ vision of the ideal economic system and the reality of economic growth and change. With a few notable exceptions, the shogunate and daimy#333; viewed the economy in simple agronomist terms. In this view, the peasant’s role was to produce basic foodstuffs. Peasants were to give a good portion of their products in tax to essay support the ruling classes.

Artisans used their skills to craft necessary non-food items. Finally, goods that could not be acquired through any other means could be purchased from merchants. Merchants were deemed the necessary evil of the economic system. In fact, however, the early Tokugawa period (until about the essays on changes mid-eighteenth century) saw rapid and sustained economic growth. This growth occurred first in the agricultural sector.

But growth also occurred through merchant-driven trade and market activity. Outline? The concentration of population in cities served as a major impetus for growth and change. Yet many Tokugawa authorities clung to their old notions of a static, agrarian-based economy. The samurai class, who were forbidden from engaging in profitable trade or farming, were disadvantaged by Tokugawa policies and attitudes toward the economy. The ruling class was prevented from taking advantage of economic growth.

At the same time, substantial benefits went to essays on changes by tupac merchants and even to market-savvy peasants. Economic growth thus contributed to the inversion of the status hierarchy enshrined in the “four class system.” An increasingly wealthy, educated, and powerful commoner population was created. October 2008? Meanwhile, samurai, especially those of low rank, steadily became economically weaker. Growth in Agricultural Production and by tupac Population. During the Warring States period, agricultural production grew. Production increased by about 70 percent overall between 1450 and 1600.

Growth continued into a personal grad the early Tokugawa period. Tokugawa policies that promoted land reclamation and land clearance supported increased production. In addition, the disarming of peasants and local religious communities that came with the “Tokugawa peace” put more people back on the land. The net result was a 140 percent increase in land under cultivation between the years 1600 and 1720. Peasants not only farmed more land, they also increased the intensity with which they worked it. Through careful monitoring and essays by tupac the spread of october information about on changes, cropping patterns, fertilizers, and the like, Japanese peasants in the Tokugawa period continued to increase their land’s productivity. The overall growth in essay college agricultural productivity caused a rise in the general well-being of the people. This trend can be seen in the significant rise in population during the seventeenth century. Although scholars argue over exact figures, Japan’s total population around the year 1600 was most likely 12 to 18 million.

The population at the time of the first reliable national census taken by the shogunate in 1720 was around 31 million. These data indicate that the population more than doubled in a little over 100 years. For a number of reasons, including family planning and essays on changes by tupac voluntary limitation of family size among the peasantry, population growth leveled off in the eighteenth century. Japan’s population grew at a negligible rate between the early eighteenth and late nineteenth centuries. How Long? The economy, however, continued to essays on changes grow, leading to an economic surplus.

That surplus was a key factor in Japan’s rapid industrialization in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Growth in Markets and Trade. Increased agricultural production and population growth provided the base for subsequent growth in trade. Increases in trade were also enabled by such developments as the creation of reliable and effective transportation networks. The road system in particular was expanded and improved under Tokugawa rule.

Shipping networks on essay de beauvoir, sea routes were also expanded, especially those linking the major commercial centers in western and essays on changes by tupac eastern Japan. Creative Writing Websites? Along with growth in trade came growth in the use of money. Tokugawa Ieyasu and on changes his immediate successors worked to systematize the minting and use of coinage and to standardize currency. Argumentative Outline? In turn, this greatly facilitated domestic trade. These factors comprised the on changes by tupac building blocks for a well-developed local and national economy. Regional and domainal capitals were linked by good roads. Essay Outline College? Smaller market towns and by tupac settlements grew along these roads. Local areas developed specialty goods and products. These goods were shipped to and through Japan’s growing cities in an increasingly integrated national economy.

Growth of Cities. During the Warring States period, local lords began to creative gather their warriors around them in headquarters centered on essays by tupac, fortified castles. De Beauvoir? This tendency was formalized by Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu, who demanded that their retainers live in the capital cities rather than in their domains. Essays By Tupac? As a result, so-called castle towns ( j#333;kamachi ) sprung up in the late sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries. Some 90 new towns appeared between 1572 and 1590 alone. The number continued to grow in parenting essay subsequent decades.

The emergence of castle towns and later of cities had a significant economic impact. Building cities required assembling, equipping, feeding, housing, and supervising huge numbers of laborers and essays by tupac technical specialists. It also required importing vast amounts of resources: soil, stone, lumber, thatch, kilns for baking roof tiles, charcoal, and the like. From the late sixteenth century on, these labor forces came to number in the tens of thousands. As a result, as castle towns grew, laborers and service personnel settled in and around towns. Samurai settled near the castles of their lords. The commoners who served the argumentative college samurai moved into adjacent areas. Over time castle towns evolved into urban areas.

Development of the city of Edo is a prime example of the urbanization process. When Ieyasu made it his capital in 1590, Edo was a swampy backwater of a few hundred residents. Out of this unpromising location, Ieyasu built a magnificent shogunal capital. Essays On Changes? Laborers cut down forests, leveled hills to fill in on simone de beauvoir wetlands, rerouted rivers, and essays on changes dredged creeks and canals. Parenting Essay? They built bridges and walls, erected shrines and temples, and constructed buildings. Among the buildings erected were opulent daimy#333; mansions and the magnificent castle of the shogun. Warehouses, storefronts, and essays by tupac common dwellings were also built. By 1600, Edo was a town of some 5000 dwellings. By 1610, it was reportedly a clean, well-organized city of about 150,000 people.

As samurai retainers of the shogun and of daimy#333; flooded into the city in the early seventeenth century, the argumentative essay outline college population zoomed upward. By 1657, Edo had about 500,000 residents. By 1720, it was the world’s largest city outside of China, with a population of essays on changes by tupac about 1.4 million. Half a million of these residents were samurai. Edo was the shogunal capital, so its population was exceptionally large. Essay? But smaller, regional castle towns also grew significantly. Kanazawa, headquarters of an extensive domain on the Japan Sea coast, was a town of 5,000 in 1580. It grew to 120,000 in 1710.

Nagoya, a small town in the early seventeenth century, had become a regional center of 64,000 residents by 1692. On Changes? Osaka, always a major city, grew from 200,000 people in 1610 to 360,000 by 1700. It hit a peak of half a million by writing websites the late eighteenth century. Growth was good for the economy in general. It affected different classes differently, however. In particular, merchants benefited from the increase in trade, markets, and urbanization. By Tupac? Samurai suffered from those same phenomena. Why did the how long school samurai lose out? First, samurai were paid in fixed stipends, disbursed in rice. On Changes? These stipends were based on creative websites, an individual’s rank and office and did not increase at a pace equal to the rise in prices. Second, with the growth of the market and monetization of the economy, samurai had to trade their rice stipends for cash.

This process was controlled by merchants in Edo and Osaka. It put samurai at the mercy of both the unstable market price for essays on changes by tupac rice and creative writing the greed of merchant moneychangers. Finally, samurai were forbidden by law from engaging in farming or commerce, which might have afforded them some economic relief. All of these factors made it almost impossible for samurai to benefit from the growth occurring in the economy. As samurai became increasingly impoverished, they began to borrow on future stipends to meet present needs. Thus they put themselves in debt to essays merchant lenders. On Simone De Beauvoir? Having samurai at their mercy not only earned the merchants a measure of profit, it also gave them significant symbolic leverage over their samurai superiors. For the samurai, being indebted to essays by tupac lowly merchants was extremely galling. Essay? Many low-ranking samurai whose stipends gave them barely enough to get by felt they had to scrimp and save while merchants prospered.

Matters were made worse by the fact that samurai had to keep up appearances. By Tupac? Protocol deemed that they dress properly, live in good style, and engage in the social activities (which involved expensive gift-giving) that were required of them, but were increasingly beyond their economic means. Tokugawa authorities were aware of the problems facing samurai. They repeatedly tried to shore up the political and moral order by essay elaborating on the unique role of samurai as moral exemplars and scholar/administrators. By definition, commoners could not fulfill those roles. Through the Ky#333;h#333; Reforms of the early eighteenth century and the Kansei Reforms at the turn of the nineteenth century, the shogunate enacted measures aimed at stabilizing and essays on changes by tupac strengthening the economic and political status of the samurai. But the authorities’ reassertion of proper political order could not change reality. Neither shogun nor daimy#333; could offer much practical help to financially strapped samurai.

More broad-minded thinkers such as the philosopher Ogy#363; Sorai (1666-1728) proposed radical reforms. One such reform was returning the same-sex essay samurai to the land so they could farm. Another was overhauling the office and rank system so that lower-ranking “men of talent” could rise to positions of power. These men often languished in idleness while less deserving sons of high-ranking families inherited their fathers’ positions. In the essays on changes by tupac end, economic growth in the Tokugawa period favored commoners over the elite.

The Emergence of Commoner Culture. While they were not shy about commenting wryly on the state of society, urban commoners were not political activists. Peasant protests did break out in the eighteenth century, largely due to authorities’ failure to provide relief during times of crop failure and food shortage. But the new urban bourgeoisie did not attempt to overthrow the warrior government. Rather, urban commoners tended to turn away from the on simone de beauvoir troublesome world of essays on changes politics. They used their newfound wealth to fashion a new style of life and art. While the new style borrowed aspects of a personal school elite “high” culture, it was in on changes many ways utterly new to the early modern urban scene. By the Genroku period (1688-1703), one could see in Edo and other cities a flourishing merchant class that was developing a cultural style all its own. Merchants flaunted their wealth, building enormous houses and dressing in finery that exceeded that of samurai. The shogunate was not at all happy about this. It repeatedly issued laws forbidding merchants to wear fine silk clothes and restricting the essay on simone construction of large and showy homes in merchant quarters.

However, such laws were difficult to enforce. Essays By Tupac? Various sources show repeated examples of merchants’ conspicuous consumption. By the mid-eighteenth century, popular representations abounded of the poor samurai pawning the clothes and essay on simone de beauvoir swords off his back for a little extra cash. Then a merchant redeemed them and paraded around the city in the purchased finery. Such sights enraged samurai. By Tupac? Yet they had to suppress their anger and on the odyssey keep up the façade of reserve and prosperity appropriate to their status. As a popular saying of the by tupac time went, “if a samurai is starving, he uses a toothpick all the same.” Despite their economic plight (or perhaps to gain relief from the misery of it), samurai frequented the entertainment areas originally created by and for on simone merchants. These areas consisted of theaters, teahouses and restaurants, brothels, and street entertainersfortune-tellers, jugglers, and story-tellers. Brothels were a new feature in the cultural life of cities. Prostitution had a long history in Japan.

Not until the Tokugawa period did the government seek to control it through licensing and surveillance. Legal brothel activity was confined by the government to certain geographic areas in most of Japan’s cities. These areas were referred to as the licensed quarters. Of course, there was also much illegal prostitution in cities. The shogunate could scarcely control it, much less eradicate it. The high-ranking courtesans ( y#363jo ) of the on changes by tupac Yoshiwara were not common prostitutes.

Apprenticed as young girls, they trained intensively in various arts, most notably music, dance, and essay school singing. They were ranked according to their level of training and experience, much like the essays on changes geisha that still exist today. The most famous courtesans were respected as artists and how long should school professionals. They were also made famous through their depiction in plays, fiction, and the visual arts. Indeed, many became movie-star-like trendsetters. Men wanting to meet with a high-ranking courtesan had to go through an elaborate and expensive process of essays by tupac courting her before he could even lay eyes on her. Technically, the pleasure quarters were enclaves for commoners.

Samurai were banned on the grounds that they were supposed to be upright, moral, and frugal characters with no time for crass indulgences. Same-sex Essay? In spite of the warnings to stay away, samurai were frequent clients in the pleasure quarters. They attempted to disguise their identities by removing their swords and essays by tupac hiding their faces behind large straw hats. The themes of honor and sacrifice inherent in such highly dramatic stories made commoners feel their culture had something in common with that of the elites. Yet there is a distinct commoner twist to these ideas. This twist both honors and degrades the great samurai tradition of self-sacrifice. Actual incidents of a personal be for love suicide seem to have proliferated in the late 1600s, perhaps becoming even more common in the 1700s. They became a cultural fad encouraged by the romanticization of the act on by tupac, stage. In 1722, the shogunate forbade the treatment of shinj#363 on stage, seeing it as an offense against proper family order. Essay On Simone? The phenomenon of love suicideboth actual and stagedbrings to the fore the issue of cultural fads and their spread: How, exactly, did ideas circulate?

Literacy, Education, and the “Library of Public Information” Assessing popular literacy before the advent of modern universal education is on changes difficult. Historians use many techniques to estimate the nature and level of essay be for grad literacy in pre- and early-modern societies. Still, their findings are often tentative. Among the most common techniques is essays analyzing signatures on essay, official documents (wills, marriage records, etc.) as a measure of people’s ability to write. Other techniques include studying educational infrastructures and essays by tupac determining school attendance rates. Historians also look at data on cultural phenomena such as publishing and circulation of books and other printed matter. In Tokugawa Japan, as in many parts of the early modern world, literacy varied widely.

Variations occurred by class and occupation, by geographic region, and, to argumentative some extent, by gender. The ruling elites, Buddhist and Shinto clergy, and by tupac commoner intellectuals on the fringes of the 2008 elite (Confucian scholars, doctors, and minor officials) tended to be quite learned. They possessed considerable knowledge of Japanese and Sino-Japanese (or kanbun , the style of writing derived from classical Chinese, which was used in formal discourse). They also knew the essays on changes classical works of both the Japanese and essay Chinese literary and philosophical traditions. By the end of the seventeenth century, literacy and learning were beginning to spread more widely. Rural village headmen and well-to-do urban townsmen and essays on changes women were becoming literate and, as time went on, impressively learned.

These people became the primary consumers of popular literature and of the arts. The infrastructure for popular education developed considerably in the Tokugawa period. Learning moved out of the religious establishments and private academies and into same-sex parenting essay much more accessible venues. On Changes? In these venues, commoner children were able to gain basic functional literacy and often much more. The demand for books was thus extremely high. Essay On Simone De Beauvoir? Publishers in the major cities churned out texts of all sorts.

While Buddhist and Confucian texts remained the mainstays of highbrow publishing, many more publishers produced for the general reading audience. Illustrated fiction and poetry were popular. So were nonfiction manuals, primers, encyclopedias, travel guides, almanacs, and maps. By Tupac? As printed materials circulated among ever-greater numbers of readers, they conditioned in people certain patterns of thought and essay on simone ultimately of on changes behavior. As one scholar has put it, there emerged in Tokugawa Japan a broad-based and widely read “library of public information,” which produced commonly held forms of social knowledge (Berry 2006, 13, 17). When faced with the question of precisely what percentages of what sorts of people were literate, historians do not give a precise answer. Creative? The data simply is not conclusive. The best we can do is point to figures that may serve as broad indicators of the on changes dimensions of literacy.

Among samurai, who made up 6 to argumentative outline college 7 percent of the population, literacy was almost universal and generally of a very high level. The degree of learning varied, however, according to rank, office, and wealth. There are accounts of illiterate samurai, especially later in the Tokugawa period. These cases occurred among the lowest, most impoverished ranks. Though it is unclear how prevalent samurai illiteracy was, it was probably rare. It was certainly the source of great shame for essays on changes the unlettered individual and his family. High literacy is common in an elite ruling class.

As we have noted, however, commoners in the Tokugawa period practiced considerable self-governance. The Tokugawa state was very bureaucratic. Its officials, samurai and commoner alike, were required to keep detailed records. They also had to write a great deal of correspondence. Official duties thus demanded high levels of websites literacy not only among samurai, but also among the upper strata of essays urban and rural commoner populations who held such responsible positions as city ward official or village headman. Recent research indicates that, by the end of the seventeenth century, the rural elitenumbering some 200-300,000 out of a total population of around 30 million, or less than 0.1 percent of the populationpossessed “extraordinarily high literacy and numeracy” in order to parenting essay fulfill their many administrative duties (Rubinger 2007, 30). Below the rural elite were the landowning farmers. Their numbers varied over time and by region.

They probably comprised about 50 percent of the overall farming population. The farming population constituted about on changes by tupac, 90 percent of the parenting essay total population. Most landowning farmersagain, roughly half of the totallikely possessed “high functional literacy.” They could read and understand tax accounts computed by village officials. They could file grievances and petitions to authorities when necessary. Literacy among urban commoners, who were fewer in number than their rural counterparts, was almost certainly higher. Essays By Tupac? Educational opportunities were more accessible and creative educational texts more available to urban-dwellers. Literacy among urban commoner women in particular probably far outstripped that of on changes rural women. Literacy and education were by no means monopolized by parenting essay the elite in Tokugawa Japan. Common knowledge and by tupac common culture spread widely among the common people. Creative Writing Websites? This widening of the on changes knowledge base greatly facilitated the subsequent development of the modern industrial nation-state. The Discontented and de beauvoir the End of an Era.

In other times and places, learning among the common people has been a recipe for essays dissent. Creative? Eventually, learning among commoners has led to the overthrow of aristocratic governments. This was not true in Tokugawa Japan. Unrest did occur. Peasant protest in particular was widespread and sometimes intense in the late eighteenth and essays on changes by tupac early nineteenth centuries. Ultimately, however, those responsible for overthrow of the odyssey Tokugawa regime were members of the ruling class itself: the samurai.

This kind of “aristocratic revolution” is unusual in world history. Samurai grievances were compounded by by tupac the events of the early decades of the nineteenth century. Bad crop harvests in essay on the odyssey the 1830s resulted in widespread famine, disease, and death. Essays On Changes By Tupac? The problems were especially acute in the poor northeastern part of the country. When officials failed to provide adequate relief, peasant protests skyrocketed in number and severity. At the same time, Japanese leaders watched nervously as the great Qing empire in parenting China was decimated by the British in the first Opium Wars of 1839-1842. China was thereafter “carved up like a melon” by the other Western powers.

The Japanese had already fended off advances by the Russians in the 1790s and early 1800s and by the British in the 1820s. By the 1840s, it seemed likely that the Americans would try their hand at “opening” Japan. By Tupac? In 1853, a U.S. naval delegation led by Commodore Matthew C. Perry arrived with demands from essay de beauvoir U.S. President Millard Fillmore. Fillmore demanded that Japan agree to trade and diplomatic relations with the United States. The shogun was given a half-year to consider Perry’s request. Observers, especially powerful daimy#333; , saw that the on changes shogunate had no new ideas about how to handle the foreign threat, much less the domestic problems wracking the country.

In the end, shogunal officials agreed, in spite of the october 2008 emperor’s disapproval, to sign trade and diplomatic treaties with the United States. As in China, the terms gave great advantages to the Western powers. Essays? Japan was relegated to semi-colonial status. For pro-imperial, anti-shogunal forces, the foreign crises, in particular the signing of the treaty with the United States, were the last straw. Plans to overthrow the Tokugawa regime began in earnest in the 1860s. Radical samurai staged direct attacks on october, foreigners in on changes by tupac Japan, resulting in several international incidents. The most serious of these incidents sparked the bombardment of domains in Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 by Western naval forces.

Finally, in January 1868, combined military forces of the domains of Satsuma and Ch#333;sh#363 marched into october 2008 Kyoto, took control of the imperial palace, and proclaimed the restoration of the emperor and the abolition of the Tokugawa shogunate. Court nobles and daimy#333; would form a new government in place of the old. Although its exact structure was unclear in early 1868, the restoration was a clear denunciation of Tokugawa rule. The last shogun, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), retreated to Edo. He held out for another few months before officially resigning in April 1868. Remnants of pro-shogunal forces staged a resistance until later that year. They were ultimately defeated. Although the Tokugawa regime ended in 1868, it bequeathed a deep and rich political, economic, and cultural legacy to modern Japan. One cannot properly understand Japan’s modern history without understanding its Tokugawa past. Indeed, the story of essays on changes how Japan became modern begins not in 1868, but in outline 1603. Berry, Mary Elizabeth, Japan in Print: Information and Nation in on changes the Early Modern Period (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006).

Rubinger, Richard, Popular Literacy in october sat essay Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2007). Sansom, G.B., Japan: A Short Cultural History (New York: Century, 1932). Totman, Conrad, Japan Before Perry: A Short History (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1981). The Tokugawa Political Settlement. For a biography of Oda Nobunaga, see Jeroen Lamers, Japonius Tyrannus: The Japanese Warlord Oda Nobunaga Reconsidered (Leiden: Hotei Publishing, 2001). For a biography of Hideyoshi, see Mary Elizabeth Berry, Hideyoshi (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1982). For a useful and visually rich (hundreds of illustrations, graphs and maps) survey of the founding and development of the city of Edo, see Akira Naito, Edo, the City That Became Tokyo: An Illustrated History (New York: Kodansha International, 2003). For more on Christianity in early modern Japan, see Jurgis Elisonas, The Cambridge History of Japan , Vol. 4: Early Modern Japan (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988); for a study of international relations and on changes diplomacy in the Tokugawa period that refutes the idea that Tokugawa Japan was a “closed country,” see Ronald P. Toby, State and Diplomacy in Early Modern Japan: Asia in the Development of the Tokugawa Bakufu (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984).

Historians have characterized the type of government practiced in the Tokugawa period in various ways: “an integrated yet decentralized state structure,” the “compound state,” and Edwin O. Reischauer’s celebrated oxymoron “centralized feudalism” are only a few of the essay on simone often awkward terms devised to on changes describe the essential Tokugawa balance of authority and autonomy. How Long Be For? “Integrated yet decentralized state structure” comes from essays by tupac Eiko Ikegami, The Taming of the Samurai: Honorific Individualism and how long a personal be for school the Making of Early Modern Japan (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1995), pp. 164-176. Ikegami also uses the term “neo-feudal” in a comparative context. “The compound state” is used by Mark Ravina, following Mizubayashi Takeshi, in “State-building and Political Economy in by tupac Early-modern Japan,” Journal of Asian Studies , Vol. 54, No. 4 (November 1995), pp. 997-1022. “Centralized feudalism” appears in Edwin O. Reischauer, “Japanese Feudalism,” in Rushton Coulborn, ed., Feudalism in History (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1956). Economic Growth and Social Change. When speaking in essay on the aggregate demographic or economic terms, it is important to note that growth and decline, whether in terms of essays on changes by tupac population or economy, varied considerably in terms of creative writing websites geographic region. In general, the by tupac most economically advanced and prosperous areas of the country were the creative writing websites Kinai Plain, the area of central-western Honshu surrounding the cities of Kyoto and Osaka; northern Ky#363;sh#363;; and, by the mid-Tokugawa period, the Kant#333; Plain area around the city of Edo.

By contrast, the most economically backward and poor areas of Japan tended to be found in the northeast, in what is today called the T#333;hoku region and in the Tokugawa period was comprised of the large province of Dewa and Mutsu. The Emergence of on changes by tupac Commoner Culture. For a partial translation of Saikaku’s Life of a Sensuous Man , see Haruo Shirane, ed., Early Modern Japanese Literature: An Anthology, 1600-1900 (New York: Columbia University Press, 2003), pp. 45-57. A full translation of Chikamatsu’s Love Suicides at Amijima can be found in essay on the odyssey Donald Keene, Four Major Plays of essays on changes by tupac Chikamatsu (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988). Literacy, Education, and 2008 the Library of Public Information. In his recent study of popular literacy in early modern Japan, Richard Rubinger argues that “the Japanese data demonstrate that in certain circumstances geography may be a more influential variable with respect to by tupac literacy attainment than gender.” See Richard Rubinger, Popular Literacy in on the Early Modern Japan (Honolulu: University of essays by tupac Hawai’i Press, 2007), p. A Personal Essay Be For? 7. For an absorbing account of essays on changes by tupac a ne’er-do-well samurai in the early 19th century who claimed to have overcome illiteracy in order to write his autobiography of sorts, see Katsu K#333;kichi, Musui’s Story: The Autobiography of a Tokugawa Samurai , translated by Teruko Craig (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1988). The definition of 90 percent of Japan’s population as farmers is on the based on the estimate that by 1700, roughly 10 percent of Japan’s population lived in cities with populations over 10,000; half of that 10 percent lived in cities with populations over essays on changes, 100,000. By comparison, only 2 percent of Europeans lived in cities of over 100,000.

This made Tokugawa Japan one of the most urban countries in the world at the time. Figures on urbanization are from Andrew Gordon, A Modern History of Japan: From Tokugawa Times to the Present (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003), p. 23. The Discontented and the End of an Era. The term “aristocratic revolution” comes from Thomas C. Argumentative? Smith, “Japan’s Aristocratic Revolution,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization, 1750-1920 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988), pp. 133-147. For more on the debate on merit, see Thomas C. Smith, “’Merit’ as Ideology in the Tokugawa Period,” in Native Sources of Japanese Industrialization , op. cit., p. 169. Copyright 2010 Program for Teaching East Asia, University of on changes by tupac Colorado. Permission is given to reproduce this essay for writing websites classroom use only.

Other reproduction is prohibited without written permission from the Program for essays Teaching East Asia.